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to the elementary works on the subject of Botany. We give the following extract as an illustration of the author's style and manner of treating her subject.


'You have already been made acquainted with the lily, as it was one of the first flowers you were taught to analyze; and in a brief view of the liliaceous flowers, you have been presented with the most striking characters belonging to this family, which we might, following the example of great names, call an "illustrious" race. Pliny says, the "Lily is next in nobility to the rose." Linnæus called them the "Nobles of the vegetable kingdom; " he also called the palm trees "Princes of India: " but in our republican country, where aristocratic distinctions are little regarded, we will not attempt to introduce these titles of nobility among the flowers.

In the class Hexandria, the symmetrical ratio between the number of stamens and the divisions of the other parts of the flower, is generally to be found. In the spider's-wort, (Tradescantia,) which has 6 stamens, we find the corolla 3 petalled, calyx 3 leaved, and capsules 3 celled. In the third class, which has 3 stamens, the divisions are often 6.

In the lily, which has 6 stamens, there are 6 petals, 3 of these are exterior, 3 interior; the capsule is 3 sided, with 3 cells, and 3 valves; the seeds are arranged in 6 rows. This proportion of numbers seems to forbid the idea that this plant grew up merely by chance, without the agency of any designing mind. We are not to expect always to see the same symmetry in plants as has been here remarked. It is in the natural as in the moral world, that although every where around us we see such proofs of order and system as would manifest the superintending care of one Almighty Being; yet there are irregularities which we cannot comprehend; but although we may admire the order, we are not to say that even what seems disorder, is formed without a plan.'

At the end we notice the following directions for taking impressions from leaves.

'Hold oiled paper over the smoke of a lamp until it becomes darkened; to this paper apply the leaf, having previously warmed it between the hands, that it may be pliant. Place the lower surface of the leaf upon the blackened paper, that the numerous veins which run through its extent, and which are so prominent on this side, may receive from the paper a portion of the smoke. Press the leaf upon the paper, by placing upon it some thin paper and rubbing the fingers gently over it, so that every part of

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the leaf may come in contact with the sooted oil paper. Then remove the leaf, and place the sooted side upon clean white paper, pressing it gently as before; upon removing the leaf, the paper will present a delicate and perfect outline, together with an accurate exhibition of the veins which extend in every direction through it, more correct and beautiful than the finest drawing.''

Elements of Physics, or Natural Philosophy, General and Medical, explained independently of Technical Mathematics, and containing New Disquisitions and Practical Suggestions. By Neil Arnott, M. D., of the Royal College of Physicians. First American from the Third English Edition, with Additions, by Isaac Hays, A. M., M. D., &c. Philadelphia. Carey, Lea, & Carey. 1829. Svo. pp. 582.

A knowledge of the laws of nature, is, in our estimation, true intellectual wealth, the essentials of true learning; it is knowledge which forms an important part of that education, which is commenced in time, but which eternity will be found too short to finish. To understand natural philosophy is to understand the laws by which the Divine Being governs the ultimates of creation, and which will probably ever constitute in the mind the elements or ultimates of scientific knowledge. It leads to an understanding of those principles, or laws of creation and preservation, which are in themselves universal, and eternal, though their operation may be different under different circumstances and in different stages of existence.

Considering education in this very liberal sense, the study of geography, history, &c. is comparatively local and unimportant. With these views we earnestly recommend the study of natural philosophy. It affords, in its various departments, nourishment and appropriate exercise for almost every faculty with which the mind is endowed, and we consider it a favorable omen to see so many new works appearing on the subject. A chief object in the present notice is to introduce a few extracts from the work of Dr Arnott which we deem pertinent to our work and which nearly accord with our views.

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The greatest sum of knowledge acquired with the least trouble, is that which comes with the study of the few simple truths of physics. To the man who understands these, very many phenomena, which to the uninformed appear prodigies, are only beautiful illustrations of his fundamental knowledge,—and this he carries about with him, not as an oppressive weight, but as a charm supporting the weight of other knowledge, and enabling him to add to his valuable store every new fact of consequence which may offer itself. With such a principle of arrangement, his information instead of resembling loose stones or rubbish thrown together in confusion, becomes a noble edifice, of correct

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proportions and firm contexture, which is acquiring greater strength and consistency, with the experience of every succeeding day. It has been a common prejudice, that persons thus instructed in general laws had their attention too much divided, and could know nothing perfectly. The very reverse, however, is true; for general knowledge renders all particular knowledge more clear and precise. The ignorant man may be said to have charged his hundred hooks of knowledge, to use a rough simile, with single objects, while the informed man makes each support a long chain, to which thousands of kindred and useful things are attached. The laws of philosophy may be compared to keys which give admission to the most delightful gardens that fancy can picture; or to a magic power, which unveils the face of the universe, and discloses endless charms of which ignorance never dreams. The informed man, in the world, may be said to be always surrounded by what is known and friendly to him, while the ignorant man is as one in a land of strangers and enemies. A man may read a thousand volumes of ordinary books as agreeable pastime, leaving vague impressions; but he who studies the book of nature, converts the great universe into a simple and sublime history, which tells of God, and may worthily occupy his attention to the end of his days.'

