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NOTES ON THE FOREGOING LECTURE.

NOTE A.

Mr. Kay Shuttleworth, in conjunction with Mr. Tufnell, visited the most remarkable among the schools of Holland, Prussia, Saxony, France, and Switzerland. Their attention was directed with peculiar interest to the schools of Switzerland, in the examination of which they spent several weeks uninterruptedly. During this period they inspected daily one or more schools, and conversed with the authorities of the several cantons, with the directors of the normal schools, and with individuals distinguished by their knowledge of the science of elementary instruction. Among these may be noticed the familiar name of De Fellenberg. "What we learned from the conversation of this patriotic and highminded man we cannot find space here to say. His words are better read in the establishments which he has founded, and which he superintends, and in the influence which his example and his precepts have had on the rest of Switzerland, and on other parts of Europe*."

A highly interesting visit made by these gentlemen to the normal school of the canton of Thurgovia is described at some length. This school was under the superintending care of Vehrli, who had many years conducted the poorschool of De Fellenberg at Hofwyl. The normal school is at Kruitzlingen, on the shore of the Lake of Constance, about one mile from the gate of the city. The pupils are sent thither from the several communes of the canton, to be trained three years by Vehrli, before they take charge of the communal schools. Their expenses are borne in part by the commune, and partly by the council of the canton. Mr. Kay Shuttleworth and Mr. Tufnell found the school to contain ninety young men, apparently from eighteen to twenty-four or twenty-six years of age. "Vehrli welcomed us with frankness and simplicity, which at first won our confidence. We joined him at his frugal meal. He pointed to the viands, which were coarse, and said, I am a peasant's son. I wish to be no other than I amn, the teacher of the sons of the peasantry. You are welcome to my meal: it is coarse and homely, but it is offered cordially.'

"We sat down with him. These potatoes,' he said, 'are our own. We won them from the earth, and therefore we need no dainties, for our appetite is gained by labour, and the fruit of our toil is always savoury." This introduced the subject of industry. He told us all the pupils of the normal school laboured daily some hours in a garden of several acres attached to the house, and that they performed all the domestic duty of the household. When we walked out with Vehrli, we found them in the garden digging, and carrying on other garden operations, with great assiduity. Others were sawing wood into logs, and chopping it into billets in the court-yard. Some brought in sacks of potatoes or baskets of recently gathered vegetables. Others laboured in the domestic duties of the household.

"After a while the bell rang, and immediately their outdoor labours terminated, and they returned in an orderly manner, with all their implements, to the court-yard, where having deposited them, thrown off their frocks, and washed, they reassembled in their respective class-rooms.

"We soon followed them. Here we listened to lessons in mathematics, proving that they were well grounded in the elementary parts of that science. We saw them drawing from models with considerable skill and precision, and heard them instructed in the laws of perspective. We listened to a lecture on the code of the canton, and to instruction in the geography of Europe. We were informed that their instruction extended to the language of the canton, its construction and grammar, and especially to the history of Switzerland; arithmetic; mensuration; such a knowledge of natural philosophy and mechanics as might enable them to explain the chief phenomena of nature and the mechanical forces; some acquaintance with astronomy. They had continual lessons in pedagogy, or the theory of the art of teaching, which they practised in the neighbouring village school. We were assured that their instruction in the Holy Scriptures, and other religious knowledge, was a constant subject of solicitude.

"The following extract from Vehrli's address at the first

Report to the Secretary of State for the Home Department from the Poor Law Commissioners on the training of Pauper Children. 1841. Our extracts are taken chiefly from the admirable report marked No. VI. in this volume, by Mr. Kay Shuttleworth and Mr. Tufnell on the Training School at Battersea.

