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for the general information. Priestley, Volney, Bigland, and various others will be found useful in this pursuit.

In entering on an historical course some particular epoch should be selected, and the history of one people assigned to one reader, whilst another member peruses that of another people; civil history, to be read by one, church history by another; any works of science, philosophy, or taste, illustrative of the state of society, customs, manners, &c., of the same period, should be examined in connexion with the general history, that the state of all the cotemporary nations may be brought into one concentrated view. That more extensive knowledge may be thus obtained by persons having little leisure, than can be done by solitary reading, must be sufficiently obvious; attended with less labour and far greater pleasure and profit.

To young persons wholly unacquainted with history, the most useful and most interesting method is to commence with the personal history or biography of certain distinguished actors in the political world, as a Washington, a Franklin, a Lafayette, or a Bonaparte; and having read such memoirs, to peruse the history of the time and people with whom the subject was an actor. Curiosity is naturally led thence to inquire into the state of such people previous to those events. Having in this manner run backward through American and English affairs, with a general sketch of Europe for the last century, the young mind is better prepared to take hold of the more stately volumes of philosophic and ancient history. Whenever ancient history is attempted, resort must be had to every species of information for ascertaining the state of civilization, customs, manners, arts, science, philosophy, and religion, of any people ;. bringing into comparison the different nations of the earth. After several historical meetings, let them be succeeded by: others for experiments and illustrations of the principles of philosophy, science, and arts; or by exhibitions of the fine arts, ancient relics, natural curiosities, &c. As often, at least, as once a month something new must be devised. Stimulus (boyond the mere sustenance of existence) must be varied, or it loses all salutary effect. The reading and criticising poetry, with other works of taste, may constitute another variety; illustrating their spirit, their conduct, and power of pleasing. Every body reads Milton, and almost everybody Shakspeare; yet how small a proportion of readers understand and relish any thing of the ingenuity, art, and invention of the poet! Periodical

essays, or miscellaneous papers, descriptive of men and manners of any age, will also be found pleasing, and not without their


The occasional writing of themes or essays, by individual members, for the instruction and amusement of all, is likewise to be recommended. And, should your society like to acquire manly vigour for 'the gymnastic exercises of the mind,' works of mental philosophy, I trust, will find their way into your library, and be read with advantage. We cannot expect to make great advancement in improving the mind whilst unacquainted with the nature and exercise of its several powers. It is the investigation of principles and influences, and their mode of operation that I intend by mental philosophy. Moral philosophy, properly speaking, should enter into every species of instruction; but I could wish that we possessed (or at least that I knew that we were in possession of) some treatise immediately upon that subject, more practically operative than our common classic works that fall under that denomination. It is not a work to tell us what is the essence of morals, or why we are obliged to do right, that is the desideratum; but something to teach youth by what course of observation, reflection, and conduct, good feelings may be substituted for perverse or angry ones, to show them how kindly sensations are to be produced and sustained in themselves, and how they constitute happiness; and how the sordid gratifications prove their own torment, and how the social affections bring their own abundant reward. No one does evil for the pure love of producing pain, and could persons of bitter, selfish dispositions understand how their own misery is thus enhanced, and how by giving liberally one increaseth in riches,' would not their feelings assume a more benevolent character ?

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I must be permitted to offer a caution that you set not expectation too high. Very brilliant effects are not at once to be expected from any combined efforts. Yet so essential is social intercourse, not alone for obtaining information from others, but for evolving from their native napkin one's own talents, and for sweetening all intellectual exercise, that philosophers have concluded that any one condemned to absolute solitude, where mental entertainment would seem essential to comfort, would, nevertheless, lose all relish for books and literature, though from them had previously flowed his highest gratification. He would rather devote himself to whistling to a ericket, and feeding a mouse or a spider. If habits of society be so indispensable to

mental existence, they are not less so for ascertaining the character and strength of one's powers by comparison with others. From all these considerations the advantages of associations would seem incalculable; or at least to be estimated only by rule of permutation, multiplying the original conceptions, suggestions, and effusions of each individual mind into those of all the others.

