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Rey, E., his 'Colonies Franques en Syrie' reviewed, 158.
Rohricht, R., his book on the kingdom of Jerusalem reviewed, 158.
Rosebery, Earl of, review of speech at Edinburgh, 512.

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Rural Life, the Poetry of, review of books concerning, 61-close
observation of Nature peculiar to English poets, 62-Thomson's
'Seasons,' 62-Cowper's Task,' 63-Wordsworth, 65-Scott, 66-
Tennyson, 68-influence of French Revolution upon study of Nature,
70-results of travel and education, 71-Mr. Ruskin, 72-Virgil's
picture of agricultural life, 73-modern books upon natural history,
74-Richard Jefferies' 'Gamekeeper at Home,' 74.

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Schoenhof, J., his 'Economy of High Wages' reviewed, 33.
Selborne, Earl of, his books of hymns reviewed, 300.

Selous, F. C., his book on South-East Africa reviewed, 267.

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Smith, Goldwin, his Essays on Questions of the Day' reviewed, 246.
Social Evolution, review of Mr. Kidd's work upon, 479—natural
selection, 482-Weissmann's theory of evolution, 484-purpose-
fulness in nature, 490-Weissmannism and Darwinism, 491-human
evolution distinguished from other evolution, 495-religion and
reason, 500-instinct, 503-belief in the supernatural not always
conducive to morality, 505-socialism, 509.

Spooner, W. A., his edition of Tacitus' 'Histories' reviewed, 76.

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Tacitus, review of recent editions of his 'Annals' and 'Histories,' 76—
three styles, 76-first printed editions, 77-compared with Machia-
velli, 78-constitution of early Roman principate, 82-Augustus
and Tiberius contrasted, 85-corn supply of Rome, 87-delators, or
informers, 88-Prætorian camp, 89-Tiberius at Capreæ, 90—
Cæsarism, 91-'Dialogue on Illustrious Orators,' 92-terseness of
style, 95-references to Christians, 96-burial clubs and Christian
catacombs, 97-reason of his position among historians, 101.
Temple, Sir R., his Life in Parliament' reviewed, 246.

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Wages, High, the Economy of, review of works upon, 33-what is
cheap labour? 36-Adam Smith's opinion on high wages, 37-in-
creased efficiency resulting from rise in wages, 38-hours of labour,
39-Dickens on opponents of Factory Acts, 40-results of shorter
working hours, 41-standard of living, 43-labourers' dwellings, 45
-education, 47-technical schools, 48-machinery, 50-domestic
industries, 52-what is necessary to insure high wages, 54.
Waterford, Louisa, Marchioness of, review of Mr. Hare's life of, 382-
her parents, 396-character, 405-marriage, 406-Ireland during

the famine, 407-besieged by rebels, 408-husband killed, 409-
her love of art, 409.

Weigall, Lady R., her edition of Lady Burghersh's letters reviewed,
382.

Wishart, G., his memoirs of Montrose reviewed, 122.

Wright, Col. von, and Capt. Hozier, their book on Prusso-Austrian
campaign reviewed, 412.

END OF VOL. CLXXIX.

PRINTED BY

SPOTTIS WOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE

LONDON

THE

EDINBURGH REVIEW,

JANUARY, 1894.

No. CCCLXVII.

ART. I.-Histoire de mon Temps: Mémoires du Chancelier Pasquier. Tome premier. Paris: 1893.

HISTORY verified the dying remark of Vergniaud: the French Revolution devoured its children. Some waifs and strays, indeed, of the tempest which swept over France and old Europe remained prominent after it had spent its force the Comte d'Artois saw the Monarchy of July; the Duc de Chartres became the aged Louis Philippe; Sieyès lived to behold his celebrated work give place to constitutions not more durable; Barère died, a mouchard, in extreme old age; Lafayette and Talleyrand exceeded the allotted span of years; Soult witnessed the approach of the Second Empire. But, to speak generally, the leading men of France, for the period from 1789 to 1815, disappeared almost in the strength of manhood: Mirabeau vanished before the 10th of August; Danton and Robespierre perished in the Reign of Terror; few of the satellites of Napoleon's throne saw his remains placed in the Invalides; the gigantic figure of the Emperor himself filled for a few years only the stage of events.