See also Saturday Magazine, Vol, V. p. 234,

examination of the pupils in 1837, will best explain the spirit that governs the seminary, and the attention paid there to what we believe has been too often neglected in this country, the education of the heart and feelings as distinct from the cultivation of the intellect. It may appear strange to English habits to assign so prominent a place in an educational institution to the following points, but the indication here given of the superior care bestowed in the formation of the character, to what is given to the acquisition of knowledge, forms in our view the chief charm and merit in this and several other Swiss seminaries, and is what we have laboured to impress on the institution we have founded*. The course of life in this seminary is threefold. 1st.-Life in the home circle, or family life. 2nd.-Life in the school-room. 3rd.-Life beyond the walls, in the cultivation of the soil.

"I place the family life first, for here the truest education is imparted; here the future teacher can best receive that cultivation of the character and feelings which will fit him to direct those who are entrusted to his care, in the ways of piety and truth.

A well-arranged family circle is the place where each member, by participating in the other's joys and sorrows, pleasures and misfortunes, by teaching, advice, consolation, and example, is inspired with sentiments of single-mindedness, of charity, of mutual confidence, of noble thoughts, of high feelings and of virtue.

In such a circle can a true religious sense take the firmest and the deepest root. Here it is that the principles of Christian feeling can best be laid, where opportunity is continually given for the exercise of affection and charity, which are the first virtues that should distinguish a teacher's mind. Here it is that kindness and earnestness can most surely form the young members to be good and intelligent men, and that each is most willing to learn and receive an impress from his fellow. He who is brought up in such a circle, who thus recognises all his fellow-men as brothers, serves them with willingness whenever he can, treats all his race as one family, loves them, and God their Father above all, how richly does such a one scatter blessings around! What earnestness does he show in all his doings and conduct, what devotion especially does he display in the business of a teacher! How differently from him does that master enter and leave his school, whose feelings are dead to a sense of piety, and whose heart never beats in unison with the joys of family life.

"Where is such a teacher as I have described most pleasantly occupied? In his school amongst his children, with them in the house of God or in the family circle, and wherever he can be giving or receiving instruction. A great man has expressed, perhaps too strongly, 'I never wish to see a teacher who cannot sing.' With more reason I would maintain, that a teacher to whom a sense of the pleasures of a well-arranged family is wanting, and who fails to recognise in it a well-grounded religious influence, should never enter a school-room.'

"As we returned from the garden with the pupils on the evening of the first day, we stood for a few minutes, with Vehrli, in the court-yard by the shore of the lake. The pupils had ascended into the class-rooms, and the evening being tranquil and warm, the windows were thrown up, and we shortly afterwards heard them sing in excellent harmony. As soon as this song had ceased we sent a message to request another, with which we had become familiar in our visits to the Swiss schools; and thus, in succession, we called for song after song of Nageli, imagining that we were only directing them at their usual hour of instruction in vocal

*The training school at Battersea is here referred to; the establishment of which is due to the philanthropic exertions of Mr. Kay Shuttleworth and Mr. Tufnell. "We were anxious," say these gentlemen, "that a work of such importance should be undertaken by the authorities most competent to carry it into execution successfully, and we painfully felt how inadequate our own resources and experience were for the manage

ment of such an experiment; but after various inquiries, which were attended with few encouraging results, we thought that as a last resort we should not incur the charge of presumption, if, in private and unaided, we endeavoured to work out the first steps of the establishment of an institution, for the training of teachers, which we hoped might afterwards entrusted to abler hands. We determined therefore to devote a certain portion of our own means to this object, believing that when the scheme of the institution was sufficiently mature to enable us to speak of results rather than of anticipations, the well-being of 50,000 pauper children would plead its own cause with the Government and the public, so as to secure the future prosperity of the establishment,"

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music. There was a great charm in this simple but excellent harmony. When we had listened nearly an hour, Vehrli invited us to ascend into the room where the pupils were assembled. We followed him, and on entering the apartment great was our surprise to discover the whole school, during the period we had listened, had been cheering with songs their evening employment of peeling potatoes, and cutting the stalks from the green vegetables and beans which they had gathered in the garden. As we stood there they renewed their choruses till prayers were announced. Supper had been previously taken. After prayers, Vehrli, walking about the apartment, conversed with them familiarly on the occurrences of the day, mingling with his conversation such friendly admonition as sprang from the incidents, and then lifting his hands he recommended them to the protection of heaven, and dismissed them to rest.

