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length, about six incnes may be cut off from the extremity, and the scions of apple, pear, plum, or peach trees, may be accurately fitted and bound to this piece of root, as in splice or whip-grafting; and then the roots with their attached branches be deposited in the ground as cuttings, so deep that the whole of the root, and the greater portion of the scion be covered with mould. This method has been found to succeed very well; but the root grafts are said to grow with still greater vigour, if that part of the tap-root which is intended to receive the graft, be left undisturbed in the soil and grafted on the spot.

Inarching, or grafting by approach, is a process by which the branches of contiguous trees are caused to approach and unite together, this union being effected on the same principles as that of whip-grafting. Corresponding slices are taken off, a small slit being made upwards in the one, and downwards in the other: the wounded parts are then joined and covered with moss or grafting-clay. Inarching succeeds well with plants that cannot be otherwise excited to protrude roots. Professor Thouin has enumerated thirty-seven varieties of inarching, all of them however being reducible to two, namely, crown-inarching, wherein the head of the stock is cut off at the time of operating, and side-inarching, wherein the head is retained for a time. The latter is thought to be more suitable to delicate and tender trees or shrubs, and also when blank spaces among the branches are to be filled up. The operation is usually performed in the spring; and by it orange trees, camellias, and other ornamental shrubs, are propagated. It is also successfully applied to herbaceous vegetables with solid stalks. Sometimes the union between the layer and the stock is effected in four or five months, but in other cases it is protracted for four or five years. Whenever it is found to be complete, the clay and ligature may be removed, and the layer be separated from the parent stock, by a sloping cut made downward, with a very sharp knife, close to the stock; and at the same time the head of the stock should be cut off, unless it has been done at the period of inarching. Mr. Knight has recorded his method of grafting a branch or shoot on its own tree, as follows:

In the last season (1812) a peach tree in my garden, of which I was very anxious to see the fruit, had lost, by the severity of the weather, all its blossoms except two, which grew upon leafless branches. I was very desirous to preserve these, as well as to acertain the cause why the peach and nectarine, under such circumstances, failed to attain maturity. The most probable cause, according to my hypothesis, appeared to be the want of returning sap, which the leaves (if existing) would have afforded, and the consequent morbid state of the branch. I therefore endeavoured to obtain the necessary portion of returning sap from another source. To obtain this object, the points of the branches which bore blossoms were brought in contact with other branches of the same age that bore leaves; and a part of their bark, extending in length about four times their diameters, was pared off immediately above the fruit. Similar wounds were then made upon the other branches, with which these were brou ht into contact; and the wounded surfaces were closely fitted and tightly bound together. A union took place, and the fruit, apparently in consequence of it, acquired the highest state of maturity and perfection.

Budding is another variety of grafting, which consists in transferring a germ or bud from a young shoot, with portion of the surrounding bark to the branch of other tree, and there placing it in close contact with the alburnum of that tree. The season for this operation is usually from the latter end of July to the latter end of August. It is performed during the evening hours, or on a cool and cloudy day, that the influence of the sun may not prevent adhesion of the parts. Fine plump buds are chosen from the middle of a shoot of the same year's growth, and much of the success depends upon the preservation of what is called the root of the

bud. The materials required are a sharp budding-knife, with a polished handle, several strong, flat, and soft strings of bass-matting, a basin of water, and a handful of moistened moss.

There are many varieties of budding; but our figure refers to that which is called T budding, from the incision being made in the form of a L reversed. The direction for this process may be given as follows. Select the smooth side of a stock, and with a budding-knife make a horizontal cut across the rind, quite through to the firm wood; from the middle of this cut make a slit downwards (T, No 1, fig 3) perpendicularly, an inch or Fig. 3.

