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the party had an opportunity of exercising themselves in the art of elocution. He enlarged by this means his stock of knowledge, attained a better method of arranging his ideas, and acquired some degree of correctness and fluency of expression. But his maturer judgment convinced him that there is much to object to in these meetings as generally conducted; that the benefits which result from them are more than counteracted by the spirit of disputation and loquacity which is excited, and by the habit of exercising ingenuity in support of error, whereby the young mind, attracted by the gloss of novelty, and unaccustomed to distinguish between the solid and the superficial, may lose or abate its veneration for truth, piety, and virtue. His hint for the improvement of debating societies is thus given.

If these conferences could be so managed, under the superintendence of respectable persons, whose sound judgment, and comprehensive minds replete with science and literature, would enable them to sum up the arguments advanced, with correctness and liberality; to give the side of truth the advantages of eloquence and dignity; and to detect the fallacy of error, and the subtleties of false reasoning, the benefit of such societies would certainly be obtained with the fewest possible disadvantages. But if this privilege cannot be procured, perhaps the next to it would be, to select from the members of the society, a few persons, the most distinguished for talents, learning, and virtue, who should by turns officiate as presidents; and whose special business it should be to support the cause of truth and reason, and to lay open distinctly every species of sophistry, which might occur in the course of the various discussions. The first of these plans would certainly, in a superior degree, promote order, and inspire a chastened emulation, amongst the members of these little societies. It would, in fact, confer upon them a decorum and respectability which, in many points of view, would prove highly and permanently advantageous to young persons.

We have now arrived at the period of our young student's history, when it became necessary for him to choose a profession. The motives which guided him in his choice, and the success which attended his steps, will be the subject of our next notice of Lindley Murray.



WITH reference to an article on the IGNIS-FATUUS which
appeared in a recent number of the Saturday Magazine, we
have received a communication from a correspondent which
will probably interest our readers. It forms an extract
from a memorandum made at the time on board the Tiger
Cutter, tender to H.M. Yacht William and Mary, of which
ship the writer (Mr. Groves) was then Admiralty-Mate.
"On the 18th of December, 1824, when cruizing off the
mouth of Belfast Loch, with very light wind from the
S.W., and hazy weather, about half an hour after midnight
there appeared a dim light on the vessel's lee-beam, which,
on being reported to the pilot, was supposed to be Port
Patrick; but it soon increased in size and brilliancy, so as
to have all the appearance of one of our brightest lights, at
the distance of two or three miles. We were, therefore,
quite certain that it could not be as the pilot imagined, and
after puzzling ourselves, and consulting the pilot for eight
or ten minutes as to what this light could be, it glided
nearly round one-third of the horizon, became dim, and
almost immediately disappeared. The manner in which it
moved round to the place where it disappeared, was such as
to give all the appearance of the vessel having fallen round
off, as sailors term it; but on appealing to the compass, I
found our position unaltered, when I was at once convinced
that for the first time in my life I had seen an Ignus-


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Ir is not only the great and public efforts of Christian benevolence and charity that are owned of God, and blessed with His approval; but in the hour of midnight, in the secret chamber, and when the world takes no cognizance of our actions, His eye beholds them, and His ear is open to detect the slightest whisper that conveys its blessing or its bane to the heart of a familiar friend.-ELLIS.


THE MILLER heard a bitter cry;
"Help me, O help me, or I die!"
And saw, on hastening to the beam,
That crossed his deep and rapid stream,
A DROWNING YOUTH, whom sport had led,
Within the channel's dangerous bed.
"Ah!" said the Miller, drawing near,
"This comes, boy, of your fishing here.
What folly brought you to the spot!
Speak!" But the suppliant answered not,
Save that he still implored relief,
Crying in terror and in grief,
"First save me from this dreadful place,
Then argue, and discuss my case!"

O could my simple FABLE fall
With weight upon the hearts of all,
Who, when the poor man's woes prevail,
And famine comes, and wages fail,
Pause to inquire the reasons why,
And scruple, while the sufferers die.