"We spent two days with great interest in this establishment. Vehrli had ever on his lips: We are peasants' sons. We would not be ignorant of our duties, but God forbid that knowledge should make us despise the simplicity of our lives. The earth is our mother, and we gather our food from her breast, but while we peasants labour for our daily food, we may learn many lessons from our mother earth. There is no knowledge in books like an immediate converse with nature, and those that dig the soil have nearest communion with her. Believe me, or believe me not, this is the thought that can make a peasant's life sweet, and his toil a luxury. I know it, for see my hands are horny with toil. The lot of men is very equal, and wisdom consists in the discovery of the truth that what is without is not the source of sorrow, but that which is within. A peasant may be happier than a prince if his conscience be pure before God, and he learn not only contentment, but joy, in the life of labour which is to prepare him for the life of heaven.'

"This was the theme always on Vehrli's lips. Expressed with more or less perspicuity, his main thought seemed to be that poverty, rightly understood, was no misfortune. He regarded it as a sphere of human exertion and human trial, preparatory to the change of existence, but offering its own scurces of enjoyment as abundantly as any other. We are all equal, he said, 'before God; why should the son of a peasant envy a prince, or the lily an oak, are they not both God's creatures?'

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"We were greatly charmed in this school by the union of comparatively high intellectual attainments among the scholars, with the utmost simplicity of life, and cheerfulness in the humblest menial labour. Their food was of the coarsest character, consisting chiefly of vegetable soups, and very brown bread. They rose between four and five, took three meals in the day, the last about six, and retired to rest at nine. They seemed happy in their lot.

"Some of the other normal schools of Switzerland are remarkable for the same simplicity in their domestic arrangements, though the students exceed in their intellectual attainments all notions prevalent in England of what should be taught in such schools. Thus in the normal school of the Canton of Berne the pupils worked in the fields during eight hours of the day, and spent the rest in intellectual labour. They were clad in the coarsest dresses of the peasantry, wore wooden shoes, and were without stockings. Their intellectual attainments, however, would have enabled them to put to shame the masters of most of our best elementary schools.

"Such men, we felt assured, would go forth cheerfully to their humble village homes to spread the doctrine which Vehrli taught of peace and contentment in virtuous exertion; and men similarly trained appeared to us best fitted for the labour of reclaiming the pauper youth of England to the virtues, and restoring them to the happiness of her best instructed peasantry."

NOTE B.

In the report of M. Lebrun, director of the normal school at Versailles, on Mulhauser's Method, the following passage

occurs:

"The art of writing presents two distinct parts:-first, the theoretical part, which consists in a rational analysis of the forms of written characters; and secondly, the practical, which gives the means of acquiring with rapidity the habit of forming the characters correctly.

"Generally, attention has been almost entirely confined

to the second part, under the impression that it is useless to reason with children, and that they are to be treated as machines, whose office it is to move and not to reflect. The author of this new method is guided by an entirely different principle. Nothing is more simple or easy to comprehend than his analysis of writing. The method generally adopted presents a useless multiplication of elementary characters. One method that has been introduced into several schools, has seventeen such characters. The author reduces them to four, and from these four elements, which are learnt with the utmost ease, are produced all the letters of the alphabet. The advantage of this simplicity appears unquestionable. The child accustomed to draw the elements of the letters with an exactness required by the rule impressed on his memory, cannot write badly if he has paid attention to the instruction. The teacher does not dictate a letter which can leave the pupil in doubt as to the precise thing that is required of him, but pronounces in succession each element of the letter, which the writer follows, without thinking of the letter itself.

