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propriation, to render it useful to all who would be desirous of partaking in its benefits.

The Lyceum offers to teachers excellent opportunities for the general improvement of the mind on various subjects connected with their daily business; and in most instances a course of appropriate professional reading and conversation is added to the other exercises of the institution. The effects which have followed these arrangements, are beneficial and extensive, beyond the conception of those who have not had personal opportunities of observing them.

It is a peculiar characteristic of the Lyceum, that, while it renders effective aid to education, by the opportunities which it offers to teachers, it communicates an intelligent and deep interest in the prosperity of education, to the mind of every individual who takes part in its exercises, and thus calls forth the whole intellectual and moral force of vicinities, in favour of the improvement of schools. In this respect, in particular, it is happily suited to the circumstances of American society, in which all effective general measures for the promotion of common education must emanate directly from the people. The Lyceum is on this account better adapted to extensive usefulness among us, than any of the popular institutions which have arisen in Europe, could be; most of these being restricted by their objects, and even their designation, to the interests of particular classes of society. The Lyceum admits members from every condition of life, and from every occupation, and is peculiarly accessible to the agricultural class, a circumstance by which it is eminently adapted to the actual wants of our population.

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The four great requisites of an institution for popular improvement, are lectures, or conversation; mutual, interrogatory, and experimental exercises; books; and apparatus. These are the chief implements in the whole process of mental cultivation; and as surely as they are introduced into the humblest village, there will spring up intellectual activity, efficiency, and skill, extensive and enlightened views on every subject important to human welfare, intelligence and enterprise in business, and a moral elevation of character, insuring a pure and diffusive happiness.

For these reasons it is, that we wish to see Lyceums established throughout the United States, to see them promoted by general association, and every other facility required for their extensive and free and permanent operation. Whithin a short

time after the general organization of the Lyceums in a state, (take that of Massachusetts for example,) several objects may easily be accomplished, which will contribute immediately and effectively, not only to the diffusion of intelligence, but to a fuller command of the natural resources of the state. In many of the town Lyceums, the requisite investigations are in progress for the preparation of histories of their respective towns; surveys of the surface and soil of their vicinities, and, in not a few instances, geological surveys, are advancing; while, in other places, much attention is devoted to the construction of local maps. That the inhabitants of all parts of the state may be enabled to avail themselves of the interesting and important facts thus ascertained, a common deposit is required, and a regular channel of communication becomes indispensable. Without a definite organization, however, it is in vain to expect such results. In a political point of view, also, the effects of the regular and general operation of Lyceums become highly important. Extensive and peculiar facilities are afforded by these establishments for prosecuting public enterprises connected with internal improvement, in the department of roads and canals, by the minute and accurate local knowledge which they bring to the aid of such undertakings. But on topics of this nature we have not at present room to enlarge.


The Lyceum, when considered in its connexion with the advancement of general education, appears likely to prove as permanent in its operation as it is deservedly popular in its charIt offers no impediment to existing institutions of any order it enters into competition with none it cooperates with all in facilitating the acquisition of knowledge, and in producing and cherishing a desire for superior instruction. Through the services of the professional men who rank themselves among its friends and patrons, it derives much benefit from the higher seminaries of learning, and by the light and guidance which it draws from such sources, tends to make the whole community more fully acquainted with the value of these institutions. To this class of men the Lyceum has been largely indebted for the improvement of its exercises, and the rapidity with which it has advanced in general estimation; and on them it must frequently depend for the commencement of its local operations. To this last fact we should be happy to attract the attention of men of liberal education; since, through their aid and exertions, so much may be accomplished in enlarging the sphere of mental

action and enjoyment to all classes of society. The benefactors of the mind are the greatest benefactors of the human race; and to this noble eminence may every man of education raise himself, who is willing to impart a portion of the mental wealth with which he has been entrusted, and to aid others in their progress towards the expansion and elevation of soul, which he himself enjoys as the great good of his intellectual advantages. If one or more professional men in every town of New England would lend their countenance and assistance to the establishment of a Lyceum in their respective vicinities, the stream of useful and scientific knowledge might be brought to the door of every family; and thus would a true and full value be given to the benign system of universal education.