Let hearts, thus cold and doubtful, feel
The double worth of instant zeal *;
And, ere the dread account arrives,
Learn well the doom of useless livest

He who affords no helping hand
When want and loss are in the land,
Nor views distress with pitying eyes,
Nor kindly aids the fall'n to rise,
If we have read GoD's word aright,
That man is hateful in His sight.

Giving soon,

Is a double boon.

+ Matt. xxv. 30.


THAT man strangely mistakes the manner of spirit he is of, who knows not, that peaceableness, and gentleness, and mercy, as well as purity, are inseparable characteristics of the wisdom that is from above: and that Christian charity ought never to be sacrificed even for the promotion of evangelical truth.-BISHOP MANT.

ORIGIN OF THE WORD COLONY.-Colony is a body of people drawn from the mother country to inhabit some distant place. The word originally signified no more than a farm, 2. c., the habitation of a peasant, colonus, (hence the word clown), with the quantity of land sufficient for the support of his family. It is derived from the Latin word, colo, I till or cultivate; hence colonus, a husbandman, and colonia, a body of farmers sent to cultivate the ground in a distant country, and by metonymy, the place itself. Mr. Vaillant has filled a volume in folio with medals struck by the seve ral colonies, in honour of the emperors who founded them. The ordinary symbol then engraved on their medals was either an eagle, as when the veteran legions were distributed in the colonies; or a labourer holding a plough, drawn by a pair of oxen, as when the colony consisted of ordinary inhabitants.



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ROGER DE MOWBRAY and William de Warenne were two of the most highly distinguished warriors of the second crusade. The former, one of the most famous leaders of England, victorious at the celebrated battle of the Standard, marched with King Louis to the Holy Land, fought valorously under the banner of the Templars against the infidels, and on his return made munificent gifts of his estates and possessions to the warriors of the order. Among these were "the manors of Kileby and Withely, divers lands in the island of Axholme, the town of Balshall, in the county of Warwick, and various VOL. XXI.

places in Yorkshire." About the same period King Stephen presented the Templars with the advowson of the church of the same manors, and also the manors of Egle and Witham. Queen Matilda likewise granted to them the manor of Covely, or Cowley, in Oxfordshire, two mills in the same county, common of pasture in Shotover Forest, and the church of Shetton, in Rutland. Ralph de Hastings and William de Hastings also gave to the Templars in the same reign, (1152,) lands at Hurst and Wyxham, in Yorkshire, afterwards formed into the preceptory of Temple Hurst. William Asheby granted them the estate whereon the house and church of Temple Bruere were afterwards erected.

We cannot here describe the miserable failure of the 654


religion is an act of obedience to God." The promise to him who fell in battle among the Moslems was, that his sins should be forgiven him in the day of judgment; his wounds should be resplendent as vermilion, and odoriferous as musk, and the loss of limbs should be supplied by the wings of angels and cherubim.

When called to the conflict the Templars exhibited the utmost daring and intrepidity, and were described as "lions in war" and "lambs in the convent;" so also the Moslems fought with fiery enthusiasm, and Noureddin himself while combating like the meanest of his soldiers was known to exclaim, "Alas! it is now a long time that I have been seeking martyrdom without being able to obtain it." The spirit in which the Arabian warriors met death is illustrated by the dying exclamation of one of their number when he embraced his mother and sister for the last time: "It is not the fading pleasure of this world that has prompted me to devote my life in the cause of religion, I seek the favour of God and his apostle, and I have been told that the spirits of the mar tyrs will be lodged in the crops of green birds who taste the fruits and drink the waters of paradise. Farewell; we shall meet again among the groves and fountains which God has prepared for the elect."

