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83. For indurations by cold, there be few trials of it; for we have no strong or intense cold here on the surface of the earth, so near the beams of the sun, and the heavens. The likeliest trial is by snow and ice; for as snow and ice, especially being holpen and their cold activated by nitre or salt, will turn water into ice, and that in a few hours; so it may be, it will turn wood or stiff clay into stone, in longer time. Put therefore into a conserving pit of snow and ice, adding some quantity of salt and nitre, a piece of wood, or a piece of tough clay, and let it lie a month or more. 84. Another trial is by metalline waters, which have virtual cold in them. Put therefore wood or clay into smith's water, or other metalline water, and try whether it will not harden in some reasonable time. But I understand it of metalline waters that come by washing or quenching; and not of strong waters that come by dissolution; for they are too corrosive to consolidate.
and many more: but we will speak of them enter, then long seething will rather soften than distinctly. indurate them; as hath been tried in eggs, &c. therefore softer bodies must be put into bottles hung into water seething with the mouths open above the water, that no water may get in; for by this means the virtual heat of the water will enter; and such a heat, as will not make the body adust or fragile; but the substance of the water will be shut out. This experiment we made; and it sorted thus. It was tried with a piece of freestone, and with pewter, put into the water at large. The freestone we found received in some water; for it was softer and easier to scrape than a piece of the same stone kept dry. But the pewter, into which no water could enter, became more white, and like to silver, and less flexible by much. There were also put into an earthen bottle, placed as before, a good pellet of clay, a piece of cheese, a piece of chalk, and a piece of freestone. The clay came forth almost of the hardness of stone; the cheese likewise very hard, and not well to be cut; the chalk and the freestone much harder than they 85. It is already found that there are some na- were. The colour of the clay inclined not a whit tural spring waters, that will inlapidate wood; so to the colour of brick, but rather to white, as in that you shall see one piece of wood, whereof the ordinary drying by the sun. Note, that all the part above the water shall continue wood; and former trials were made by a boiling upon a good the part under water shall be turned into a kind | hot fire, renewing the water as it consumed, with of gravelly stone. It is likely those waters are other hot water; but the boiling was but for of some metalline mixture; but there would be twelve hours only; and it is like that the experimore particular inquiry made of them. It is cer- ment would have been effectual, if the boiling tain, that an egg was found, having lain many | had been for two or three days, as we prescribed years in the bottom of a moat, where the earth had somewhat overgrown it; and this egg was come to the hardness of a stone, and had the colours of the white and yolk perfect, and the shell shining in small grains like sugar or alabaster.
89. As touching assimilation, for this is a degree of assimilation, even in inanimate bodies we see examples of it in some stones in clay-grounds, lying near to the top of the earth, where pebble is; in which you may manifestly see divers pebbles gathered together, and crust of cement of stone between them, as hard as the pebbles them
86. Another experience there is of induration by cold, which is already found; which is, that metals themselves are hardened by often heating and quenching in cold water; for cold ever work-selves; and it were good to make a trial of pureth most potently upon heat precedent.
87. For induration by heat, it must be considered, that heat, by the exhaling of the moister parts, doth either harden the body, as in bricks, tiles, &c., or if the heat be more fierce, maketh the grosser part itself run and melt; as in the making of ordinary glass; and in the vitrification of earth, as we see in the inner parts of furnaces, and in the vitrification of brick, and of metals. And in the former of these, which is the hardening by baking without melting, the heat hath these degrees; first, it indurateth, and then maketh fragile; and lastly it doth incinerate and calcinate. 88. But if you desire to make an induration with toughness, and less fragility, a middle way would be taken, which is that which Aristotle hath well noted; but would be thoroughly verified. It is to decoct bodies in water for two or three days; but they must be such bodies into which the water will not enter; as stone and metal; for if they be bodies into which the water will
pose, by taking clay, and putting in it divers pebble stones, thick set, to see whether in continuance of time, it will not be harder than other clay of the same lump, in which no pebbles are set. We see also in ruins of old walls, especially towards the bottom, the mortar will become as hard as the brick; we see also, that the wood on the sides of vessels of wine, gathereth a crust of tartar, harder than the wood itself; and scales likewise grow to the teeth, harder than the teeth themselves.
90. Most of all, induration by assimilation appeareth in the bodies of trees and living creatures: for no nourishment that the tree receiveth, or that the living creature receiveth, is so hard as wood, bone, or horn, &c. but is indurated after by assimilation.
