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qualify themselves for becoming instructers. They will no longer be obliged to follow the courses relative to the general studies; but may do so, either wholly, or in part. Generally, the pupils will then be placed under the special direction of the professor of the branch which they wish to pursue. He will afford them daily conferences, to point out to them a plan of operations, to follow their progress, and to designate the portions of the course it would be useful for them to pursue anew. These will find moreover special advice from all the professors, as they may experience its necessity. Courses of the higher mathematics will be established, and followed by all the pupils who intend to become civil engineers. They will thus acquire all the theoretical instruction of the polytechnic school.

Pupils who are intended either for teaching practical chemistry, or for carrying on a chemical or metallurgical art, will receive during this third year special and thorough lessons upon the most difficult parts of general chemistry, or upon the theory and practice of the art which they intend to carry on. Both will be exercised in analyses of precision. The latter will be able besides to devote themselves to the preparation of the products which they are going to fabricate hereafter, and will find in this establishment all that is necessary to the fabrication of chemical products, to that of colours, to the art of dying, to the fabrication of painted cloths and papers, to bleaching, to the maunfacture of paper, to that of sugar, of starch, and of alcohol, to the preparation of fat substances, and to that of soap. They will also have all the means necessary for perfecting themselves in assaying, as well by the dry as the humid way, the workable ores, and the earths which serve for the fabrication of the various species of pottery. Such arrangements will be made that the pupils may acquire a complete knowledge of the labours relative to the treatment of iron, lead, copper, zinc, pewter, &c.

Those who are intended for particular branches of mechanics will be occupied with all the details of construction, of forces, and of machine tools, in the study and the workshops of construction. They will be introduced into factories, in order to study there the machines in motion; and those who shall wish to devote themselves to the art of building, or to architecture properly so called, will find numerous opportunities of following out works of architecture analogous to their intended direction.


Works in the Department of Education.

The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, by Washington Irving. (Abridged by the same.) New-York. G. & C. & H. Carvill. 1829. 12mo. pp. 311.

We welcome this book to American schools. Its subject entitles it to extensive use as a class book in history; and its style renders it an excellent volume for reading lessons. The information it conveys gives it a high place among useful works; while the incidents, the characters, and the scenery, to which it introduces the mind, have, in a peculiar degree, the attractive interest of romance, and a happy influence on the imagination. It is such a book as our youth generally ought to read, as a first volume of American history; and it is one which, we hope, will take the place of not a few of those well meant but insipid tales with which our juvenile libraries are crowded.

Mr Irving has, in the production of this volume, rendered himself a lasting benefactor to the youth of his country, by the historical instruction and the mental recreation he has afforded them. We speak in warm terms of the work, because we have, we may say, tried it in anticipation, by the regular use of the larger work as a school book, and by the observation of its excellent influence on the minds of the young, as well as its peculiar adaptation to the purposes of reading.

There are, however, other reasons of a more general nature, why we value this book. It is, we should say, of the right length for schools. It goes fully into its subject, without being tedious from unnecessary detail; and it avoids the great fault of most class books in history,-that of becoming a dry and scanty abstract, possessing no interest for the youthful mind. In regard to the character of the work as an abridgment we do not feel called on to speak. For the task of condensing the author possesses distinguished advantages in his intimate knowledge of the subject, and in the simplicity and fluent suavity of his style.

In a new edition, (we would have said, but that we observe the book is stereotyped,) a more rigid revision of phraseology would be desirable, especially when the work is considered as one which will probably be in very general use.

We may select, in proof, a few instances of obvious inadvertency it is evident that the nature of their communications

were generally unfavourable to the admiral.' p. 228- and what seemed to lay (!) equally near his heart.' p. 296-'what visions of glory would have broke upon his mind.' p. 310-'The followers of Roldan brought with them a number of slaves, some of which Columbus had been compelled to grant them,' &c. p. 226.

The printing of the word Indian, even when it is an adjective, with a small initial letter, (indian,) is not in better taste than the word English or American would be, if divested of the capital. Of small matters like these we should not think it worth while to speak, were it not for the tacit influence which they exert on the habits of the young.

A Natural History of the most remarkable Birds, Fishes, Serpents, Reptiles, and Insects. By Mrs Mary Trimmer. With 200 Engravings. Abridged and improved. Particularly designed for Youth in the United States, and suited to the use of Schools. Boston. S. G. Goodrich & Co. 1829. 18mo. pp. 233.

The uncommon neatness and beauty of the cuts in Mrs Trimmer's work seem to make it a universal favourite with young children; although the style of the writer is not always intelligible to such a class of students-for we can hardly call them readers. In the American edition, the attraction of the engravings is well kept up; and care has been taken to introduce animals likely to fall under the notice of children in this country. Questions are annexed for the convenience of using the volume in classes at school; and no pains seem to have been spared to render the work interesting and useful.