second crusade; but rather glance at the results which followed that event. The master of the temple at Jerusalem having accompanied the French king to Paris, the Templars were left alone to withstand the attacks of an enemy, daily becoming more powerful. The treasurer of the order represented, in a pathetic letter, the melancnoly condition of the order, and implored assistance from his brethren in Europe, earnestly beseeching the master to return to them immediately, with all the knights and serving brothers capable of hearing arms. Instead of listening to this urgent request, and proceeding at once to Palestine, Everard des Barres abdicated his authority and retired to the monastery of Clairvaux to spend the rest of his days in penance and mortification. Bernard de Tremelay, a valiant and experienced soldier, succeeded him in his office. Under the conduct of their new leader, the Templars met with brief and partial success. The infidels, who had encamped on the Mount of Olives over against the Temple, were on one occasion defeated with great slaughter, five thousand of their number being left dead upon the plain. But just at this period, when the hopes of the Crusaders began to revive, they had the misfortune to lose their powerful friend and patron, St. Bernard, who died 1153, aged sixty-three. He showed his regard for the order to By the letters of Bertrand de Blanquefort addressed to the last; for even on his death-bed he wrote three let- Louis VII., king of France, we find how hopeless were ters, stating, that to encourage and protect the Templars the prospects of the Templars, and how vain the conti was a service acceptable to God and man. nued struggle in which they were engaged, notwithstandDuring the same year a heavy calamity befel the ordering the brilliant successes which occasionally rewarded in the destruction of the master and a body of knights at Ascalon, which important city they had rashly attempted to take by storm, without waiting for efficient aid. They were surrounded and slain to a man, and their dead bodies exposed in triumph on the walls. Bertrand de Blanquefort, a noble knight of Guienne, was chosen to succeed the unfortunate De Tremelay. In the encounters which followed, the slaughter on both sides was terrific. The Templars were foremost everywhere, and on one occasion, by a night attack, they forced the famous Noureddin to fly without arms and half-naked from the field of battle. The Pope, grateful for their services, termed these warriors, "the New Maccabees, far-famed and most valiant champions of the Lord."

There was a remarkable similarity of feeling throughout the whole course of this warfare, between the crusaders and the followers of Mahomet. Both were actuated by the most ardent desire to gain possession of the Temple and the holy places; both were willing to endure martvrdom in such a cause. While the religious discipline of the Templars was such as we have described it to be, that of the Mahometans was no way inferior in strictness and self-mortification. Noureddin is said to nave fought constantly with spiritual as well as carnal weapons. He lived in the daily exercise of prayer, and of the moral and religious duties inculcated in the Koran; and his whole energies, to the last moment of his life, were exerted for the recovery of Jerusalem. The Arabian writers relate that all frivolous and profane conversation was banished from the camp of the Moslems, and the intervals of action were employed in prayer, meditation, and the study of the Koran. While the Templars styled themselves the "avengers of Jesus Christ," the "ministers of God for the punishment of the infidels," and while the Pope and the fathers of the church declared that to them was intrusted the office of blotting out unbelievers from the earth, and that in "fighting for Christ the kingdom of Christ was acquired:" the followers of Mahomet were likewise encouraged by the declaration of their prophet that, "a drop of blood shed in the cause of God, a night spent in arms, is of more avail than two months spent in fasting and prayer." The famous caliph Ababeker, writing to the Arabian tribes said, "This is to inform you that I send the true believers into Syria to take it out of the hands of the infidels, and I would have you to know, that fighting for

their prowess. It is indeed a melancholy reflection, that so vast an amount of human life should have been sacrificed in endeavouring to gain possession of the Holy Land. On the part of the Moslems there was indeed consistency with their creed, for theirs is em phatically the religion of the sword; but on the part of the Christians, the followers of Him at whose birth peace was proclaimed, and whose parting legacy was "peace," there was a gross departure from the precepts and the example of their divine Lord, and they appear to have suffered in their continued reverses, and at length, in the ignominious end and extinction of their order, the infliction of that sentence: "They who take the sword, shall perish by the sword." In 1167, Bertrand de Blan quefort was succeeded by Philip of Naplous, the first master of the Temple who had been born in Palestine.