ART. VI.-New Work on the Art of Teaching.

THE Reverend S. R. Hall, Principal of a seminary in Concord for the instruction of teachers, which has already furnished a large number of instructers of both sexes for the States of Vermont and New Hampshire and the adjoining British dominions, has prepared a course of lectures on the art of teaching, which is in press, and will shortly be published by Messrs Richardson & Lord, of this city.

After an examination of the work in manuscript, we have no hesitation in saying that it will prove an invaluable manual for instructers, particularly those who are just entering upon the arduous business of conducting a school. It contains, moreover, a great deal of matter which is particularly deserving of the attention of school committees and parents, as it points out with great force and precision, their duties in relation to instructers and schools.

The leading subjects embraced in the lectures are as follows: LECTURE I.

I. Obstacles which tend to prevent the Usefulness of Common Schools. 1. Indifference of parents to the importance of instruction. 2. Unwillingness to attend school district meetings.


Obstacles which prevent the Usefulness of Schools, continued. 3. Unwillingness to provide apparatus and books.

4. The existence of parties and the prevalence of party spirit. in school districts.

5. A disposition among the more wealthy citizens to send their children to private academies.

6. A want of Christian effort to raise the moral character of schools.

7. A deficiency in the qualifications of instructers.

8. Unwillingness on the part of school districts to make adequate compensation to instructers of approved talents and qualifications.

9. A want of books adapted to the capacities of children. 10. Inconvenience of school rooms.


II. The requisite qualifications of Instructers.

1. Common Sense.

2. Uniformity of temper.

3. A capacity to understand and discriminate character.

4. Decision of character.

5. A schoolmaster should be affectionate.

6. He should possess a just moral discernment.

7. A thorough knowledge of the branches required to be taught in district schools, and of the elements of natural and moral philosophy and chemistry, and of the constitution of the country.


III. Practical Directions to Instructers.

1. Endeavour to become acquainted with the nature of your employment.

Importance of this to the enjoyment and usefulness of the teacher.

Means of acquiring this knowledge.

1. By reading works on education.

2. By reflecting on the common nature of children.-
3. By studying the varieties of character among parents.
4. By conversing with experienced teachers.

2. Consider the responsibility of your office.


Practical Directions to Instructers, continued.

3. Endeavour to ascertain by what means you are to gain that ascendancy over your pupils which is necessary in order to confer on them the highest benefit.

1. Convince the scholars that you are a real friend to them. 2. Be not hasty.

3. Never speak angrily nor scold.

4. Be punctual in every thing.

4. Be willing to devote your time to your school and strive to make the most judicious use of it.


Practical Directions to Instructers, continued.

5. Govern your school, and in order to do this effectually govern yourself.

In governing,

1. Determine to have order in the school.

2. Treat your pupils as reasonable and intelligent beings. 3. Let your government be uniform.

4. Let it be characterized by firmness.


Practical Directions to Instructers, continued.

5. Let the government of your school be impartial.

6. Consult the future and permanent welfare of your pupils in your mode of government.

Remarks on the mode of investigating conduct and punishing offenders.

1. Never be in haste to believe that your scholars have done wrong, and be not in haste to accuse them.

2. Never punish for a fault until its nature and criminality are understood by the culprit.

3. Decide on such a mode of punishment as will be most likely to benefit the pupil and prevent a repetition of the of fence.

4. Always make the punishment effectual in humbling the offender.

Administration of Rewards.

1. Promise no rewards.

2. If given let them be rewards of exertion, not of talent. LECTURE VIII.

Practical Directions, continued.

6. General Management of schools.

-1. Endeavour to adopt such a course as shall render the school pleasant to the members.

2. Reduce every thing to system.

3. Let every exercise be done thoroughly and faithfully.

4. Let subjects receive attention in proportion to their real importance. Some instructers devote too much time to a small class occupied with a favourite study.

7. Direction of Studies.

1. Begin with the most simple and intelligible branches.

2. In advancing, give the preference to those branches which will be most useful in the business of life.

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