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self-restraint. Of course, neither inn-keepers, nor importers BURNING OF WICKLIFFE'S BODY BY ORDER OF THE and dealers in spirits, signed our rules.

"In the mean time we, who were members, remained faithful to our cause; we abolished immediately all sorts of distilled drinks in our families, and offered them neither to friends nor strangers. We confessed freely that we belonged to a Temperance Society, and had promised not to take, nor to offer to others, any spirits. This often gave rise to conversation about the matter, and several of our friends were thus induced to inscribe their names in the Society's book, after having recorded their promise with the president or secretary. In a few months we counted upwards of two hundred members of our Society.

"Our perseverance often brought us into embarrassment, and led occasionally to disagreeable scenes. Some workmen and day-labourers refused to work without brandy, and several servants left their masters for the same cause. But we helped each other as well as we could.

"Very soon our village was divided into two classes-the class of the sober ones, and the class of the drunkards. Many chose to belong to the first class because they were ashamed to be worse than others. It had become a point of honour to be a member of our Society, and before a year was ended the moral state of our village was greatly changed -fighting, quarrels, and scenes of intoxication, seldom occurred; labourers who received no brandy worked better and more than the brandy-drinkers; many who had spent their money in drinking could now every week put some in the Savings' Bank.

"Most striking was the influence of Fuddling Jack.' After joining the Society he drank not a drop of spirits. In order to prevent his relapsing, we gave him work. He had soon visibly improved in strength, vigour, and health; he boasted very much of it, and daily related to everybody who would listen to him, how he had again become so happy-how, in the first week, the brandy-drinkers wished to seduce him, but he had kept his determination firmly like a brave man, and had made several proselytes. He and his family are now respectably clothed, and he has sufficient work every day. Sometimes on Sundays he walks, a true temperance apostle, into one of the neighbouring villages, and tells the people of the beauties and blessings of temperance, and I really think he has done more good to our neighbours by his zeal in this cause, than could have been effected in the same time by any other means. The peasants like to hear him-they look upon him as a living miracle. In two of our neighbouring villages there are now Temperance Societies, and in a third the commencement of another has been made.

"A village like ours seemed at first not very favourable to our Society, as it is a great thoroughfare, and so many strangers mingle with its inhabitants. But we saw that it was just the contrary, for its improved moral state struck the eyes of travellers; they found no drunkards, and if they offered brandy, it was refused. Old half-ruined houses were repaired; poor children became clean and well clothed, and young and old became healthier. The cause of this change did not remain long a secret. Strangers became interested in our cause, and very often took the printed regulations of our Society with them. The good seed therefore brought forth good fruit also in other parts of Switzerland."

DOGS.

THERE is a chapter in one of our metaphysical writers showing how dogs make syllogisms. The illustration is decisive. A dog loses sight of his master, and follows him by scent till the road branches into three; he smells at the first, and at the second, and then without smelling further, gallops along the third. That animals should be found to possess in perfection every faculty which is necessary for their well-being is nothing wonderful; the wonder would be if they did not but they sometimes display a reach of intellect beyond this.

For instance, dogs have a sense of time so as to count the days of the week. My grandfather had one who trudged two miles every Saturday to market, to cater for himself in the shambles. I know another more extraordinary and well authenticated example: a dog which had belonged to an Irishman, and was sold by him in England, would never touch a morsel of food upon a Friday; the Irishman had made him as good a Roman Catholic as he was himself. This dog never forsook the sick bed of his last master, and, when he was dead, refused to eat, and died also.-SOUTHEY'S Omniana.

COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE.