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more long, going quite through to the wood. Then as quickly as possible take off a bud, by entering the knife about half an inch below it, cutting nearly half-way into the wood of the shoot, and continuing it with a slanting cut upwards to about half an inch above the bud. This cut must be deep enough to take some of the wood along with it; but as soon as the bud is cut out, the woody part must be gently detached from it: it will then be seen whether the eye or gem of the bud remain perfect; if it does not, and a little hole appears in that part, the bud is useless and another must be prepared. This being done, with the flat haft of the knife separate the bark of the stock on each side of the perpendicular cut clear to the wood (see the dark space, No. 1) for the admission of the bud, which directly slip down close between the wood and bark to the bottom of the slit s. Next cut off the top of the shield b, even with the horizontal cut, so that the upper edge of the shield may join exactly with it, and so the descending sap may immediately enter the bark of the shield. (See the bud inserted and fitted into the stock at No. 3, fig. 3.) The part of the stock between ss, is now to be bound round with bassmatting in every part, except just over the eye of the bud. In No. 2, fig 3, the bud is represented with a leaf remaining entire, but it has been found that the removal of the leaf and a portion of its stalk is of advantage to the bud.

Budding may be performed on shoots of the same year's growth, as well as on stems of several years growth; and in such, by inserting a number of buds, a complete tree may be formed at once. The bud will be firmly united to the stock at the end of three weeks, when the bandage may be loosened, and in a week or two afterwards finally removed.

The clay used in grafting is prepared with three parts of blue or yellow clay or brick earth; one part of fresh horse-dung, free from litter, and a small portion of soft cut hay or hemp. These are to be mixed well together with a small quantity of water, and beaten till the mass is of firm texture, and yet sufficiently yielding to be moulded into any form. A little common salt tends to preserve the moisture, but this must be judiciously employed, as too large a quantity would be injurious to the stock.

Grafting-wax is used as a substitute for clay. This is often made with pitch, rosin, bees-wax, and turpentine, but it is liable to objections. It does not adhere perfectly unless the stock and scion be quite dry at the time it is put on; nor does it yield that supply of moisture to the

graft which in very drying weather is required by it, and afforded by means of the clay. It has been recommended to employ the usual claying in the first place, and when the exterior portion of the mass is hardened, to wash it over with coal tar, repeating the operation when the first coating shall have become dry


NEXT to the invention of printing, there is no other that so much arrests our attention as that of gunpowder, which, by introducing artillery, and a new method of fortifying, attacking, and defending cities, wrought a complete change in the whole art and tactics of war. This invention comprises several discoveries which it is necessary to distinguish from each other. 1. The discovery of nitre, the principal ingredient in gunpowder, and the cause of its detonation. 2. The mixture of nitre with sulphur and charcoal, which, properly speaking, forms the invention of gunpowder. 3. The application of powder to fireworks. 4. Its employment as an agent or propelling power for throwing stones, bullets, or other heavy and combustible bodies. 5. Its employment in springing mines and destroying fortifications.

All these discoveries belong to different epochs. The knowledge of saltpetre or nitre, and its explosive properties, called detonation, is very ancient. Most probably it was brought to us from the East (India or China), where saltpetre is found in a natural state of preparation. It is not less probable that the nations of the East were acquainted with the composition of gunpowder before the Europeans, and that it was the Arabs who first introduced the use of it into Europe. The celebrated Roger Bacon, an English monk or friar of the thirteenth century, was acquainted with the composition of gunpowder, and its employment in fireworks and public festivities; and according to all appearances, he obtained this information from the Arabic authors, who excelled in their skill of the chemical sciences. The employment of gunpowder in Europe as an agent for throwing balls and stones, is ascertained to have been about the commencement of the fourteenth century; and it was the Arabs who first availed themselves of its advantages in their wars against the Spaniards. From Spain, the use of gunpowder and artillery passed to France, and thence it gradually extended over the other states of Europe. As to the application of gunpowder to mines and the destruction of fortified works, it does not appear to have been in practice before the end of the fifteenth century. The introduction of bombs and mortars seems to have been of an earlier date (1467). The invention of these in Europe is attributed to Sigismund Pandolph Malatesta, Prince of Rimini; but in France they were not in use till about the reign of Louis the Thirteenth. Muskets and matchlocks began to be introduced early in the fifteenth century. Muskets and pistols with spring-locks were first manufactured at Nuremberg.

