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5 Explain the terms tropical, anomalistic, and sidereal year, lunar cycle, indiction.

6 Give as accurate an account as you can of lunar eclipses. 7 State Kepler's laws.

8 Explain the general objects of a kalendar, and state the Gregorian rule.

9 Mention any explanations that have been suggested of the origin of solar heat, and the arguments by which they have been supported.

10 Explain the reason why objects reflected in a mirror appear to lie behind it.

11 The laws of reflection and refraction : mention any phænomena which are explained by the latter.


12 What would be the optical effect of placing oneself between two mirrors inclined at an angle of 45o?

13 Describe in detail the optical arrangements of any one kind of telescope.

14 Define specific gravity, and explain how, by means of a hydrometer, the specific gravity of a fluid may be ascertained.


15 Find how much lead, whose specific gravity is 114, will just sink a cubic foot of cork whose specific gravity is 2

in water; the weight of a cubic foot of water being 1,000 oz.

16 Explain the method of graduating thermometers.

17 Explain the Leyden jar.

18 What is meant by the variation of the needle?

19 What are the principal sedimentary strata ?

20 What arguments do Geology and Astronomy furnish in favour of internal heat in the earth?


1 Define the following geographical terms, and mention any countries or districts to which they apply :

Archipelago, Chersonese, Delta, Steppe, Savannah,
Sound, Fiord, Lagoon.

2 Trace the course of four of the following rivers, stating the countries through which they flow, and the principal towns on their banks :

Danube, Amazon, Oder, Indus, Nile, Dnieper.

3 Where are Behring Straits, the Straits of Babelmandel and Bonifaccio, and the Kattegat?

4 Into how many departments is France divided? Give the names of any you remember, and mention the provinces to which they most nearly correspond respectively.

5 What is the Zollverein ?

6 What were the Hanseatic towns, and why so called? 7 Mention the requisites of a good map.

8 Draw a map, either of England and Wales, inserting the county towns and principal seaports, or of Palestine, according to its territorial divisions at the date of our Saviour's birth, indicating the position of the Jewish tribes.

9 Trace the course of the Gulf Stream.

10 Where are the following towns situated :

Barcelona, Messina, Liege, Mosul, Nantes, Nancy, Dinan,

Dinant, Kiev, Coleraine, Vera Cruz and Hyderabad ? 11 What are the principal passes of the Alps? Mention any theories which have been held as to the probable route of Hannibal in crossing them, and give your own opinion. 12 Show how the character of a nation may be influenced by its geology and physical geography.

Miscellaneous Competitive Papers.



1 When, and by whom, was Christianity introduced into Britain?

2 What is the "Salic Law?" Give any instance of its


3 Trace the descent of the Crown, and that of the reigning sovereign, from King George I.

4 "During the 160 years which preceded the union of the Roses, nine kings reigned in England; six of these nine kings were deposed, five lost their lives as well as their crowns: name the sovereigns referred to.

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5 When did the union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland take place? How is the Scotch peerage now represented in the House of Lords?

6 A recent historian, speaking of an English sovereign, says, "In certain respects his reign is an era in our history. It began in revolution and a change in the line of descent. It nearly coincides with the commencement of what is termed modern history, as distinguished from the middle ages, and with the memorable events that have led us to make that distinction, especially the consolidation of the great European monarchies." Mention the name of the sovereign referred to, and explain the allusion.

7 What is the meaning of the constitutional maxim, "The King can do no wrong?"

8 Beginning with the Restoration, mention in chronological order the subjects connected with foreign, colonial, or domestic politics which have successively engrossed the largest share of public attention in England.

9 When did Shakespeare live? Mention the names of his historical plays, and the characters introduced in some one of them.

10 State roughly the amount of the national revenue in recent years, and the sources from which it has been principally derived.

11 Mention the names of Grecian and Roman orators, and the subject of any of their speeches.

12 Give the dates and final issue of the Punic wars, and the names of generals who commanded.

13 Under what Roman emperor was Jerusalem destroyed? What contemporary historian has left a narrative of the war?

14 Name the two European states which have most recently come into existence.

15 What causes principally led to the first French revolution? 16 Give a short account of the origin and termination of the Thirty Years' war.


All the questions should be answered with dates, if possible. 1 Under what circumstances did the Romans first invade Britain ? Name the great leaders under whom the conquest was extended and completed. Who was Emperor of Rome when the Romans abandoned the island? 2 Who were the Saxons? In what part of England did they first settle? Who was the first Saxon King of England? 3 What were the chief events in the reign of Stephen? How was he related to William the Conqueror? Who were the father and mother of Henry II.?

4 In the year 1224 there was a war with France; what led to it, and what were the results?

5 Who was 66

Henry of Windsor ?”

and where did he die?

Whom did he marry,

6 Name the principal statesmen and writers of the age of Queen Elizabeth; and give as complete an account as you can of any one of them.

7 What was the Triple Alliance in the reign of Charles II? How did the king act in carrying out its provisions?

8 What circumstances led William III. to contemplate the resignation of his crown?

9 In 1755 a war broke out with France; what is this war called in history? Describe its origin, and its first operations and results.

10 State very briefly the occasions on which the following battles were fought Tewkesbury, Bunker's Hill, Corunna, Oudenarde, Plassy, St. Vincent.



1 Reduce 344612 ounces avoirdupois to cwts., quarters, &c., and 13 lbs. 9 oz. 15 dwts. 13 grains troy, to grains. 2 How many feet are there in 5 miles, 3 furlongs, 4 poles, 3 yards?

3 The side of a cube is 17 inches: find its content in solid yards, feet and inches.

4 The sides of a rectangular plot are 57 ft. 5 in. and 43 ft. 5 in. : find its area in square yards, feet and inches.

5 If A invests 33,0757. in the purchase of 31. per cent. at 871, and B invests the same sum in the purchase of 47. per

per cent. at 94, what will be the difference in their net incomes, after deducting income tax at 16d. in the pound? 6 If 13 of a cwt. be worth 77. 3s., what will be the value of T of a ton?

7 If the shares of a railway are at 763 when consols are at 931, what would be their price when consols are at 891?

8 Find by the method of "Practice :"

(a) The price of 9 tons, 11 cwt. 2 qrs. 21 lbs. at 107. 11s. 4d. per cwt.

(b) The price of 17 acres, 3 roods, 15 poles, at 60l. 3s. 4d. per acre.

9 If 780 men on full rations consume 221 quarters of wheat in 119 days, how many on half rations will consume 437 quarters in 57 days?

[Explain the method by which you proceed.]

10 If 10 lbs. 3 oz. of tea at 4s. 8d. per pound be mixed with 23 lbs. 3 oz. at 5s. 4d., and 17 lbs. 11 oz. at 6s. 8d., and the mixture be sold at 6s. 1d. per pound, what will be the gain or loss; and what the gain or loss per cent. on the cost price?

11 Find the interest at 43 per cent. on 9247. 12s. 8d. lent on the 18th of March, and repaid on the 11th of August, the former day being excluded and the latter included.

12 What principal, lent at 3 per cent. simple interest, will amount in 5 years to 1,8847. 19s. 10d?

13 What will be the amount of 8257, at the end of 2 years, at 47. per cent. per annum compound interest accruing, due half yearly?

14 Reduce to their simplest forms the expressions

(a) z + i + 1}-100.

(b) of 619 of 14 divided by 1 of 2991.


(c) of a pound of a guinea +1 of 6s. 8d. +

of a crown.

15 Explain the rules for the multiplication and division of decimals

Divide 015 by 00005, and 313.24 by 24997·5; showing in the latter case the whole of the circulating portion.

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