Experiment solitary touching the version of water
91. The eye of the understanding is like the eye of the sense: for as you may see great ob
jects through small crannies, or levels; so you may see great axioms of nature through small and contemptible instances. The speedy depredation of air upon watery moisture, and version of the same into air, appeareth in nothing more visible, than in the sudden discharge or vanishing of a little cloud of breath or vapour from glass, or the blade of a sword, or any such polished body, such as doth not at all detain or imbibe the moisture; for the mistiness scattereth and breaketh up suddenly. But the like cloud, if it were oily or fatty, will not discharge; not because it sticketh faster; but because air preyeth upon water; and flame and fire upon oil; and therefore to take out a spot of grease they use a coal upon brown paper; because fire worketh upon grease or oil, as air doth upon water. And we see paper oiled, or wood oiled, or the like, last long moist; but wet with water, dry, or putrify sooner. The cause is, for that air meddleth little with the moisture of oil.
Experiment solitary touching the force of union. 92. There is an admirable demonstration in the same trifling instance of the little cloud upon glass, or gems, or blades of swords, of the force of union, even in the least quantities, and weakest bodies, how much it conduceth to preservation of the present form and the resisting of a new. For mark well the discharge of that cloud; and you shall see it ever break up, first in the skirts, and last in the midst. We see likewise, that much water draweth forth the juice of the body infused; but little water is imbibed by the body: and this is a principal cause, why in operation upon bodies for their version or alteration, the trial in great quantities doth not answer the trial in small; and so deceiveth many; for that, I say, the greater body resisteth more any alteration of form, and requireth far greater strength in the active body that should subdue it.
Experiment solitary touching the producing of
feathers and hairs of divers colours.
93. We have spoken before in the fifth instance, of the cause of orient colours in birds; which is by the fineness of the strainer: we will now endeavour to reduce the same axiom to a work. For this writing of our "Sylva Sylvarum" is, to speak properly, not natural history, but a high kind of natural magic. For it is not a description only of nature, but a breaking of nature into great and strange works. Try therefore the anointing over of pigeons, or some other birds, when they are but in their down; or of whelps, cutting their hair as short as may be; or of some other beast: with some ointment that is not hurtful to the flesh, and that will harden and stick very close; and see whether it will not alter the colours of the feathers or hair. It is received, that the pulling off the first feathers of birds clean, will make the new come forth white: and it is certain that white is a
penurious colour, and where moisture is scant. So blue violets, and other flowers, if they be starved, turn pale and white: birds and horses, by age or scars turn white and the hoar hairs of men come by the same reason. And therefore, in birds, it is very likely, that the feathers that come first, will be many times of divers colours, according to the nature of the bird, for that the skin is more porous; but when the skin is more shut and close, the feathers will come white. This is a good experiment, not only for the producing of birds and beasts of strange colours; but also for the disclosure of the nature of colours themselves: which of them require a finer porosity, and which a grosser.
Experiment solitary touching the nourishment of living creatures before they be brought forth. 94. It is a work of providence, that hath been truly observed by some, that the yolk of the egg conduceth little to the generation of the bird, but only to the nourishment of the same; for if a chicken be opened, when it is new hatched, you shall find much of the yolk remaining. And it is needful, that birds that are shaped without the female's womb have in the egg, as well matter of nourishment, as matter of generation for the body. For after the egg is laid, and severed from the body of the hen, it hath no more nourishment from the hen, but only a quickening heat when she sitteth. But beasts and men need not the matter of nourishment within themselves, because they are shaped within the womb of the female, and are nourished continually from her body.
Experiments in consort touching sympathy and an
tipathy for medicinal use.
95. It is an inveterate and received opinion, that cantharides applied to any part of the body, touch the bladder and exulcerate it, if they stay on long. It is likewise received, that a kind of stone, which they bring out of the West Indies, hath a peculiar force to move gravel, and to dissolve the stone; insomuch, as laid but to the wrist, it hath so forcibly sent down gravel, as men have been glad to remove it, it was so violent.
96. It is received, and confirmed by daily experience, that the soles of the feet have great affinity with the head and mouth of the stomach; as we see going wet-shod, to those that use it not, affecteth both: applications of hot powders to the feet attenuate first, and after dry the rheum: and therefore a physician that would be mystical, prescribeth, for the cure of the rheum, that a man should walk continually upon a camomile alley; meaning, that he should put camomile within his socks. Likewise pigeons bleeding, applied to the soles of the feet ease the head and soporiferous medicines applied unto them, provoke sleep.