Several circumstances tended to check the progress of fire-arms and the improvement of artillery. Custom made most people prefer their ancient engines of war; the construction of cannon was but imperfect; the manufacture of gunpowder bad; and there was a very general aversion to the newly-invented arms, as contrary to humanity, and calculated to extinguish military bravery. Above all, the knights, whose science was rendered completely useless by the introduction of fire-arms, set themselves with all their might to oppose this invention.

From what we have just said, it is obvious that the common tradition which ascribes the invention of gunpowder to a certain monk named Berthold Schwartz, merits no credit whatever. This tradition is founded on mere hearsay; and no writers agree as to the name, the country, or the circumstances of this pretended inventor, nor as to the time and place when he made this extraordinary dis


Lastly, the mariner's compass, so essential to the art of navigation, was likewise the production of the barbarous ages to which we now refer. The ancients were aware of the property of the magnet to attract iron; but its direction towards the pole, and the manner of communicating its magnetic virtues to iron and steel, were unknown even to all those nations of antiquity who were renowned for their navigation and commerce. This discovery is usually attributed to a citizen of Amalfi, named Flavio Gioia, who is said to have lived about the beginning

of the fourteenth century. This tradition, ancient though it be, cannot be admitted; because we have incontestible evidence that before this period, the polarity of the loadand that, from the commencement of the thirteenth century, stone and the magnetic needle were known in Europe; the Provençal mariners made use of the compass in navigation.

It must be confessed, however, that we can neither point out the original author of this valuable discovery, nor the true time when it was made. All that can be well ascertained is, that the mariner's compass was rectified by degrees, and that the English had no small share in these corrections."-KocH's Revolutions of Europe.


In plain truth, lying is a cursed vice. We are beings who have no other tie upon one another but our word. If we considered the horrid consequences of a lie, we should prosecute it with vengeance, as the worst of crimes. Children are often absurdly corrected for trifling faults, and are made to smart for rash actions that are of no significance or consequence; but the faculty of lying, and what is something of a lower form, stubbornness, seem to be faults that ought, in every instance, to be severely checked both in their infancy and progress, they being vices which are apt to grow with the growth; and after the tongue has contracted a habit of lying, it is scarce to be imagined how impossible, almost, it is to draw it out of the false track; from whence it comes to pass, that we see some who are otherwise very honest men, not only subject, but mere slaves to this vice. If falsehood had like truth only one face, we should be upon better terms; for we should then take the contrary of what the liar should say for certain truth; but the reverse of truth has a hundred thousand forms, and is a field without limits. The Pythagoreans make good to be certain and finite, and evil infinite and uncertain; there are a thousand ways to miss the white, and only one to hit it. For my own part I am not sure that I could prevail with my conscience to secure myself from manifest and extreme danger by an impudent and solemn lie. One of the ancient fathers said, "That we had better be in company with a dog that we know, than with a man whose language we do not understand." So that two persons who have no common language are scarce men with regard to each other. And how much less sociable is false speaking than silence!-MONtaigne.

THERE is a mere animal enjoyment of natural beauties, common even to those who are lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God. They can smell the fragrance of each herb and flower, inhale the balmy breeze of heaven, and cull the choicest of nature's fruits, and cool for a moment a feverish thirst at her streams of living water: and all this may be done as a mere gratification of the senses, as part of that round of animal enjoyments which forms the whole of their existence.