THE TEMPLE CHURCH, LONDON, (concluded.) In the year 1162, and in 1172, a famous bull was promulgated, which exempted the Templars from the ordi nary ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and enabled them to admit priests and chaplains into their order, and appoint them to their churches without installation, induction, or any reference to the bishops. At this period the fraternity began to erect splendid and magnificent churches in various parts of Christendom, and to this period, therefore, according to Mr. Addison, we may, with the greatest probability, refer the commencement of the Temple Church of London. As the building of churches in those days was a work of much time, it seems quite reasonable to suppose that the earlier part of this edifice was commenced shortly after the period referred to, since the portion called "The Round," was ready for con secration in 1185, at the arrival of the patriarch Heraclius in England, accompanied by the Grand Master of the Temple. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and an indulgence of fifty days was granted to those yearly seeking it. Matthew Paris speaks of it as "an edifice worthy to be seen." The oblong portion of the church was not consecrated until Ascension Day, 1240, in the presence of the king and much of the nobility of the kingdom, who, on the same day, that is to say, the day of the Ascension, after the solemnities of the consecration had been completed, royally feasted at a most magnificent banquet, prepared at the expense of the Hospitallers. At a period yet earlier than that to

which the building of this church can be assigned, the Templars had a place of religious worship in Holborn, near Southampton Buildings, and Stowe tells us that, about a century before his time, part of the first Temple Church was discovered on pulling down some old houses, and it was found to have been built of Caen stone, and in a circular form. From the same chronicler we learn that the New Temple, as he calls that of London, was often made a "storehouse for men's treasure."

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of the design, which characterises every feature of the building. The object of the architect appears to have been to exhibit a circle of twelve columns twice over. The coincidence of these two circular ranges of pillars with the Druidical circles is apt to strike even an inexperienced observer. But there are other remarkable circumstances-the junction of the six interior pillars with the twelve exterior produce exact triangles throughout the whole circumference. The same number, twelve, mysteriously subdivided into other numbers, appears to pervade the whole of this circular temple.

Three pointed arches form the entrance from the round to the oblong portion of the building, the central one being supported upon beautiful columns of Purbeck marble. Passing through one of these arches, the visitor enters the lofty and elegant structure beyond, which presents one of the finest examples of the early

The same fact is noted by Matthew Paris, who says that, in 1232, Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent, being prisoner in the tower of London, the king was informed that he had much treasure laid up in the Temple, under the custody of the Templars. Whereupon he sent for the master of the Temple, and examined him strictly; who confessed that money was delivered to him and his brethren to be kept, but he knew not how much there was of it. The king demanded to have the same deli-pointed style of architecture. The pillars which support vered; but it was answered that the money being committed unto their trust, could not be delivered without the licence of him who committed it to ecclesiastical protection. Subsequently the king sent his treasurer and other officers to make the same demand of Hubert, the owner of the treasure, who immediately requested the knights to deliver up the whole of it; and thus the king appropriated the money, vessels of gold and silver, and precious stones belonging to the earl.

Edward I. was guilty of a like injustice, for, in 1283, he went to the Temple, and, calling for the Keeper of the Treasure-house, as if he intended to see his mother's jewels that were laid up there to be safely kept, he entered the house, broke open the coffers of different persons and took away about one thousand pounds.

After the apprehension of the Templars in 1308, the Temple fell into various hands. In 1313 Edward II. gave the whole place and houses so named to Aimer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, together with the tenements, rents, and appurtenances, belonging thereto. Hugh Spencer afterwards usurped it for a time, and it was finally assigned to the prior and brethren of the order of St. John, or the Knights Hospitallers, in 1339. The Knights soon afterward leased the 'I emple and its appurtenances for a rent of ten pounds per annum, to a society of students of the common laws of England, who, finding their numbers increasing, formed themselves, in the reign of Richard II., into two societies, known as those of the Inner Temple, and Middle Temple. In the reign of Henry VIII. the order of St. John was dissolved, and the Temple again became the property of the crown, but the students of the law still held it on a lease, "defending one Christian from another, as the old Templars did Christians from Pagans." James I. granted the whole of the buildings to Sir Julius Cæsar, Knight, the Benchers, and others of the Temple, and their assigns for ever, "for the reception, lodging, and education of the professors and students of the laws of this realm," at a rent of ten pounds annually, from each society. The church narrowly escaped the flames in 1666, and was beautified, and a curious wainscot-screen set up in 1652. The south-west part was newly built with stone in 1695. In 1706 the church was whitewashed, gilt, and painted within, and the pillars of the round tower wainscotted. A new battlement and buttresses were added to the south side, and other parts of the exterior were repaired. The figures of the Knights Templars also were "cleaned and painted," and the iron work inclosing them was painted and gilt. The east end was beautified in 1707, and again with the north side repaired in 1736, and in 1811. In 1827 the whole south side of the church, externally, and the lower part of the circular portion, internally, underwent a restoration, under the able direction of Sir Robert Smirke, and has since been subjected to various alterations and repairs.