97. It seemeth, that as the feet have a sympathy with the head, so the wrists and hands have
a sympathy with the heart; we see the effects and passions of the heart and spirits are notably disclosed by the pulse and it is often tried, that juices of stockgillyflowers, rose-campian, garlick, and other things, applied to the wrists, and renewed, have cured long agues. And I conceive, that washing with certain liquors the palms of the hands doth much good: and they do well in heats of agues, to hold in the hands eggs of alabaster and balls of crystal.
Of these things we shall speak more, when we handle the title of sympathy and antipathy, in the proper place.
like. And the physicians are content to acknowledge, that herbs and drugs have divers parts; as that opium bath a stupefactive part, and a heating part; the one moving sleep, the other a sweat following; and that rhubarb hath purging parts, and astringent parts, &c. But this whole inquisition is weakly and negligently handled. And for the more subtile differences of the minute parts, and the posture of them in the body, which also hath great effects, they are not at all touched: as for the motions of the minute parts of bodies, which do so great effects, they have not been observed at all; because they are invisible, and incur not to the eye; but yet they are to be deprehended
Experiment solitary touching the secret processes of by experience: as Democritus said well, when
tions corporal, within the inclosures of bodies, whereby the effects, which were mentioned before, pass between the spirits and the tangible parts, which are arefaction, colliquation, concoction, maturation, &c. they are not at all handled. But they are put off by the names of virtues, and natures, and actions, and passions, and such other logical words.
they charged him to hold, that the world was 93. The knowledge of man hitherto hath been made of such little motes, as were seen in the determined by the view or sight; so that whatso- sun: "Atomus," saith he, "necessitate rationis ever is invisible, either in respect of the fineness et experientia esse convincitur; atomum enim neof the body itself, or the smallness of the parts, mo unquam vidit." And therefore the tumult in or of the subtility of the motion, is little inquired. the parts of solid bodies, when they are compressAnd yet these be the things that govern nature ed, which is the cause of all flight of bodies principally; and without which you cannot make through the air, and of other mechanical motions, any true analysis and indication of the proceedings as hath been partly touched before, and shall be of nature. The spirits or pneumaticals, that are throughly handled in due place, is not seen at all. in all tangible bodies, are scarce known. Some- But nevertheless, if you know it not, or inquire it times they take them for "vacuum;" whereas not attentively and diligently, you shall never be they are the most active of bodies. Sometimes able to discern, and much less to produce, a numthey take them for air; from which they differ ex-ber of mechanical motions. Again, as to the moceedingly, as much as wine from water; and as wood from earth. Sometimes they will have them to be natural heat, or a portion of the element of fire; whereas some of them are crude and cold. And sometimes they will have them to be the virtues and qualities of the tangible parts which they see; whereas they are things by themselves. And then, when they come to plants and living creatures, they call them souls. And such superficial speculations they have; like prospectives, that show things inward, when they are but paint- 99. It is certain, that of all powers in nature ings. Neither is this a question of words, but heat is the chief; both in the frame of nature, and infinitely material in nature. For spirits are in the works of art. Certain it is, likewise, that nothing else but a natural body rarified to a pro- the effects of heat are most advanced, when it portion, and included in the tangible parts of bo- worketh upon a body without loss or dissipation dies, as in an integument. And they be no less of the matter; for that ever betrayeth the account. differing one from the other than the dense or And therefore it is true, that the power of heat is tangible parts; and they are in all tangible bodies best perceived in distillations which are performed whatsoever, more or less; and they are never al- in close vessels and receptacles. But yet there most at rest; and from them, and their motions, is a higher degree; for howsoever distillations do principally proceed arefaction, colliquation, con- keep the body in cells and cloisters, without going coction, maturation, putrefaction, vivification, and abroad, yet they give space unto bodies to turn most of the effects of nature: for, as we have into vapour; to return into liquor, and to separate figured them in our "Sapientia Veterum," in the one part from another. So as nature doth expatifable of Proserpina, you shall in the infernal regi- ate, although it hath not full liberty: whereby the ment hear little doings of Pluto, but most of true and ultime operations of heat are not attained. Proserpina: for tangible parts in bodies are stupid But if bodies may be altered by heat, and yet no things; and the spirits do in effect all. As for such reciprocation of rarefaction, and of condensathe differences of tangible parts in bodies, the in- tion, and of separation, admitted, then it is like dustry of the chymist hath given some light, in that this Proteus of matter, being held by the discerning by their separations the oily, crude, sleeves, will turn and change into many metamor. pure, impure, fine, gross parts of bodies, and the phoses. Take therefore a square vessel of iron,
Experiment solitary touching the power of heat.