But in minds of another cast there is a habit of associa

tion formed, by which every pleasure that natural objects afford assumes the character of devotion. To them, to leave the calls and business of the world, and withdraw to the calm retreat and silent shade, is to pass at once into an element of communion with Heaven. It is not that from a conscientious principle they seize the moment of disengagement to meditate on eternity, and pray to their Father who is in secret. No: it is because they see, as it were, an impress of God upon the scene; and all that they behold speaks of Him. It is with them none other than the house of God and the gate of heaven. Nature bears them upward by an unperceived and gentle motion, into the felt presence of nature's God. That this is not, as some would say, mere sentimentality, I know; for I have seen the feeling put to a test, at that solemn moment when false notions vanish like the chaff that the wind scattereth over the earth. It was my lot, many years ago, to attend a friend unspeakably dear to me upon his dying bed. He was one who loved all that is pure in nature, and who, moreover, loved the Lord his God with all his heart. But a few hours before his departure a bunch of his favourite flowers was brought to him.The sorrowing group around him watched with tender anxiety, to see whether he would notice, and in what manner he would now be affected by them; but they were not left long in suspense: for no sooner did he catch the wellknown fragrance, than he lifted his eyes to heaven, and almost with his last breath exclaimed, "Silent hymns! REV. HENRY WOODWARD.




I HAVE seen something of that vindictive spirit which has so fearfully displayed itself in various parts of this island. A vessel was wrecked: the owner was disliked. I cannot tell why: nothing material, or it would have been well known in the endless cosherings from cabin to field, all day and every day. The people would not help till fairly shamed by good-natured expostulation and active example; then a few came forward, but it was said very openly that, had they not liked one of the crew, they would have seen the vessel go to pieces without stirring. This bad feeling was felt the more from their ordinary readiness to assist in any emergency, however indolent at steady work. Another wreck was of more importance in size-in cargo-in peril, and has in fact been the event of the winter in these regions. Wrecks are strange things sometimes to land eyes. I saw one in the south of England, utterly lost and abandoned but so upright-with all her masts, yards, &c., standing that I should scarcely have believed she was the wreck I came to see, had she not been nearer the cliff than so large a vessel would have ventured; and that the sea was lashed into red foam all around, from the violence of the striking and ploughing-up the red mud: and this Irish wreck looked so comfortably settled that it was strange to be told of a great hole in her side, and of a boat being launched into her hold as into a pond, as the only mode of getting at the cargo, and that the boat was fairly knocked to pieces in so working. There has been some speculation upon the possible effect of a quantity of iron in the cargo, in deranging the compasses and so misleading them in their course. The pilot, as they were leaving their port, said that if he was to steer by the compasses he should be quite wrong; but when they got out to sea, and the pilot had left them, no notice was taken of this, and in a few hours after they were on the rocks very wide of their proper course. One of the crew mentioned having been in a vessel in the Baltic laden with iron; that exactly the same remark was made of the impossibility of steering by the compasses; that no attempt was made to ascertain the deviation, and that the vessel was wrecked. This great ship had struck on the rocks, so near the shore that it looked as if a good jumper could have sprung upon her deck; yet that Little distance was impassable for many hours, during which the lives of all on board were in frightful jeopardy -a tremendous gale raging, and the ship striking with such violence that every shock was expected to shiver her to pieces; but being perfectly new and built with remarkable strength she stood it, and at low water the people were able to land.

Some cabins are perched on the rocks, and a woman described to us her terror at being waked from her sleep by the cries of the shipwrecked crew: how she ran to her door-" Just in me shift as I was-an sure then I seen the ship right over me like a wudd, (wood,) an I heared the cries, and then I just clapped my hands together, and let the shouts out o' me.' A few days after the disaster, when the gale had blown itself out, I had seated myself under a sunny wall in an excellent place for seeing the wreck, which I was trying to sketch, and was very intent upon my work, when two sailors or fishermen passed, paused, and watched me for a minute, and one said to the other, "She'll be making a copy of it." I looked up-amused I fancy-for the man repeated, "You'll be copying the wreck," and tried to peep, topsy-turvy fashion, over my book. "Yes," said 1,"would you like to look at it?" and handed it to him. His shout was delicious to my ears, though certainly rather startling. "Begorra an' ye've taken the patthern exactly:" then turning to his companion, with the drollest air of patronizing me, he went on, "How well she's