HITHERTO, (A. D. 1428,) the corpse of John Wickliffe had quietly slept in his grave about forty-one years after his death, till his body was reduced to bones, and his bones almost to dust. For though the earth in the chancel of Lutterworth, in Leicestershire, where he was interred, hath not so quick a digestion with the earth of Aceldama, to consume flesh in twenty-four hours, yet such the appetite thereof, and all other English graves, to leave small reversions of a body after so many years. But now, such the spleen of the Council of Constance, as they not only cursed his memory as dying an obstinate heretic, but ordered his bones (with this charitable caution,-if it may be discerned from the bodies of other faithful people) to be taken out of the ground and thrown far off from any Christian burial. In obedience hereunto, Richard Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln, Diocesan of Lutterworth, sent his officers (vultures with a quick sight, scent, at a dead carcase) to ungrave him. Accordingly to Lutterworth they come, sumner, commissary, official, chancellor, proctors, doctors, and their servants (so that the remnant of the body would not hold out a bone amongst so many hands), take what was left out of the grave, and burn them to ashes, and cast them into Swift, a neighbouring brook, running hard by. Thus this brook has conveyed his ashes into Avon, Avon into Severn, Severn into the narrow seas, they into the main ocean; and thus the ashes of Wickliffe are an emblem of his doctrine, which now is dispersed all the world over.-FULLER'S Church History.

This eloquent, though somewhat quaint passage, has been versified by Wordsworth, (Ecclesiastical Sketches, 2nd part, Sonnet X.)

Once more the Church is seized with sudden fear,
And at her call is Wickliffe disinhumed:
Yea, his dry bones to ashes are consumed,
And flung into the brook that travels near;
Forthwith, that ancient voice which streams can hear,
Thus speaks, (that voice which walks upon the wind,
Though seldom heard by busy human kind,)
"As thou these ashes, little brook! wilt bear
Into the Avon, Avon to the tide

Of Severn, Severn to the narrow seas,
Into main ocean they, this deed accurst
An emblem yields to friends and enemies
How the bold teacher's doctrine, sanctified

By truth, shall spread, throughout the world dispersed."

Ir it be not a branch of education, but the whole intent oeducation, to bring forth that in man which looks upward believed that he had a humanity, however he might talk and to crush his downward tendencies; if no man ever about it, who did not realize the conviction by looking out of himself and above himself; if every higher thought and aspiration has its ground in the belief of an actual established connection between himself and his Creator, it would seem cultivation with acts of habitual and united worship. On the most extravagant inconsistency to disconnect human the other hand, it would seem most accordant with the whole scheme, that all great and humanizing influences-the influences of music and architecture especially, which formed connected with this, and made dependent upon it: that whata separate head of culture among the Greeks, should be all ever acts most directly and powerfully upon the spirit within us should from our earliest youth witness to us what we are, after the world may not be a perplexed crowd of undisand how we may attain the ends of our being, so that heretinguishable impressions, but that everything may be felt to proceed from one source and have one termination. Clear simplicity of heart to embrace the true and hate the false ness of vision, to distinguish shadows from substances, strength of will to bear up against infinite complication: than we can conceive upon our being early imbued with th of passions within, and influences without, depend far more feelings of a unity in things, and with our being taught t refer them all to one centre.-MAURICE on Education.,

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AND

EAST VIEW OF THE SCHOOL-HOUSE.

In the year 1748 the trustees of the Charity found it necessary to apply to Parliament. In their petition they described the condition of the mansion-house given by Sheriff for the use of his schoolmaster, the school, and the other premises annexed to it, as being so ruinous as not to be worth an effectual repair. They further stated that the school-house was situated in a place too much confined, and without any ground or inelosure adjoining, for the recreation of the youth there educated, and that consequently many inconveniences resulted therefrom, both to the master and scholars. They also represented that a large and convenient new-built house was at that time upon sale, adjoining the said trust estate in Rugby, with a parcel of ground contiguous thereto, proper for a school and such place of exercise as aforesaid. On these accounts the trustees applied for an act to enable them to raise a certain sum of money by mortgage or otherwise of the Middlesex estate, declaring that unless some remedy could be speedily effected, the said free school, which had been for many years in great repute, and not only of service and benefit to the neighbourhood, but of public utility, must be lost and become useless, and the charitable intention of the donor defeated.

The house given by Sheriff to his schoolmaster was situated to the north of the church, and two of the original almshouses were built adjoining the east end of it. The school was a long lofty room, situated behind it, in a direction north and south. It was built probably soon after the year 1570. The trustees having obtained the consent of the Legislature, removed the site of the VOL. XX.

ancient school-house to the spot now occupied by Rugby School. The new site must be "naturally viewed with more interest," says Mr. Akermann, "when it is considered that it is a kind of natural plan of the Middlesex property, from which itself and all its appendages are derived. The present play-ground at Rugby is the exact size of the portion of the Conduitclose which came to the school by the bequest of the founder: it is eight acres within a few perches, as appears from the account of the allotments drawn up and left by the surveyor."