On first entering the circular portion of the church, the visitor is much struck with the harmonious significance

the pointed arches of the roof are of solid marble, and the clustered columns which adorn the wall are of Purbeck and Caen stone. By the clustered columns the side walls are divided into five compartments on either side, which are each filled up with a triple lancetheaded window of graceful form, and richly ornamented. The windows at the east end are similar in form to those just mentioned, but the central one is considerably larger. By the side of the archway communicating with the round is a small Norman doorway, opening upon a dark winding-staircase which leads to the summit of the round tower, and also conducts to the penitential cell, where refractory and disobedient Templars were subjected to solitary confinement. This cell is only four feet six inches long, and two feet six inches wide, with two small loopholes in the wall to admit light and air. Here Walter le Bacheler, Knight, grand preceptor of Ireland, met with a miserable death from the rigour and severity of his imprisonment which he had incurred by disobedience to his superior, the master of the Temple. On the opposite side of the church, a corresponding doorway and staircase formerly led to the chapel of St. Anne, opening into the cloisters, but this chapel was removed during the repairs of 1827. In the round portion of the Temple Church are the famous monuments of mail-clad knights, supposed to be those of associates of the Temple, a class of men not actually admitted into the holy vows and habits of the order, but yet received into a kind of spiritual connexion with the Templars. These figures are cross-legged, in token that they had assumed the cross; but they are not clothed in the long mantle of the Templars, in which the knights of that order were always buried, and are always represented on their tombs. The monuments are arranged in two groups, on the floor of the area of the round. The northern group consists of five recumbent figures of knights in chain-armour, with shields of the Norman form, differing very much in length. The figures are cut in high relief out of solid blocks of stone, which at the same time form the plinths on which they rest. The southern group consists of four similar figures and a coffin-shaped stone. So many conjectures have been advanced respecting the persons these figures. were intended to represent that we will not attempt to follow them. Whoever they may have been, their connexion with the order of Templars, and the situation occupied by their tombs, have been enough to render these effigies most interesting, both in ancient and modern times. Gough mentions a ridiculous instance of the veneration in which they were held, when he states, that a Hertfordshire baronet, wishing to adorn parochia chapel newly erected by him, made application to the Society of Benchers for some of the "cross-legged knights" to be appropriated to that purpose. accountable request the lawyers had the good sense to refuse compliance with; being naturally reluctant to part with those curious remnants of ancient times.

This un



THE distinction which, in England, is made between an umbrella and a parasol, is one dependent chiefly on the changeable nature of our climate. The object for which these convenient contrivances were invented, was to shield the wearer from the scorching heat of the sun in warm climates, an appropriation which is expressed by the compound term para-sol. In the rainy seasons of the East persons do not think of going forth from their homes, so that the use of the umbrella as a rain-shield is seldom thought of.

Many circumstances concur in showing that the use of sun-shields (for so we may term parasols) has not only prevailed to a great extent in the East, but that the honour of holding this shield over the monarch has generally belonged to a great officer of state. There are passages in the Bible, relating to a "shade defending from the sun," which are believed to point to the use of umbrellas in the East in very early times; and indeed

such a shade has been used in almost all the countries of the East for so long a time that we may well believe this to have been the case. At Persepolis, in Persia, are some ancient sculptures believed to be as old as the time of Alexander the Great; and on one of these is represented a chief or king, attended by two servants, one of whom holds a fly-flapper and the other an umbrella, the latter over the head of the royal personage. At Takht-i-Bostan are other sculptures, less ancient than those of Persepolis, but executed when Europe was in a state of semi-barbarism; and in these is represented a king witnessing a boar-hunt, attended by an umbrella