done it she's extrornary clever-I never seen such an exact copy. Yes, them's the mast's, and there's the sea and the rocks" (looking up and verifying each item of the scene.)" Faith its just the patthern she's got, dy'e mind," again to his companion, who evidently had not his quick eye: he then gave me back my book, without a word of thanks-watched me set off again-repeated, as if to himself, "Its extrornary clever," with a funny drawl and emphasis, and then trudged on, leaving me highly diverted, and not a little pleased with his testimony to the faithfulness of my little sketch, and astonished at his recognizing all the points of a mere outline, which I find many educated people cannot do. But I think this man had drawing in him; his eye was remarkably lively and intelligent, and lit up his heavy features into agreeableness, though to be sure I was so flattered that my judgment may be supposed to have been somewhat hoodwinked.

After some weeks' resistance of the rocks and winds and waves, the good ship was conquered, and fairly broke asunder. The news spread like wild-fire of course, and the beach was crowded with people, seizing such fragments of timber as they could manage to secure. The point of rock on which the cottages are built was the centre of attraction, for nearest to that the head of the unfortunate vessel had been driven, and lay partly supported by the sunk rocks in such a manner that the female figure-head was nearly on its face in the water, which called forth the loudest lamentations from the women assembled on the shore-"Och hone!" they cried, "och the craythur! och the craythur! and she just looking for all the world as if she were alive-och the beautiful craythur-isn't it a pity of her to be brought so low this day: bad luck to the man that brought her there: he ought to be-yes, he ought-he ought to be just thranshported." To those who have seen the hideous creatures that are stuck up for figure-heads this tender sympathy, and the punishment desired, will appear, as it did to me, not a little comical. At another part of the shore two men encountered each other, and after the "coorse day" had been given, one said, "Well I was'nt this length before since she was in it: what's to be seen at all, Donald? Och then just go beyond yon rock, ye'll see the great mast, and there's the lady on the bow, and that's all the seeing there's in it, barring the timber."

The people here are very indifferent to rain, but I think they feel cold, and complain more of it, than our labouring class. The variations of temperature are more rapid and more trying on this coast than in England, The range may not be so great: one has no hope of being comfortably burnt under a fine bright sun one day, which consoles one for requiring a shawl the day after. A shawl is always as indispensable here as one's shoes; but the shawl of the morning may require to be reinforced with boa and cloak by mid-day, and at midsummer, and they may be too much before the evening: the temperature is never the same for an hour. A mist sweeps down the glens; nestles in the crevices of the mountains, and produces the most unpleasant chill I ever felt: it clears off, and one can get out with pleasure, but a fire is absolutely necessary the whole summer. damp chill of a room without is quite miserable. I now believe the smoke of the cabins to be necessary for the health of the people: the cottages are often placed in swampy hollows, and in the most favourable situations, and with the greatest care, nothing in this climate can be kept really dry. In England we think only of the dirtiness of the smoke, but for drying up the damp, and as a disinfector, the peat smoke must be not merely submitted to, but considered as a blessing. Elinor O' Donaghey's lamentations over the coldness of her slated house would be made with perfect truth, and there is little kindness in attempting to alter those habits which have grown out of the irremediable evils of the climate. They


cower over their turfs on stools or low settles—so close that I could often cover four or five heads with a small handkerchief: I suspect they injure themselves by the Labit, but it has a most agreeable air of cosy sociability: there is a great deal more association amongst the people than we are used to. Everybody knows everybody for miles round, and everyone's affairs are public property: if they like the person every one seems to take a marvellous interest in furthering their wishes.

