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momentary strength, but when the war proved disastrous, and the Emperor Nicholas, who was their living incarnation, died, they disappeared as if by enchantment, and were succeeded by a passionate enthusiasm for political and social reform such as Russia had never seen before. This strange intellectual and moral revival and its important practical results will be described in the sequel.

I trust I have said sufficient to show what a close intellectual connection has existed between Russia and Western Europe since the time of Peter the Great. Every intellectual movement which has appeared in Russia during the last century and a half has been the reflection of some movement in France or Germany. Thus the window which Peter opened in order to enable his subjects to look into Europe has well served its




The "Lions" of Moscow-Easter Eve in the Kremlin-Curious Custom-Anecdote of the Emperor Nicholas-Domiciliary Visits of the Iberian Madonna -The Streets of Moscow-Recent Changes in the Character of the City -Vulgar Conception of the Slavophils-Opinion founded on Personal Acquaintance-Slavophil Sentiment a Century ago-Origin and Development of the Slavophil Doctrine-Slavophilism essentially Moscovite-The Panslavist Element-The Slavophils and the Emancipation-The Moscow Gazette.

Moscow has been so often minutely and graphically described by all manner of tourists-artistic, archæological, religious, statistical, military, and facetiousthat those who read books of travel must be already familiar with its general appearance and the "lions" which it contains. I consider it unnecessary, therefore, to try the patience of the reader by a new attempt at description. Perhaps I ought so far to conform to custom as to reproduce from my note-book and my imagination my "first impressions" on entering the ancient capital of the Tsars, and to pay my tribute of admiration to the picturesque beauty of the place. Unfortunately-or perhaps fortunately-I did not jot down my impressions at the moment, and now, after a considerable lapse of time, I should have great difficulty in recalling them. The reader does not, however, lose much by their being omitted, for they were not in any sense original or worthy of being chronicled. Of course, during the first few days, I visited all

the officially recognised objects of interest-the Kremlin, with its picturesque towers and six centuries of historical associations; the Cathedral, containing the venerated tombs of martyrs, saints, and Tsars; the old churches, with their quaint, archaic, richly-decorated Icons; the "Patriarchs' Treasury," rich in jewelled ecclesiastical vestments and vessels of silver and gold; the ancient and the modern palace; the Ethnological Museum, showing the costumes and physiognomy of all the various races in the Empire; the archæological collections, containing many objects that recall the barbaric splendour of old Muscovy; the picture-gallery, with Ivánof's gigantic picture, in which patriotic Russian critics find occult merits which place it above anything that Raphael ever produced! Of course I climbed up to the top of the tall belfry which rejoices in the name of "Ivan the Great," and looked down on the "gilded domes"* of the churches, the bright green roofs of the houses, and far away beyond these the gently undulating country with the "Sparrow Hills," from which Napoleon is said, in cicerone language, to have "gazed upon the doomed city." Of course I walked about the bazaars in the hope of finding interesting specimens of genuine native art-industry, and was urgently invited to purchase every conceivable article which I did not want. Of course I dined at the most noted Traktirs, and made the acquaintance of the caviar, sturgeons, sterlets, and other delicacies for

Allowance must be made here for poetical licence. In reality, very few of the domes are gilt. The great majority of them are painted green, like the roofs of the houses.

which these institutions are famous-deafened the while by the deep tones of the colossal barrel-organ, out of all proportion to the size of the room. Of course I visited also some of the more modest Traktirs, and gazed with wonder, not unmixed with fear, at the oceans of weak tea which the inmates consumed. But of these sights some have left such a slight impression on my memory, and others have been so vulgarised by familiarity, that I feel quite incapable of forming out of them an interesting picture, or drawing from them the inspiration necessary for making suitable sentimental reflections.

One scene, however, I remember distinctly. It was Easter Eve, and I had gone with a friend to the Kremlin to witness the Easter ceremonies. Though the rain was falling heavily, an immense crowd of people had assembled in and around the cathedral. The crowd was of the most mixed kind. There stood the patient bearded muzlík (peasant) in his well-worn sheep-skin; the big, burly, self-satisfied merchant in his long black glossy coat; the noble with fashionable great-coat and umbrella; thinly clad, rheumatic old women shivering in the cold, and bright-eyed young damsels with their warm cloaks drawn closely round them; whitehaired old men with wallet and pilgrim's staff, and mischievous urchins with faces for the moment preternaturally demure-all standing patiently and waiting for the announcement of the glad tidings: "He is risen!" As midnight approached, the hum of voices gradually ceased, till, as the clock struck twelve, the

deep-toned bell on "Ivan the Great" began to toll, and in answer to this signal all the bells in Moscow suddenly sent forth a merry peal.

As my recollections are a little hazy, and I have never been able to master thoroughly the intricacies of Orthodox ceremonial, I cannot describe in detail what took place, but the general effect has remained graven on my memory. Every one held in his hand a lighted taper, and these thousands of little lights produced a curious illumination, giving to the surrounding buildings a picturesqueness of which they cannot boast in broad daylight. Meanwhile every bell in Moscow-and their name is legion-seemed frantically desirous of drowning its neighbour's voice, the solemn boom of the great one overhead mingling curiously with the sharp, fussy "ting-a-ting-ting" of diminutive rivals. It demons dwell in Moscow and dislike bell-ringing, as is generally supposed, then there must have been at that moment a general stampede of the powers of darkness, such as is described by Milton in his poem on the Annunciation; and as if this deafening din were not enough, big guns were fired in rapid succession from a battery of artillery close at hand! How far this introduction of artillery into the ceremony stimulates the religious enthusiasm of the people I cannot say, but it certainly had a most wonderful effect on a Russian friend who accompanied me. When in his normal condition, that gentleman was a quiet, undemonstrative person, devoted to science, an adherent of Western civilisation in general and of Darwinism in particular,

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