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"These enigmas both amuse the children and accustom them to reflect. I am peculiarly pleased with this part of the system, which calls into action the intelligence of the pupil by an allurement resembling that of a game. "Finally, I have to report that the trial we have made has had the most successful result, and the method of M. Mulhauser appears to me every way calculated to ensure and hasten the progress of the children, while his discipline and arrangement of the classes show, in my opinion, a remarkable knowledge of the qualities and faults of infancy. Our schools cannot but profit by the entire adoption of the principles recommended by so experienced and able a

teacher."

NOTE C.

Mr. Kay Shuttleworth and Mr. Tufnell thus refer to Wilhem's method of teaching singing :—

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"The method of Wilhem is simply an application of the Pestalozzian method of ascending from the simple to the general through a clearly analyzed series, in which every step of the progress is distinctly marked, and enables the pupil, without straining his faculties, to arrive at results which might otherwise have been difficult of attainment. Wilhem has not in any respect deviated from the wellascertained results of experience, either in the theory of music, or in the musical signs; but he has with great skill arranged all the early lessons, so as to smooth the path of the student to the desirable result of being able to read music with ease, and to sing with skill and expression even difficult music at sight." "Those who desire further proof of the importance of the method of Wilhem should visit the normal school at Versailles, various day schools at Paris, and especially the great assemblages of the working classes, which occur almost every evening in Paris, for the purpose of receiving instruction in vocal music. The most remarkable of these probably is at the Halle-aux-Draps, where from 300 to 500 artisans are almost every evening instructed, from eight to nine o'clock, in vocal music. M. Hubert, a pupil of Wilhem, conducts this great assembly, by the method of mutual instruction, with singular skill and precision. We know scarcely anything more impressive than the swell of these manly voices when they unite in chorus.

"If the music of Handel and Haydn were better known by the professors of music at Paris, assuredly this would be the place in which to display its most remarkable effects. Even in the singing of Wilhem's solfeggios in harmony, or of the scale in harmony, such a volume of sound was poured forth, that the effects were very impressive.

"A method which has succeeded in attracting thousands of artisans in Paris from low cabarets and miserable gambling-houses to the study of a science, and the practice of a captivating art, deserves the attention of the public. Mr. Hullah, in adapting the method of Wilhem to English tastes and habits, has both simplified and refined it. He has, moreover, adapted to it a considerable number of old English melodies, of great richness and character, which were fast passing into oblivion, and which may be restored to the place they once held in the affections of the people, being now allied with words expressive of the joys and hopes of a labourer's life, and of the true sources of its dignity and happiness.

"We have assisted in the developement of this method,

being convinced that it may tend to elevate the character of our elementary schools, and that it may be of great use throughout the country in restoring many of our best old English melodies to their popularity, and in improving the character of our vocal music in village churches, through the medium of the parochial schoolmaster and his pupils.' In addition to the singing classes at Exeter Hall, for schoolmasters, schoolmistresses, and others, a class for the instruction of artisans was opened some months ago. With a view to gain the attention of this useful portion of the community, so as to extend the benefit of this civilizing art among them, the admission fee was made scarcely responded to by upwards of five hundred individuals, whose constant attendance, and correct demeanour, have not been more remarkable than the great ability with which they have received the knowledge imparted to them so agreeably by their accomplished and persevering teacher.

more than nominal. This benevolent intention was at once

It may not be thought irrelevant to refer to an unexpected

benefit which the introduction of this method has conferred upon a few particular branches of the printer's trade.

The printed music of this country has long been produced by a combination of engraving and punching on pewter plates: the introduction of the method of Wilhem, however, required that musical passages should mingle with the explanatory letter-press, so that, like a page containing wood-engraving and letter-press, the whole might be stereotyped and printed off at once. This is the only method of printing works to be largely circulated at a cheap rate. Now it so happened that although musical type was employed in this country many years ago, its use has been extremely limited, and the hands who could work it very few, so that when cheap music had to be produced for the newly-instructed classes, there was really a deficiency of printers to execute this work.

NOTE D.