Well now

In the summer I was once in sad distress for chickens and for eggs: all the towns round were ransacked in vain, but at last Pat Blaney, in mere good nature, sent his daughter far up the glens to search, and to desire my necessities might be made known at the chapel door, in consequence of which plenty of fowls were brought down, and eggs in twos and threes came in at a great pace, till I was obliged to cry "hold enough." The master's horse search excited prodigious interest far and near; and when he had suited himself, innumerable were the "wish ye lucks" he received. One man accosted him on the road with "Its a horse ye've bought I heer-By gavers but he's a good one-Plaze to walk him out a bit till I see him. Well but he's a bulley of a baste-wish ye luck of him. I'd not have had ye buy a bad one-meself was looking out for ye. he is a good, an' its in luck ye are to have got him, &c. -all with the air of personal interest and care-taking which is so very droll often here, and from persons almost, and often, quite strangers. About horses they seem to know and to care far more than our people: there are several dwellers in cabins near us who are reputed admirable judges, and seldom are without a clever pony or something of that kind for their own use, which they "will part"-Anglice, sell-if they can get their price: odd half broken creatures they are-as unlike the staid, sedate, farmer's horse in England as can well be; but they please the natives, and one does not hear of accidents to man or horse with their random ways: they are all used to it, and a squadron of cars sailing along, nine knots an hour, is enough to frighten any sober horse, and divert any stoical man. A gentleman of our acquaintance had a horse whose manners were sufficiently exceptionable-going back instead of forwards, and manifesting a very inconvenient quantity of self-will: we were speaking of him to a countryman, who replied, "Aye, that horse of Mr. has a dour drap in him-an' a wee roost an' shkair besides,"Anglice, ill-tempered, restive, and starting.

From the middle of the summer to Christmas we were pestered with mad dogs, goats, sheep, cows, in a way I never heard of in sunny England: certainly drought is not the exciting cause, for besides the endless streams, springs, and ditches, every little rut in the road has been a canal, and every displaced stone has left a little pool. Our first alarm was a sudden incursion of our servants after dinner to see if our dog was with us as usual; then rushing out, seizing him and turning him into the room in most marvellous haste, of which we vainly asked an explanation, till they were quite satisfied that all was safe, when they gave us the rather startling intelligence that a mad dog was on the rocks, and the whole country after him: and there, indeed, the poor creature was, jumping from rock to rock-hither and thither-trying to escape from his tormentors, very unlike the straight onend running of a mad dog, whilst the people were firing away at him as fast as they could. We afterwards expressed great doubt of the case, but we were assured, "it was quite certain, for the dog made for the saa, which was a sure sign." They are horribly cruel in their manner of destroying the poor animals supposed to be mad. They threw a pony into the sea, and as the creature, who was very gentle, struggled to get out, they stoned it to death from the rocks. A cow they actually buried alive, and her struggles shaking the earth was quite a convincing proof that she was mad: in both

cases they could have had a gun in five minutes for asking, but the cruelty did not seem to strike them: the fact was mentioned, and no more thought about it, had not our horror at the barbarity appeared to throw a new light on the matter. Is there, below their apparent good-nature, an indifference to the sufferings of others, whether it be a poor animal miserably slaughtered, or a family perishing in fires lit by the hands of their fellowcreatures, from which the peasantry of other countries would recoil?

RELIGION has always the same beneficial influence on the mind. In youth, in health, and prosperity, it awakens feelings of gratitude and sublime love; and purifies, at the same time that it exalts: but it is in misfortune, in sickness, in age, that its effects are most truly and beneficially felt; when submission in faith, and humble trust in the divine will, from duties become pleasures, undecaying sources of have been extinct, and gives a freshness to the mind, which consolation; then, it creates powers which were believed to was supposed to have passed away for ever, but which is now renovated as an immortal hope; then it is, as the Pharos, guiding the wave-tost mariner to his home; as the calm and beautiful still basins or fiords, surrounded by tranquil meadows and groves, to the Norwegian pilots, escaping from a heavy storm in the North Sea; or as the green and dewy spot gushing with fountains, to the exhausted and thirsty traveller, in the midst of the desert. Its influence outlives all earthly enjoyments, and becomes stronger as the organs decay, and the frame dissolves; it appears as that evening-star of light in the horizon of life, which, we are sure, is to become in another season a morning-star; and it throws its radiance through the gloom and shadow of death! -SIR HUMPHRY Davy.