A notable exception to this order of facts occurs in the case of the distinguished man the record of whose life and extraordinary time we have placed at the head of this article. Duc Pasquier-this was the name familiar to those who knew the Paris of fifty years ago-had attained the estate of man before the Revolution broke out, and played a part, more or less conspicuous, in the public life of France during the next six decades. He had made his mark in the Parliament of Paris before the States-General met; he was a spectator of the Revolution in its various phases; he narrowly escaped the fatal axe after the fall of

VOL. CLXXIX. NO. CCCLXVII.

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the Gironde; he witnessed Vendémiaire and the 18th Brumaire; and, having beheld the transformation wrought by the Consulate in the political and social order of France, he took office under Napoleon's Government when the Empire seemed secured by Austerlitz. Though he served his master loyally and well, he attached himself to the cause of the Bourbons, like many who had not forgotten the Monarchy; and after the triumph of the Restoration in 1815 he gradually rose to high eminence in the State. He was Keeper of the Seals in Talleyrand's short-lived ministry, and President of the House of Deputies; and when Decazes acceded to power he was named Minister of Foreign Affairs, his tendencies having been always liberal. Soon after this event he was raised to the peerage; but during the reign of Charles X. he seems to have taken little part in politics, though he opposed the disastrous measures that overturned the throne. He became a leading statesman after the Revolution of July, was made President of the Chamber of Peers, and in 1837 received the title of Duc and the supreme position of Chancellor of France. Duc Pasquier retired from public affairs when 1848 convulsed France once more; but he beheld the rise of the Second Empire, and survived until it had begun to decline, for he died as late His venerable figure is still remembered by those who can recall the best days of the parliamentary history of France, and he has been aptly described as the French Lyndhurst.

This volume is the first of a series which records the experiences of Duc Pasquier during his eventful and protracted life. It comprises the period from the author's childhood to the invasion of Russia in 1812, and thus embraces the close of the old régime in France, the Revolution and its tragic scenes, and the chief part of the reign of Napoleon. It has been well edited by the Duc d'Audiffret Pasquier; and we have read with much interest this important part of what Pasquier has called the 'History of his Time,' eschewing the hackneyed title of memoirs. The book, however, is not in a true sense a history. Occasionally, indeed, it throws fresh light on incidents of an age of wonders, and it corrects, in places, the views of some French historians. But it makes no pretensions to the exhaustive research and the

This volume has already been followed by a second, which includes the fall of the Empire and the Restoration, to which we shall refer on a future occasion.

elaborate judgements of a complete narrative, and it really belongs to the class of works in which French literature is especially rich personal reminiscences, and reflections on them. From this point of view its value is great. The author brings before us, in a hundred passages, and illustrates with peculiar clearness, the characteristics of an extraordinary time; he gives us vivid and thoughtful sketches of the First Empire and its stirring events, and he adds to our information respecting parts of the Imperial Government still but little explored. His description of the aristocratic life of old France is very attractive and deserves attention; his picture of the Revolution and its terrible scenes is true and lifelike; his portraits of Napoleon and the Bonaparte family, and of most of the leading personages around his throne, are well designed and for the most part correct; and his estimate of the Consular and Imperial régime is that of a wise and impartial observer. The most original part of the book is Pasquier's account of the administrative system and of the internal police of the French Empire, with which he had a great deal to do. This is curious, significant, and instructive, and it illustrates the nature of the rule of Napoleon. The opinions of the anthor, we ought to add, are usually recorded with a calmness of view and a sense of equity not often found in French writers at this period; and his judgements on men and things are, as a rule, sound, though not meant to be complete and final. In one respect he has followed the late Mr. Greville's method: he has recorded his ideas on passing events as these impressed themselves on his mind at once, and he has not changed them as his experience grew or as his knowledge became enlarged. The result is clearness, freshness, and vivid description; but it should also be said that, like Greville, Pasquier is usually sober and wise in the conclusions he forms. He is, however, very inferior to Greville in the knowledge of politics and public affairs which can be acquired only in a free state; for example, he is often greatly in error as to the relations of France with foreign Powers and as to contemporaneous events in Europe-a significant proof of the state of ignorance to which even wellinformed Frenchmen were reduced under a despotism that carefully suppressed truth.

Etienne Denis Pasquier was born in 1767 of an ancient family of the noblesse de la robe, for centuries established in the province of Maine. His grandfather, who attained the highest seat in the magistracy of the Parliament of

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