Although some of the masters were men of ability, the school languished under the embarrassment of a scanty revenue: but in the year 1777 the dawn of its splendour was first seen. At this time Sir John Eardley Wilmot, late Lord Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, became a trustee of the school, and under his directions another Act was prepared and obtained. It constitutes the trustees of that time and their successors to be trustees for selling, letting, or otherwise managing the charity estates. It also enables them to dispose of a certain part of the property necessary to raise a sum not exceeding 10,000l., to pay off the mortgage made on the removal of the school as aforesaid, together with all debts and incumbrances, and to apply the residue to the purposes of the charity.

It was further enacted that the school should be for ever called "The Free School of Lawrence Sheriff, of London, grocer;" and that the schoolmaster for the time being should be called "The schoolmaster of Lawrence Sheriff, grocer of London.", And that the

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trustees should always be styled "The Trustees of the | Rugby Charity, founded by Lawrence Sheriff, grocer of London," and should use a common seal, round which should be inscribed the following words:-" The Trustees of the Rugby Charity, founded by Lawrence Sheriff." The act, after investing these trustees with certain powers, proceeds to provide for the conduct of the school. The head master to receive 50l. a year, in addition to the 631. 6s. 3d. then paid. The assistant masters to receive not more 801. each, and the writing master not more than 40%. The boys of Rugby, Brownsover, or any place lying within five measured miles of Rugby, should be instructed without any fee or reward being paid for the same: but, in order to proportion in some degree the profits of the master to the number of boys under his care, the trustees are allowed to pay the master, in addition to his salary, a sum, not exceeding 31. yearly for every such boy of Rugby, or within five miles, who should be instructed in grammar, and the Latin and Greek languages. The Act further directs the trustees to meet quarterly to hear the Rugby boys examined, and to meet annually to make such rules and orders for the better regulation of the school, and of the masters and ushers thereof, and of the alms-men, as they shall think proper. The Act also empowers the trustees to build additional alms-houses, not exceeding four, for old men of Rugby, or Brownsover, and to provide them with a gown of the value of 30s., and a load of coals to each of them yearly, and to pay them a weekly allowance, not less than 3s. 6d., nor more than 4s. 6d. The trustees to elect and send eight boys to the University of Oxford or Cambridge, paying 407. a year to each during seven years, provided they actually reside eight months in the year at college. Such boys to be called, "The Exhibitioners of Lawrence Sheriff."

The rising importance of the school may be dated from the time when the leases of the Middlesex property expired. This took place in 1781. A large sum of money was raised by fines, which liberated the Trust from all its embarrassments,-new leases were granted for forty years, at very advanced rents,-the income became more than adequate to the expenditure, and the surplus being annually invested in the public funds, gradually accumulated into a very considerable sum.

The Rev. Mr. Burrough, the master, who was now, (in 1778,) far advanced in years, preferring retirement to the exertions which the introduction of a new system of education must occasion, expressed his wish to resign; and an able successor was accordingly provided in Dr. James.

To this gentleman, who had been educated at Eton, and had been tutor at King's College in Cambridge, the organization of the school, under the new order of its concerns, is to be ascribed; and much praise is due to his ability and exertions. The fostering care of the trustees was also preeminent, and by the zealous co-operation of all its masters, the school rapidly increased, and became every year more and more an object of public attention, its scholars were distinguished in the universities, its celebrity expanded,and it assumed a conspicuous rank among the principal seminaries of the kingdom.

From the passing of the Act in 1777, all the orders and regulations of the trustees required the sanction of the Court of Chancery; and as they had now at their disposal a large sum of money, and as the depending leases were about to expire, there was every reason to expect that the revenue on the renewals would be greatly increased': the trustees therefore determined to apply to the Chancellor, and by an order made on the 14th of April, 1808, the trustees were empowered to dispose of part of the sum accumulated from the surplus income of the Charity, then amounting to 43.2217. 78. Id., in the three-per-cent. Consols, and also of 1730 178., being the annual surplus income of the Charity, in the following manner: To increase the

stipend payable to the master, over and above his pre vious salary by 27. per annum for each boy educated there upon the foundation, the freedom of the school having been extended, by an order in 1780, to the dis tance of ten miles within the county of Warwick. To raise a sum not exceeding 14,000l., for rebuilding the schoolmaster's house, and erecting new out-offices and studies thereto, and for repairing such of the studies and buildings as were not intended to be then rebuilt. The order then empowers the trustees to increase the number of exhibitioners, as also the annual sum paid to each, and to arrange for the election of two boys every year to be sent to the University: also to increase the number of alms-men and the annual stipend and advantages to them respectively.