THE christian profession chargeth us, to be quiet and orderly in our stations; diligent in our callings; veracious in our words; upright in our dealings; observant of our relations; obedient and respectful toward our superiors; meek and gentle to our inferiors; modest and lowly, ingenuous and compliant, in our conversation; candid and benign in our censures; innocent and inoffensive, yea, courteous and obliging in all our behaviour towards all persons. O divinest Christian charity, what tongue can worthily describe thy most heavenly beauty, thy incomparable sweetness, thy more than royal clemency and bounty! How nobly dost thou enlarge our minds beyond the narrow sphere of self and private regard, into an universal ease and complacence, making every man ourself, and all concernments to be ours! How dost thou entitle us unto, how dost thou invest us in, all the goods imaginable; dost enrich us with the wealth, dost prefer us with the honour, dost adorn us with the wisdom and virtue, dost bless us with all the prosperity of the world; whilst all our neighbour's good by our rejoicing therein becometh our own! How dost thou raise a man above the reach of all mischiefs and disasters, of all troubles and griefs, since nothing can reside and absolutely reign! How easily dost thou, without disturb or discompose that soul wherein thou dost constantly pain or hazard, without drawing blood or striking stroke, render him that enjoyeth thee an absolute conqueror over all his foes, triumphant over all injuries without, and all passions within; for he can have no enemy who will be a friend to all, and nothing is able to cross him who is disposed pleasant a life might we lead under thy kindly governance! to take everything well? How sociable, how secure, how What numberless sorrows and troubles, fears and suspicions, cares and distractions of mind at home, what tumults and tragedies abroad might be prevented, if men would but hearken to thy mild suggestions! What a paradise would this world then become in comparison to what it now is, where, thy good precepts and advices being neglected, uncharitable passions and unjust desires are predominant! How excellent, then, is that doctrine which brought thee down from heaven! and would but man embrace thus the peace and joy of heaven with thee!-DR. ISAAC Barrow.



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WHEN the Tudars of the Neilgherries are spoken of as a tribe possessing characteristics superior to those of the surrounding natives, it must be remarked that this applies to a certain degree of natural intelligence, capable, if well directed, of raising them to a respectable footing in the social scale. Practically speaking, their lives present much that we must lament.

Captain Harkness, after several unsuccessful attempts to discover their religious notions, contrived to gain admission to one of their temples. This temple was in a morrt or family village, at some distance from the inhabited huts; and on opening the door, he found the interior to be divided into two apartments by a partitioned wall. The outer apartment was about ten feet by eight, but only of sufficient height in the centre to stand upright; on two sides were raised benches, a foot and a half from the ground, intended to recline or sleep on; and in the middle a large hearth or fire-place, surrounded by a number of earthen pots, and other utensils. The door-way in the partition-wall being much smaller than the outer one, it could only be entered by a person lying nearly flat on the VOL. XX.

ground. This apartment was furnished with earthen vessels the same as the outer one; and it became evident to Captain Harkness that these vessels were the same as those used in the dairy, and that no idols or images were in the room. On mentioning his surmises to the Tudars, they frankly told him that theirs was little more than an affectation of a worship resembling that of their neighbours; by which they were enabled to keep on good terms with them. There is, certainly, nothing to regret in the circumstance that these Tudars are not Hindoos or Buddhists: but on the other hand there is not the consolation of thinking that they profess a purer faith. The only points which Captain Harkness could at all ascertain were, that they salute the sun at his rising; that they expect to go to a country called Huma-norr after death; and that the dairy, with all its contents, is looked upon as a sacred spot, which the men can only enter after having performed certain ablutions.

We must now direct a little attention to the Badacars, The latter assert the most numerous of the Neilgherry tribes, but of far different character from the Tudars.


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