The pamphlet which has been the ground of the preceding remarks, gives a clear and concise account of the character and design of the Lyceum,* and indicates some of its prominent benefits. It is well fitted to prepare the way for the establishment of such associations where they have not been introduced. But as it is already disseminated pretty widely, and is probably in the hands of most of our readers, to make quotations from it would be unnecessary. A large edition of it, circulating generally, with copies deposited at places of common resort, would, we think, prove useful to the moral interests and character of society. In the meantime, it will, we hope, be extensively lent for perusal, by all who are in possession of it; as the good to be thus effected by it is all the compensation desired from it by

*Of the propriety of this designation being attached to a popular institution different opinions are entertained. The name, however, has now become current; and a change would be impracticable. It would be but justice, however, to the individual who originally applied the name, to state that, at the time when it was adopted, the only institutions which resembled those for which the term is now used, were the Lycea, such as still are found in various parts of the country, but established chiefly for objects connected with natural history. From these the name was borrowed, in anticipation of what in several instances, has actually happened; societies formed for the limited purposes just mentioned, having identified themselves with what are now generally called Lyceums, by extending their plan so as to admit the natural sciences generally, and along with these several other branches of useful knowledge. It was not, then, it will be observed, the ambition of assuming a learned name, that led to the choice which was made, but the natural concurrence of circumstances. On the whole, there seems to be no solid argument against the denomination selected and it was certainly a matter of consequence to adopt one which should not tend to limit the operation and the advantages of this institution, by apparently restricting its members to one class of society or one department of business. No one English word can be found which would suit the purpose of distinct designation; and if no evil more serious should ensue, than the formation of an awkward plural, (Lyceums,) there will ultimately be little room for regret on this score.

its disinterested author,* who, in the true spirit of philanthropy, has devoted so much of his time and labour to the intellectual interests of the community.

ART. VI.-Maternal Instruction.-Hints to Parents. In two parts: Part one, On the Cultivation of Children. Part two, Exercises for Exciting the Attention and Strengthening the Thinking Powers of Children. In the spirit of Pestalozzi's Method. From the third London Edition. Salem. Whipple & Lawrence. 1825. 12mo. pp. 72.

MUCH has been said, and a few excellent works have been written, upon the subject of early education. Many rational and efficient methods, have been suggested to aid parents, in the discharge of those peculiar duties in which it is their happiness to engage. But from the anxious and devoted mother, is the inquiry still repeated ;-How shall I employ, interest, instruct, and govern my child, to make it intelligently good and happy?—To answer this inquiry, in part, by presenting to the view of mothers, some of the very valuable suggestions contained in the pamphlet above mentioned, is the purpose of this article.

From no system of early education, are the results happier than from that of Pestalozzi. By an attentive study of the primary operations of the infant mind in acquiring, retaining, and expressing its ideas, this distinguished philosopher, obtained a knowledge of its nature so accurate, and devised such methods for the harmonious development of all its powers, as to be able to operate upon it himself, with certainty, and success. An observer of nature, by this was he taught to lead the infant mind onward in a regular and continuous progress towards truth and virtue; and by its perceptions of the immortality of the one, and the beauty and loveliness of the other, to induce it to put forth its own volitions, and become the chief agent of its own advancement. It was by quickening and directing the activity of those influences, which the works of nature, and of provi

* Mr. Holbrook, to whose exertions chiefly the Lyceum owes its origin.

dence, are constantly exerting upon the infant mind, and revealing its latent powers, that Pestalozzi looked for successful results. He did not substitute the influence of his own mind, for that of nature and providence, and thus pervert their sole purpose; but availed himself of both. It was the reciprocal influence of internal and external nature upon which he relied. Instead of the mere copy of nature, as presented in books, he led his pupils to the volume of external nature, and in its broad and varied page, he traced the beauty and harmony, and symmetry of the characters there drawn by the pencil of its divinė author. He loved nature himself; and it was the perception of this truth, that awakened the same love in his pupil. They loved and studied nature together.

It was the great purpose of Pestalozzi, to inspire mothers with a just sense of their value in the scale of being; and, by the simplicity of the manner in which he taught them to discharge their high duties, and the happiness inseparable from their performance, he hoped to induce them to lay early the only broad and sure foundation of virtue and happiness for their children.

'It was his aim to excite in pareuts the desire to take advantage of the invaluable opportunities afforded in the DOMESTIC CIRCLE, for fostering the infant mind in the simple, pure, and artless way which nature has traced; to inspire them with a sense of their duty; and the widely extended and important consequences resulting from the neglect or fulfilment of this duty.'

There is no relation more sacred than the maternal. It is to the mother that the care of infancy is entrusted. Nature has constituted her its guardian, and involved the mother's happiness in that of her infant. It is this maternal sympathy, that becomes the influence by which its nature is developed, and its primary education achieved. It is the invariable operation of this influence of kindness and love, that begins and continues the progress of its being.

Infant education commences with the very dawn of infant existence. At this early period, maternal care should be chiefly interested in securing the physical comfort and happiness of its sweet charge, by the invariable exercise of the kindest and tenderest offices of affection and love. The infant's helpless⚫ness and innocence appeal in the strongest and most persuasive language for safety and protection to the mother's heart. Her feelings will prompt her to attend to its numerous wants, and by the exercise of those charities, which the author of her na

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