"The arts of design have been little cultivated among the workmen of England. Whoever has been accustomed to see the plans of houses and farm buildings, or of public buildings of a humble character, from the country, must know the extreme deficiency of our workmen in this application of the art of drawing, where it is closely connected with the comfort of domestic life, and is essential to the skilful performance of public works.

In

"The improvement of our machinery for agriculture and manufactures would be in no small degree facilitated, if the art of drawing were a common acquirement among our artisans. Invention is checked by the want of skill in communicating the conception of the inventor, by drawings of all the details of his combination. In all those manufactures of which taste is a principal element, our neighbours, the French, are greatly our superiors, solely, we believe, because the eyes and the hands of all classes are practised from a very early age in the arts of design. the elementary schools of Paris, the proficiency of the young pupils in drawing is very remarkable, and the evening schools are filled with young men and adults of mature or even advanced age, engaged in the diligent cultivation of this art. Last Midsummer, in some of the evening schools of the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine, classes of workmen were questioned as to their employments. One was an ébéniste, another a founder, another a clockmaker, another a paperhanger, another an upholsterer; and each was asked his hours of labour, and his motives for attendance. single example may serve as a type. A man, without his coat, whose muscular arms were bared by rolling his shirt and clean, wore the marks of toil on his white horny hands, sleeves up to his shoulders, and who, though well washed was sitting with an admirable copy in crayon of La Donna della Segiola before him, which he had nearly completed. He was a man about 45 years of age. He said he had risen at five, and had been at work from six o'clock in the morn

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When therefore Mr. Hullah's class for artisans was announced, a number of intelligent compositors hastened to join it, as a means of qualifying themselves for the prac-ing until seven o'clock in the evening, with brief intervals tice of the new art; and after a few lessons they became so expert in the use of the simpler forms of musical notation, as to be able to put together the types with great facility.

It is delightful to trace the consequences of what may perhaps be called a commercial accident. Musical type up to a very recent period was imported from Germany; but, in consequence of the extensive demand for the article, it is now produced in our own country, thus creating a new branch of the type-founder's art,-extending his resources, and giving employment to many hands. But we regard with the greatest satisfaction the consequences to the compositors who were willing to become pupils in order to increase their usefulness. We are sure their example will not be lost;-a man who earns his daily bread by the production of one article, or by the performance of one operation, becomes less dependent and consequently of more importance in social life, the moment his powers of production or of performance are extended. Such is the case with these compositors, to say nothing of their acquisition of a pleasing art which they may carry home with them and diffuse among the members of their families, and thus invest their homes with a new charm and a fresh attraction. Nor is this all; this art may accompany them whereever they go-may shed its refining and civilising influence upon themselves and all around them; and supersede the low jest and the coarse personality.

Let it not be supposed that we overrate the advantages of this art among the people; nor let it be objected that the workman has long been in the habit of enlivening his toil with a song, without any very apparent benefit. It must be admitted that, previous to the efforts of Mr. Hullah, under the sanction of the Committee of Privy Council on Education, to which we refer with respect, the people's music had been chiefly confined to a repetition of the street ballad, which is usually characterised either by vulgarity or silliness, and always learned by rote and sung by ear; while of part music for the people we have had absolutely none; and our congregational singing has always been of the most imperfect description. A person who has acquired the art and science of music is capable of an intellectual operation of no mean value; and when artisans become as it were partners in intellectual pursuits they feel a greater respect for each other, and for themselves, and their wants and desires immediately begin to take a higher direction.

*The beautiful types used in HULLAH'S Part Music, have been cut for the purpose, by Messrs. Sinclair and Sons, of Edinburgh.