By a subsequent order of the Court of Chancery, on the 4th November, 1809, Mr. Henry Hakewill, an eminent architect, was appointed to succeed Mr. Samuel Wyatt, who died shortly after preparing his plans and estimates. It was then determined to rebuild, not only the schoolmaster's house and offices thereto, but also all the schools so as to form one uniform and connected range of building, according to Mr. Hakewill's plan, which improvement would require the sum of 32,000l. at the least. The trustees were therefore allowed to sell out stock arising from the surplus revenue, for the purpose of completing the buildings at Rugby. The plans of Mr. Hakewill were adopted, and in due time the present noble and extensive edifice was erected, containing every thing necessary for the convenience and comfort of those, for whose occupation it was designed.

The new structure is erected nearly on the site of the old one, at the southern extremity of the town. The edifice is composed of white brick, and the angles, cornices, and dressings to the windows and openings, are of Attleborough stone. The style of architecture is that which prevailed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth— "a grateful and elegant compliment," says Mr. Smith, "to the memory of the founder." "The rooms dedicated to different objects of tuition are judiciously separated: in domestic accommodation the scholars are divided with collegiate regularity; and the varieties of avenue, allowed by the wild but agreeable style of builders in the sixteenth century, is an advantage that could scarcely be obtained in a Grecian structure." building is massy and interesting, from a graceful disposition of parts, rather than from plenitude of decoration. The principal front is that towards the south, which extends 220 feet. The schools are entered by a gateway, opposite the street, which leads to the principal court, a fine area, 90 feet long by 70 wide, with a plain cloister on the east, south, and west sides.

The

The buildings on the south of the court include the dining-hall belonging to the boys in the head master's house, and three schools for different classes; those on the west are occupied by the great school; and on the south are the French and writing schools. The east side adjoins the offices belonging to the head master's house, and by the cloisters on that side the scholars have access to the matron, &c., without interfering with the domestics of the master's establishment. The head master's house is placed at the east end of the range of buildings forming the south front, and adjoins the schools, though in some degree separated from them by the studies belonging to pupils accommodated in his house. There are small rooms in a compartment of the building, three stories high, and each student has one for his own use: about sixty boys are thus accommodated: the remainder lodge in the houses of the other masters, and in different boarding-houses in the town.

On the completion of these buildings, however, new powers were found wanting, which Parliament alone could impart. An act was therefore obtained in 1814 empowering the trustees to build a chapel for divin

service according to the rites of the Church of England, | adjacent to the school buildings, for the use and accommodation of the boys; and to nominate a minister to officiate in the same. Powers were also given to the trustees still further to extend the alms-houses and the bounties to their inmates; as also to send an additional number of boys to the university, and to pay an additional yearly sum to each.

By the schedule to this act it appears that the Middlesex estate at that time contained 149 houses, situate in Chapel Street, Lamb's Conduit Street, New Ormond Street, Great Ormond Street, Great James Street, Ragdall Court, now Milman Place, Lamp Office Court, Little Ormond Yard, Lamb's Conduit Mews, and Feathers' Mews; together with the chapel of St. John, and its appurtenances, then under lease to the Rev. Richard Cecil, but at that time in the occupation of the Rev. Daniel Wilson; the net annual rent of the whole being 23781. Is. The rental of the Warwickshire estates was stated to be 91. 17s. 6d. But independently of this revenue, large sums were from time to time received for the renewal of leases.

The discipline of this school is the same as that which has so long been approved at Eton. Each form has its peculiar master, who attends to no other; consequently the same attention is paid to the first form, or grammar boys, as to any other department of the school. This does not apply to the inspecting care of the head master, who, although he attaches himself to the sixth form, examines occasionally every class in the school. Another very useful peculiarity belongs to this seminary, which is, that it has both a French master and a master for writing and arithmetic, upon the foundation, to whose instruction every free boy is entitled without expense.

