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mass of people go on in the track to which they have been accustomed; none but those of peculiarly ardent minds can bring themselves, for the sake of a distant object, to make the exertion which emigration requires.

The Highlander who is dispossessed of his land is forced to this species of exertion it is utterly impossible for him to go on in the path he has been accustomed to tread. Whether he emigrate to America, or remove to the Low Country of Scotland, the scene is equally new to him; his habits are broken through: he must in either case form himself to an entirely new mode of life. Forced to a change, it is comparatively of little consequence whether he undertake an exertion of greater or less amount* To move his family from the Highlands to Glasgow or Paisley, is not to be done without an effort, and, to a poor man, a very considerable effort: and if the result is, that, after all, he must enter upon a mode

See Appendix [E.]


of life to which all his habits render him averse, which all his prejudices teach him to consider as degrading, it is surely to be expected that he will be ready to carry his effort something further, in order to attain a more desirable situation.

Though the Highlanders are certainly very inferior to their Southern neighbours in the habits of regular and steady industry, yet, for a temporary effort, there are few people equal to them; none who will submit to greater hardships and privations, where there is a great object to be accomplished. Any one who resolves on braving the difficulties of an American settlement, may look forward to a situation so much superior to that of a day-labourer, and, particularly, so much more consonant to his habits and former mode of life, that no tenant, who loses his farm in the Highlands, can hesitate between these resources, unless overruling circumstances counteract his preference.

Accordingly, with a very few exceptions, we find the choice of the Highlanders has

been entirely regulated by their ability or inability to afford the expenses of their passage to America; and among those whose poverty has forced them to go into the manufacturing towns, some of the most remarkable exertions of industry have been prompted, only by the desire of accumulating as much money as might enable them to join their friends beyond the Atlantic.

From the peculiar circumstances of the Highlands, the proportion of the peasantry whose property is sufficient to carry them to America, is much greater than in other parts of the kingdom.

The excessive division of land arising from the feudal manners, has confounded and intermixed the characters of farmer and labourer; and, while it has reduced to a very low standard the rank of the individual farmer, has diffused the agricultural capital of the

country among a great number of hands. The small tenants form a very considerable proportion of the population of the Highlands. Few, even of the lowest of this

class, are, in ordinary times, unable to pay their passage to America: in most instances they have carried with them some money to begin with in their new situations.

The cotters, on the contrary, have not, in general, had property adequate to the expense of the passage, and few of them have ever been able to emigrate. There have been instances of young unmarried men binding themselves by indenture to a number of years' service in return for their passage; but this has been very rare. From Ireland, there has been a greater proportion of these redemptioners (as they are called): they are generally, however, young men who go to seek their fortunes, careless, perhaps, whether they ever again meet their relations. The more social and systematic plan which the Highlanders have always followed in going to America, is inconsistent with the obligations of a redemptioner; and to men with families, this resource is wholly inapplicable. The emigrants have, therefore, been almost entirely of the class of

tenants; while the cotters, whom the same change of agricultural system has deprived of their situation and means of livelihood, have in general removed into the manufac turing districts of the South of Scotland.

Some expectations have been entertained, that the great public works which have lately been set on foot in the North of Scotland, the Caledonian canal, and the improvement of the roads, may prevent emigration by the employment they will afford. But this is more than problematical. Their great and permanent national utility is a sufficient ground of praise for these noble undertakings, without ascribing to them effects to which they are altogether inadequate.

These works may give a temporary relief to some of the peasantry, but will not alter the essential circumstances of the country. They bring employment a little nearer to the people, and prevent the necessity of going so many miles to procure it: still, however, any one who does not live in the immediate vicinity must quit his pre

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