for meals; and he had entered the drawing class at eight o'clock to remain there till ten. He had pleasure, he said, in drawing, and that a knowledge of the art greatly improved his skill and taste in masonry. He turned round with a good-humoured smile, and added he could live better on less wages than an Englishman, because his drawing cost him less than beer. Some thousand working men attend the adult schools every evening in Paris, and the drawing classes comprise great numbers whose skill would occasion much astonishment in this country. The most difficult engravings of the paintings of the Italian masters are copied in crayon with remarkable skill and accuracy. Complex and exquisitely minute architectural details, such, for example, as perspective views of the Duomo at Milan, or the cathedrals at Rouen or Cologne, are drawn in pen and ink, with singular fidelity. Some were drawing from plaster casts and other models. We found such adult schools in many of the chief towns of France. These schools are the sources of the taste and skill in the decorative arts, and in all manufactures of which taste is a prominent element, and which have made the designs for the calico printers, the silk and ribbon looms, the papers, &c., &c., of France, so superior in taste to those of this country, notwithstanding the superiority of our manufactories in mechanical combinations.

"These considerations lead us to account drawing an important department of elementary education. The manufacturers of Lancashire are well aware how difficult it is, from the neglect of the arts of design among the labourers of this country, to procure any skilled draftsmen to design for the cotton or silk manufacturer. The elevation of the national taste in art can only be procured by the constant cultivation of the mind in relation to the beautiful in form and colour, by familiarizing the eye with the best models, the works of great artists, and beautiful natural objects. Skill in drawing from nature results from a careful progress through a well analyzed series of models. The interests of commerce are so intimately connected with the results to be obtained by this branch of elementary education, that there is little chance that it will much longer suffer the grievous neglect it has hitherto experienced."

LONDON:

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND.
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PARHAM. SUSSEX.

The Park, where beauties undisguised engage,
Those beauties less the work of art, than age;,
In simple state, where genuine nature wears
The venerable dress of ancient years;
Here, aged oaks uprear their branches hoar,
And form dark groves, which Druids might adore,
With meeting boughs, and deepening to the view,
Here shoots the broad umbrageous avenue.

There a full stream through intermingling glades
Shines a broad lake, or falls in deep cascades.-T. WARTON.

PARHAM is a small parish situated in a retired part of West Sussex, and more regular in form than parishes usually are. It contains about 1200 acres, of which the ancient park incloses about 260. The soil is for the most part sandy, upon a substratum of chalk with marle. It is distant from Arundel about six, and from Petworth, about ten miles.

It is mentioned in Domesday-book, that "Perham" was held by Robertus, of the Earl Roger de Montgomeri, having demesne lands and a mill. Early in the reign of Edward III. it had passed to the family of Tregoz, whose daughter and heir married Edward St. John, of Herringham, and he held it in her right in 1387. But it appears from the Close Rolls, 1 Henry IV., 1399, that Edward Tregoz was in possession of it, as of the lordship of Goring. It may be presumed to have been subsequently vested in the crown. Robert Palmer, third son of Thomas Palmer, of Augmering, became possessed of it in 1550, and by his son, Sir Thomas Palmer, the present manorial mansion-house was completed, and surrounded by a park. Sir Thomas Palmer, grandson of the last-mentioned, sold this manor, extending with the estate over the whole parish, to Sir Thomas Bysshopp, Knight, of Henfield, in 1597, whose descendants have made it their chief residence. He re-edified the mansion in the taste of that day, the south front being built in the form of the letter E, to which it has been restored by its present proprietor.

The said Sir Thomas Bysshopp was created a baronet in 1620, and Sir Cecil Bysshopp (the eighth who has succeeded to the title), the present possessor, was summoned to parliament by writ, dated August 27, 1815, as Baron Zouche, of Haryngworth, the claim to which barony had been heard before a Committee of the House of Lords between the years 1804 and 1808, and adjudged to be in abeyance between him and the descendants of Robert Long, Esq., as representatives of the last Edward Baron Zouche, who died without heir male in 1625, and whose original writ of summons bears date in 1308, 2 Edward II.