Experiment solitary touching the impossibility of
in form of a cube, and let it have good thick and | we aim at the making of Paracelsus's pygmies, strong sides. Put into it a cube of wood, that or any such prodigious follies; but that we know may fill it as close as may be, and let it have a the effects of heat will be such, as will scarce fall cover of iron, as strong at least as the sides, and under the conceit of man, if the force of it be allet it be well luted, after the manner of the chy- together kept in. mists. Then place the vessel within burning coals, kept quick kindled for some few hours' space. Then take the vessel from the fire, and take off the cover, and see what is become of the wood. I conceive, that since all inflammation and evaporation are utterly prohibited, and the body still turned upon itself, that one of these two effects will follow either that the body of the wood will be turned into a kind of "amalgama," as the chymists call it, or that the finer part will be turned into air, and the grosser stick as it were baked, and incrustate upon the sides of the vessel, being become of a denser matter than the wood itself crude. And for another trial, take also water, and put it in the like vessel, stopped as before, but use a gentler heat, and remove the vessel sometimes from the fire; and again, after some small time, when it is cold, renew the heating of it; and repeat this alteration some few times and if you can once bring to pass, that the water, which is one of the simplest of bodies, be changed in colour, odour, or taste, after the manner of compound bodies, you may be sure that there is a great work wrought in nature, and a notable entrance made into strange changes of bodies and productions; and also a way made to do that by fire, in small time, which the sun and age do in long time. But of the admirable effects of this distillation in close, (for so we call it,) which is like the wombs and matrices of living creatures, where nothing expireth nor separateth, we will speak fully, in the due place; not that
100. There is nothing more certain in nature than that it is impossible for any body to be utterly annihilated; but that as it was the work of the omnipotency of God to make somewhat of nothing, so it requireth the like omnipotency to turn somewhat into nothing. And therefore it is well said by an obscure writer of the sect of the chymists, that there is no such way to effect the strange transmutations of bodies, as to endeavour and urge by all means the reducing of them to nothing. And herein is contained also a great secret of preservation of bodies from change; for if you can prohibit, that they neither turn into air, because no air cometh to them, nor go into the bodies adjacent, because they are utterly heterogeneal; nor make a round and circulation within themselves; they will never change though they be in their nature never so perishable or mutable. We see how flies, and spiders, and the like, get a se pulchre in amber, more durable than the monument and embalming of the body of any king. And I conceive the like will be of bodies put into quicksilver. But then they must be but thin, as a leaf, or a piece of paper or parchment; for if they have a greater crassitude, they will alter in their own body, though they spend not. But of this we shall speak more when we handle the title of conservation of bodies.
Experiments in consort touching music. Music, in the practice hath been well pursued, and in good variety; but in the theory, and especially in the yielding of the causes of the practice, very weakly; being reduced into certain mystical subtilties of no use and not much truth. We shall, therefore, after our manner, join the contemplative and active part together.
101. All sounds are either musical sounds, which we call tones; whereunto there may be a harmony; which sounds are ever equal; as singing, the sounds of stringed and wind instruments, the ringing of bells, &c.; or immusical sounds, which are ever unequal; such as are the voice in speaking, all whisperings, all voices of beasts and birds, except they be singing-birds, all percussions of stones, wood, parchment, skins, as in drums, and infinite others.