from ancient to more modern times, we find that the umbrella is considered, in every country of the East except China and Turkey, a privilege of royalty, the excepted countries exhibiting them in various ranks of society. In China the dresses worn in wet weather are such as are calculated to shield the wearer from the

rain; while the broad-brimmed hats serve much the purpose of a sun-shield. The umbrella is thus rather an ornament than an article of use. It is customary in Chinese drawings, to see ladies attended by servants holding umbrellas over their heads. Loubere, who went to Siam as envoy from the king of France, describes the use of umbrellas as being governed by curious regulations. Those umbrellas which resemble the European form, are used principally by the officers of state; while

those which have several tiers in height, as if two or more umbrellas were fixed on one stick, are reserved for the king alone. The umbrellas which the king presents to his nobles and the ambassadors from foreign countries, vary in their value as marks of the king's favour, according to the hangings or trimmings affixed to their edges. In Ava, a country adjacent to Siam, the king designates himself, among other titles, as "Lord of the ebbing and flowing of the sea, king of the white elephant, and lord of the twenty-four umbrellas;" this last title, although very ludicrous to our view, is supposed to relate to twenty-four states or provinces combined under the rule of the king, the umbrella being an especial royal emblem in Ava.

Sir John Malcolm states that in India the chattrapati, or "lord of the umbrella," is a title held as a peculiar mark of honour by one of the chief officers in the Mahratta states. The same high authority is also of opinion that the term Satrap, the old Persian title for a prince or governor of a province, is derived from this word; and that both in India and in Persia, the "lord of the umbrella" has for ages been a distinguished officer of the court. In the Mohammedan countries of the north of Africa, the use of the umbrella is as conspicuous as in Asia. Ali Bey, describing the entrance of the emperor of Morocco into Fez, says:

The retinue of the emperor was composed of a troop of from fifteen to twenty men on horseback; about a hundred steps behind them came the emperor, who was mounted on a mule, with an officer bearing his umbrella, who rode by his side also on a mule. The umbrella is a distinguishing sign of the sovereign of Morocco. Nobody but himself, his sons, and his brothers, dare to make use of it.

In another work relating to the same country, it is stated that on one occasion as the emperor, Muley Zeerit, was going "out of the palace gate, the violence of the wind broke his parasol; which was interpreted as an omen of the approaching end of his reign. The accident made a great impression on the old monarch himself, which, however, he endeavoured to hide, and called for another parasol."

Italy was probably the first country in Europe where the use of this article prevailed. Its sunny clime would render an "ombrello," or sun-shade, most agreeable. Both the terms "parasole" and "ombrello" were used in that country to express a sun-shade, and the use of a similar instrument as a shield from rain seems to have been an afterthought. The French name "parapluie" and the German term "regenschirm," express the rain-shielding use of the instrument, as exactly as "parasol" does that of a "sun-shield," but we have no name in English equally consistent, for "umbrella" (from "ombrello") means simply a "little shade."

The period when umbrellas were first used in England is not exactly known. In the Statistical Account of Glasgow it is stated:-

About the year 1781 or 1782 the late Mr. John Jamieson, returning from Paris, brought an umbrella with him, which was the first seen in this city. The Doctor, who was a man of humour, took great pleasure in relating to me how he was stared at with his umbrella. For a number of years there were few used in Glasgow, and these are made of glazed cotton cloth.

With respect to Edinburgh, Creech says:

In 1763 there was no such thing known or used as an umbrella: but an eminent surgeon of Edinburgh, who had occasion to walk a good deal in the course of his business, much used, and continue to be so, and many umbrella used one about the year 1780; and in 1783 umbrellas were warehouses are opened, and a considerable trade carried on in this article.

An impression has at times existed that Jonas Hanway introduced the use of umbrellas into England, about the middle of the last century; but Gay, in 1712, wrote a poem in which occur the following lines:

Good housewives all the winter's rage despise,
Defended by the riding-hood's disguise;





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