Dugdale gives the following account of this ancient barony. The first who received summons to parliament was William La Żusche, son and heir of Melicent, the widow of Roger Montalt, and one of the sisters and coheirs of George de Cantilupe, Baron of Begarvenny, who afterwards became the wife of Eudo, younger brother of Roger Baron Zouche, of Ashby. This William settled at Haryngworth, in Northamptonshire, which lordship he received in right of his mother. He attended King Edward I. in his Scottish expedition. William Baron Zouche distinguished himself in the reign of Richard II.; and, in that of Henry V., was lieutenant of Calais. He married Alice, daughter and heir of Sir Richard St. Maur; in consequence of which, William, his son and heir, after his death (2 Edward IV.), did homage for his inheritance, by the title of Baron Zouche and St. Maur. John Baron Zouche, his son, was attainted (1 Henry VII.) in consequence of his having taken part with Richard III., at the battle of Bosworth field; but the attainder was reversed (11 Henry VII.), and he died 18 Henry VII., and was succeeded by his son John, upon whose death, (4 Edward VI.,) Richard, his son and heir, became the ninth Lord Zouche; but, dying in the sixth year of that reign, was

succeeded by his son George, who died 11 Elizabeth. Edward, his son and successor, was one of the lords who sat in judgment upon Mary, Queen of Scots, at Fotheringhay Castle, in 1586. He was Lieutenant of the Marches of Wales, and, by King James I., made constable of Dover Castle, and Warden of the Cinque Ports for life. He was remarkable for his splendid living, his patronage of learned men, and for having built a house of great magnificence at Bramshill Park, in Hants. Upon his decease in 1625, the barony fell into abeyance between his daughters and coheirs.

The Benedictine Abbey of St. Peter, Westminster, had gained the possession of six hides of land in Parham, with an exempted manor, before the 13th of King John, and which appear to have remained in their hands till the time of their dissolution. These lands now form a principal part of the manorial estate.

The ancient manor-house is a simple specimen of the extent and grandeur of the residence of the gentry of most counties of England in the reign of Elizabeth; about the early part of whose reign it was certainly begun, and completed during the course of it. In Sussex there are very few which now remain, of equal consequence and antiquity. The situation is particularly eligible, screened from the north-east, and open upon a fine terrace, to a western view of the chain of South Downs, and the irregular surface of cultivated knolls which intervene. It is surrounded by a park, in which primeval oaks of most picturesque effect are still seen; and perhaps few of the gentlemen's seats of the same character so truly answer the description of the poet given above.

Alterations which took place about the year 1710, under the directions of Sir Cecil Bysshopp (the second baronet of those names), were most prejudicial to its ancient style and appearance, and the introduction of sashed windows, with the removal of the old parapet, has extremely deformed the whole building. Originally the style was more castellated. There are several noble apartments: the hall is 51 feet by 26 wide, and 24 in height, with a flat roof, stuccoed in compartments, and with the arms and quarterings of Queen Elizabeth; a large bay window is placed near the end, where the high table stood, as is customary in all the halls of that age. The gallery in the upper story is 158 feet in length, 19 wide, and 24 high. It is replenished with a series of curious family portraits. The dining-roov is very spacious, being a square, with a carved roof, and also contains some valuable family pictures.

Our frontispiece, copied by permission from one of Mr. Nash's admirable views, contained in his third series of "Mansions of England in the Olden Time," represents the hall, a handsome apartment, refitted in its present style for the reception of Queen Elizabeth, according to the account formerly preserved in the register at Cowdray, which was unfortunately lost when that princely mansion was destroyed by fire.

On the wall at the east end is placed an escutcheon, with the arms of England and France quarterly, supporters a lion and a wyvern (the Tudor badge), with her favourite motto Semper Eadem, and the date 1533.

The ceiling, with its tracery, interspersed with the double rose and fleur-de-lis, and the carved ook screen, are fine specimens of the internal decoration of those days.

The pictures in the plate are, besides three huntingpieces by Snyders, a fine full-length of the favourite Lord Leicester, by Zucchero, Sir Philip and Lady Sydney, and Queen Elizabeth.

THE general design of Scripture, considered as historical, may be said to be, to give us an account of the world in essentially distinguished from all other books, except such this one single view, as God's world! by which it appears as are copied from it.-BUTLER'S Analogy.

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