'Reverting to the importance of Natural Philosophy as a general study, it may be remarked, that there is no occupation which so much strengthens and quickens the judgment. This praise has usually been bestowed on mathematics; yet a knowledge of abstract mathematics existed with all the absurdities of the dark ages; but a familiarity with Natural Philosophy, which comprehends mathematics, and gives tangible and pleasing illustrations of the abstract truths, seems incompatible with any gross absurdity. A man whose mental faculties have been sharpened by acquaintance with these exact sciences, in their combination, and who has been engaged, therefore in contemplating real relations, is more likely to discover truth in other questions, and can better defend himself against sophistry of every kind.

Lessons in Greek Parsing, or Outlines of the Greek Grammar, divided into short portions, and illustrated by appropriate Exercises in Parsing. By Chauncey A. Goodrich. New Haven. Durrie & Peck. 18mo. pp. 129.

This little volume is intended for a book of first lessons in Greek. The author's plan is to teach the elements of the language by progressive exercises in parsing, attended by such statements and illustrations as to embody, in successive portions, the substance of an introductory treatise on Greek grammar. The prominent advantages of this method would seem to be these; the memory is addressed through the medium of the understand

ing; the intellect is kept in constant activity; and the knowledge acquired is made the result of the student's own observation and experience.

The Greek Grammar is divided into short portions, to each of which is attached a reading lesson, containing such words only as belong to that portion, or to others which have been previously gone over. In the first declension, for example, the paradigm of the first declension is followed by exercises which contain nouns of that declension alone.' 'In the second lesson, the learner is made acquainted with the forms of the second declension; which are then illustrated and impressed on the memory by examples from that declension.' 'In Part Second, the pupil enters on the Baryton verb, and is expected to learn a single tense only at a time, and then to impress that tense on his memory by exercises in parsing.' At proper intervals the process is inverted, and exercises are given in turning English into Greek. The work contains about the same quantity of Greek in the reading lessons as the Greek Delectus, together with a complete outline of the grammar, and exercises in the making of Greek.'

In the execution of his plan, the author of this work seems to have been peculiarly successful. Minuteness and fidelity in detail are evident throughout the work; and the exercises are carefully proportioned to the pupil's ability, while they make adequate demands on his diligence and application. We would earnestly recommend this volume to all who are engaged in the instruction of young pupils; and we would suggest it as a work excellently adapted for use in female schools, whether with a view to the acquisition of an elementary knowledge of the Greek language (as essential to a right understanding of the meanings of words, especially terms of science,) or for the purpose of attaining more enlarged and correct views of the subject of general grammar, or what, in our view, is of still greater importancefor the sake of enabling this class of pupils to become acquainted, to at least some extent, with productions which embody perhaps the noblest and most beautiful forms of human thought.

Caii Julii Cæsar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. Accedunt Notulæ Anglicæ atque Index Historicus et Geographicus. In usum Scholæ Bostoniensis. Curavit Fred. P. Leverett. Bostoniæ. Hilliard, Gray, Little, et Wilkins. 1829. 12mo. pp. 334.

This volume fills an important place among the valuable editions of preparatory classical authors, which, within a few years have issued from the Public Latin School of Boston. An accurate edition of Cæsar was much wanted; and it must be gratifying to instructers to reccive one prepared with such ability and care. Besides the superior accuracy of the text, the edition is recommended by the judicious omission of the supplementary books by

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various writers, which are usually bound up along with those on the Gallic war, but which are seldom or never read, and which The 'Notes' are certainly useless in a school copy of Cæsar. are brief, but clear and instructive; and the geographical and historical index' is a valuable appendage to the work, containing much information not hitherto afforded in English editions of the author, and designating, in most instances, the quantities of the proper names. The neat and accurate style of the whole volume, and the engraved illustration of the bridge over the Rhine, form a striking contrast to the usual exterior of editions of this work.

Intellectual and Practical Grammar, in a series of Inductive Questions, connected with Exercises in Composition. By Roswell C. Smith, Author of Mental and Practical Arithmetic. Providence. 1829. 12mo. pp. 276.

Here is, at last, an attempt to present the subject of grammar in an intellectual form to the mind of the learner. We cannot speak particularly of the work, with the same confidence as to its accuracy in detail, as if we had had full opportunity to bring it to the test of experiment in the school room; but its plan is very nearly that which has been repeatedly suggested in our pages, as what was required to render the study of grammar a suitable discipline for the young mind. The author's method is to draw the pupil into conversation about words, and to put such questions to him as lead his mind to the same conclusions that are usually laid down in books on gramınar, in the shape of definitions and rules. The work is, as it ought to be, of a simple and elementary character; and the illustrations are of that familiar kind which will render the book suitable for general use in schools.

One great advantage of the plan of this work is, that the pupil's mind is kept in continual activity by the variety in the form of the lessons, some of which consist in the correction of improprieties of speech, and others in regular but short and easy exercises to be written on paper or on the slate. The lessons in parsing are, with the exception of the concluding one on the Constitution of the United States, presented in gradual succession, and blended with the conversation and oral exercises on each class of words. To most teachers this work will probably be the more acceptable for the author's good sense in avoiding unneces sary peculiarities in his views of grammar; for, notwithstanding the originality of the plan, the results of the conversations and exercises will be found to correspond pretty nearly to the more formal and theoretic statements contained in Murray's Grammar; with this great advantage, that the pupil is enabled, by the arrangement of Mr Smith's work, not only to understand perfectly every step of his progress, but to obtain the results for himself, by the exertion of his own thoughts. To instructers generally, who

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