The superior style of the illustrations alone is an excellent recommendation of this book; as in too many publications of this sort, the engravings are so incorrect and clumsy that their bad influence on taste renders them quite unsuitable for the use of children.

Conversations on the Animal Economy; designed for the instruction of Youth, and for the perusal of general readers. By Isaac Ray, M. D. Portland. Shirley & Hyde. 12mo. pp. 242.


This modest volume conveys a great deal of useful and entertaining information. The style is plain and familiar, yet attractive and interesting. The work seems well adapted for Lyceums; and it is, at the same time, well suited to the objects of family reading. We hope it will find its way into schools, and aid in creating an early taste for knowledge in the important branch to which it belongs.

The National Orator, consisting of Selections adapted for Rhetorical Recitation, from the Parliamentary, Forensic, and Pulpit Eloquence of Great Britain and America. Interspersed with extracts from the Poets. Illustrated by Critical and Historical Notes. By Charles Dexter Cleveland. New York. White, Gallaher, & White. 1829. 12mo. pp. 300.

This is a very superior selection, and prepared with judgment and taste. It offers, however, little that is new or peculiar, and contains, perhaps, too little matter that will interest young speakers.

We long to see a book of pieces for speaking in which the present rather than the prospective mental character of the students shall be consulted. Boys must have liberty to speak as boys-not as men; if we would ever see a natural and easy elocution either in early or in mature life.

Natural History of Quadrupeds; with Engravings on a new plan, exhibiting their comparative size; adapted to the capacities of Youth, with authentic Anecdotes illustrating the habits and characters of the Animals; together with Reflections moral and religious. Designed for Sabbath School Libraries, Families, and Common Schools. By J. L. Comstock, M. D. Hartford. D. L. Robinson & Co. 1829.

This work is one which will no doubt be very acceptable to the young; and the more so that such pains have been taken to consult their wants and wishes in the style and size of the illustrations. In infant and elementary schools generally these volumes will be found of great service, in awaking the mind to an early interest in the study of Life,—that peculiar manifestation of creative Wisdom. In Sunday schools themselves they may, we should think, be used with perfect propriety, and to great advantage.

The School Dictionary, Designed for the use of Academies and Common Schools in the United States. By William W. Turner, A. M. Instructer in the American Asylum. Hartford. H. & F. J. Huntington. 1829.

Our readers are not unaware that we have often had occasion to advert to the great deficiencies existing in school dictionaries, from their want of adaptation to the purposes of early instruction, the abstruse terms with which they abound, the unintelligible definitions attached to many words, and the utter absence of any thing like a judicious selection, calculated to meet the capacity or stimulate the advancement of the young mind.

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The object aimed at by the author' of this work in executing his design, was, to select, from the English dictionaries, those words which are used in conversation, and which occur in common books, and to define each word in a manner as concise and simple as possible, noting the accent and the part of speech.'

More explanation and illustration in the statement of definitions would be desirable in a work like this. A clear understanding of the actual meaning of a word is much more useful to young persons, than the ability to give,-by memory, perhaps, a very exact definition.

On the whole, however, this book seems well adapted to the object it proposes, and will probably be very useful in common schools; though we cannot but doubt whether it is the right sort of work for academies, which would seem to require a more copious volume.

The New Speaker, or Exercises in Rhetoric, being a Selec tion of Speeches, Dialogues, and Poetry, from the most approved American and British Authors; suitable for Declamation. By William B. Fowle, Teacher of the Monitorial School, Boston. Boston. Hilliard, Gray, Little, & Wilkins. 1829.

Of this collection we had occasion to speak when the first edition appeared. At present we need only say that the work is much improved by very extensive alterations and additions. It possesses still more than formerly a character of individual interest in the selections and of vivacity in the language; which is one of its best recommendations, at a time when teachers of elocution are compelled to feel that most volumes of pieces for speaking are but repititions of the same hackneyed matter.

We are not sure, however, that the taste in which this volume is compiled will be acceptable to all teachers. Rhetorical exercises intended for young minds should sustain a character of mental elevation both in sentiment and expression.

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Thoughts on Domestic Education, the Result of Experience. By a Mother, Author of Always Happy,' Claudine,' Hints on the Sources of Happiness,' &c. &c. Boston. Carter & Hendee. 1829. 8vo. pp. 254.

The republication of this valuable work affords us a second opportunity of inviting the attention of our readers to the subject of which it treats. It is, perhaps, too generally true that American mothers are so absorbed in the routine of domestic duties and cares, as to have but little time left for the most im

* For first notice of this book see Vol. II. p. 564.

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