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sent residence to derive any advantage. removing his family he cannot forget that the employment will only be temporary, and this reflection will strongly counteract the preference which the situation would otherwise command. No one will be disposed to form permanent arrangements on such a foundation.

Except in point of situation, the employment afforded by these public works has no advantage over that which the Highlanders have long been in the habit of seeking in the Low Country of Scotland, The small tenant who is deprived of his land has still the same question to ask himself as formerly,—whether he will remove into a different part of the country to earn his subsistence as a labourer, or go to America to obtain land:-and the motives which have hitherto determined his preference for emigration will in no respect be altered.

V. Political effects of the Emigrations. The Highlands hitherto a nursery of Soldiers: circumstances on which this depended; no longer exist: the loss of this national advantage does not arise from Emigration. AMONG the effects of emigration, there is none that has been more universally lamented than the loss of that valuable supply of soldiers which the public service has hitherto derived from the Highlands. At such a moment as this, it is impossible not to feel deep regret at every circumstance which may tend to impair the military resources of the nation; and if any satisfactory means could be devised for obviating, or even for suspending, an evil of this nature, it must be considered as of the greatest importance. But how this is to be accomplished, is not to be rashly decided. This is not the only question of political economy where an apparently direct remedy, occurring on a superficial view of the subject, may prove to be calculated in no degree to prevent, perhaps to aggravate, the evil we wish to avoid.

From the details that have been given as

to the state of the Highlands, both previous to the year 1745 and subsequently, it will be observed, that all the power of the chieftains over their followers, rested on the essential basis of the low rent of their land; and on the greater or less continuance of this, the subsequent state of the country has chiefly depended. Those proprietors who continued to exact rents very inadequate to the real value of their land, maintained all their former authority over the tenantry, perhaps even a still greater; for, during the feudal times, this authority was tempered by the dependance of the gentry on the affection of their followers for personal safety. After the year 1745, the tenantry had no such return to make for the means of subsistence they derived from the indulgence of their landlord. They felt, at the same time, that he must be under frequent temptations to discontinue that indulgence, and, therefore, were still more anxious than formerly to merit his favour.

The only opportunity they had of rendering him any important obligation, was when

he undertook to raise men for the army. The zeal with which the followers of any chieftain then came forward to inlist, was prompted not only by affection and the enthusiasm of clanship, but likewise by obvious views of private interest. The tenant who, on such an occasion, should have refused to comply with the wishes of his landlord, was sensible that he could expect no further favour, and would be turned out of his farm. The more considerable the possession he held, the greater was his interest, and his obligation to exert himself. The most respectable of the tenantry would, therefore, be among the first to bring forward their sons; the landlord might, with an authority almost despotic, select from among the youth upon his estate, all who appeared most suitable for recruits. The gentry of the Highlands were, in general, too good politicians to make a wanton display of this power; and well enough acquainted with the temper of their people to know that they would come forward with more alacrity, if allowed to indulge the flattering idea that their exertions were the spontaneous

effect of attachment to the chief; yet perhaps no man of penetration in the country ever doubted the real cause of the facility with which the Highland landlords could raise such numbers of men with such magical rapidity.

It is easy to see how superior a body of men, thus composed, must be to a regiment recruited in the ordinary manner in other parts of the kingdom. As long as the old system remained in its purity, as long as the rents in the Highlands continued nearly at their old standard, the Highland regiments maintained a very superior character. Instead of the refuse of a manufacturing town, these regiments were composed of hardy mountaineers, whose ordinary mode of life was a perfect school for the habits of a soldier. They were composed of the most respectable of the peasantry; men, for whose fidelity and good conduct there was a solid pledge, in the families they left at home, and in the motives that induced them to enter into the service; men who had much stronger motives of obedience to their officers than the lash can enforce; who were

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