102. The sounds that produce tones are ever from such bodies as are in their parts and pores equal; as well as the sounds themselves are equal; and such are the percussions of metal, as in bells; of glass, as in the filliping of a drinking glass; of air, as in men's voices whilst they sing, in pipes, whistles, organs, stringed instruments, &c.; and of water, as in the nightingale pipes of regals, or organs, and other hydraulics; which the ancients had, and Nero did so much esteem, but are now lost. And if any man think, that the string of the bow and the string of the viol are neither of them equal bodies, and yet produce tones, he is in an error. For the sound is not created between the bow or "plectrum" and the string; but between the string and the air; no more than it is between the finger or quill, and the string in other instruments. So there are, in
effect, but three percussions that create tones; percussions of metals, comprehending glass and the like, percussions of air, and percussions of
103. The diapason or eighth in music is the sweetest concord, insomuch as it is in effect a unison; as we see in lutes that are strung in the base strings with two strings, one an eighth above another; which make but as one sound. And every eighth note in ascent, as from eight to fifteen, from fifteen to twenty-two, and so in “infinitum,” are but scales of diapason. The cause is dark, and hath not been rendered by any; and therefore would be better contemplated. It seemeth that air, which is the subject of sounds, in sounds that are not tones, which are all unequal, as hath been said, admitteth much variety; as we see in the voices of living creatures, and likewise in the voices of several men, for we are capable to discern several men, by their voices, and in the conjugation of letters, whence articulate sounds proceed; which of all others are most various. But in the sounds which we call tones, that are ever equal, the air is not able to cast itself into any such variety; but is forced to recur into one and the same posture or figure, only differing in greatness and smallness. So we see figures may be made of lines, crooked and straight, in infinite variety, where there is inequality; but circles, or squares, or triangles equilateral, which are all figures of equal lines, can differ but in greater or lesser.
sound returneth after six or after twelve; so that the seventh or the thirteenth is not the matter, but the six or the twelfth; and the seventh and the thirteenth are but the limits and boundaries of the return.
107. The concords in music which are perfect or semiperfect, between the unison and the diapa. son, are the fifth, which is the most perfect; the third next: and the sixth, which is more harsh: and, as the ancients esteemed, and so do myself and some other yet, the fourth, which they call diatessaron. As for the tenth, twelfth, thirteenth, and so in "infinitum," they be but recurrences of the former, viz. of the third, the fifth, and the sixth; being an eighth respectively from them.
108. For discords, the second and the seventh are of all others the most odious in harmony, to the sense; whereof the one is next above the unison, the other next under the diapason: which may show that harmony requireth a competent distance of notes.
109. In harmony, if there be not a discord to the base, it doth not disturb the harmony, though there be a discord to the higher parts: so the discord be not of the two that are odious; and therefore the ordinary consent of four parts consisteth of an eighth, a fifth, and a third to the base; but that fifth is a fourth to the treble, and the third is a sixth. And the cause is, for that the base striking more air, doth overcome and drown the treble, unless the discord be very odious; and so hideth a small imperfection. we see, that in one of the lower strings of a lute, there soundeth not the sound of the treble, nor any mixed sound, but only the sound of the base.
104. It is to be noted, the rather least any man should think that there is any thing in this number of eight, to create the diapason, that this computation of eight is a thing rather received, 110. We have no music of quarter-notes; and than any true computation. For a true computa- it may be they are not capable of harmony; for tion ought ever to be by distribution into equal we see the half-notes themselves do but interpose portions. Now there be intervenient in the rise sometimes. Nevertheless we have some slides of eight, in tones, two beemolls, or half notes: or relishes of the voice or strings, as it were so as if you divide the tones equally, the eight is continued without notes, from one tone to another, but seven whole and equal notes; and if you sub-rising or falling, which are delightful. divide that into half notes, as it is in the stops of a lute, it maketh the number of thirteen.
111. The causes of that which is pleasing or ingrate to the hearing, may receive light by that which is pleasing or ingrate to the sight. There be two things pleasing to the sight, leaving pictures and shapes aside, which are but second
105. Yet this is true, that in the ordinary rises and falls of the voice of man, not measuring the tone by whole notes, and half-notes, which is the equal measure, there fall out to be two bee-ary objects; and please or displease but in memomolls, as hath been said, between the unison and the diapason: and this varying is natural. For if a man would endeavour to raise or fall his voice, still by half-notes, like the stops of a lute; or by whole notes alone without halves, as far as an eighth; he will not be able to frame his voice unto it. Which showeth, that after every three whole notes, nature requireth, for all harmonical use, one half-note to be interposed.
106. It is to be considered, that whatsoever virtue is in numbers, for conducing to consent of notes, is rather to be ascribed to the ante-number, in to the entire number; as namely, that the VOL. II.-4
ry; these two are colours and orders. The pleasing of colour symbolizeth with the pleasing of any single tone to the ear; but the pleasing of order doth symbolize with harmony. therefore we see in garden-knots, and the frets of houses, and all equal and well answering figures, as globes, pyramids, cones, cylinders, &c. how they please; whereas unequal figures are but deformities. And both these pleasures, that of the eye, and that of the ear, are but the effects of equality, good proportion, or correspondence: so that, out of question, equality and correspondence are the causes of harmony. But to find the C