Any person who has resided for two years in the town of Rugby, or at any place in the county of Warwick within ten miles of that town, or even in the adjacent counties of Northampton and Leicester, within five miles of it, may send his sons to be educated at Rugby School, without paying anything for their instruction. But if the parent is not an inhabitant of Rugby itself, he must provide lodgings for his son at one of the boardinghouses connected with the school, and must pay for his board the same as is paid for a boy not on the foundation. The number of foundationers, as they are called, is not limited, but the number of those not on the foundation is not allowed to exceed 260. There is a head master, and nine assistants. The boys are divided into nine, or practically into ten classes, where they are distributed according to their proficiency in classical literature, in arithmetic and mathematics, and in French. The general school hours throughout the week are as follows:

Monday. First lesson, seven to eight: second lesson, quarter past nine to eleven: third and fourth lessons, quarter past two to five.

Tuesday. First and second lessons, as on Monday: eleven to one, composition: half-holiday. Wednesday. As on Monday. Thursday. As on Tuesday. Friday. As on Monday.

Saturday. As on Tuesday and Thursday, except that there is no composition from eleven to one.

There are various other lessons at additional hours for different classes.

Each half year is divided into two equal periods, called language-time and history-time. During the first, the poets and orators are principally read; during the second, geography and history are chiefly studied.

The annual examination before the trustees takes place at their meeting on the third Tuesday in July, upon which occasion some eminent person is invited from each of the universities, to examine the sixth form, previous to the disposal of the exhibitions. In 1807 the trustees agreed to give a sum of money annually, to be

distributed in books as prizes, for composition; and also ten guineas for the best Latin, and six guineas for the best English poem.

The trustees of this school have always been men of the highest respectability, selected from the principal families in the county and neighbourhood. The annual meeting has ever been a time of great importance in the school. It was at one time a custom on these occasions to strew the school floor with rushes, a practice formerly observed in royal apartments. These rushes were afterwards changed for oak boughs, with which the school was decorated until about the year 1777, when, according to Mr. Carlisle, the custom was discontinued. The Lord Chancellor is considered as the visitor of this school.

The business of the school begins and concludes with prayers, when all the masters attend.

The vacations are seven weeks at Christmas, an. seven weeks at Midsummer.

SONG FOR THE SPRING.

COME forth, come forth! it were a sin
To stay at home to day!
Stay no more loitering within,

Come to the woods away!

The long green grass is filled with flowers, The clover's deep dim red

Is brightened with the morning showers That on the winds have fled. Scattered about the deep blue sky,

In white and flying clouds,

Some bright, brief rains are all that lie
Within those snowy shrouds.

Now, look!-our weather-glass is spread-
The pimpernel, whose flower
Closes its leaves of spotted red,
Against a rainy hour.

The first pale green is on the trees;
That verdure more like bloom;
Yon elm-bough hath a horde of bees,
Lured by the faint perfume.

The cherry orchard flings on high

Its branches, whence are strown
Blossoms like snow, but with an eye.
Dark, maiden, as thine own!

As yet our flowers are chiefly those
Which fill the sun-touched bough;
Within the sleeping soil repose

Those of the radiant brow.

But we have daisies, which, like love
Or hope, spring everywhere;
And primroses, which droop above
Some self-consuining care.

So sad, so spiritual, so pale,

Born all too near the snow,
They pine for that sweet, southern gale,
Which they will never know.

It is too soon for deeper shade;
But let us skirt the wood,

The blackbird there, whose nest is made,
Sits singing to her brood.

These pleasant hours will soon be flown; Love! make no more delay;

I am too glad to be alone,

Come forth with me to day.-ANON.

As anciently God fed his servant Elias, sometimes by an angel, sometimes by a woman, sometimes by ravens, so doth supply his people with that instruction which is the aliment he make all persons, whether good, bad, or indifferent, of virtue, and of souls; and makes them and their examples contribute to the verification of that passage of Saint Paul, when he says that all things co-operate to good to them that love God.-ROBERT BOYLE.

ON GRAFTING. II.

NOTWITHSTANDING the many advantages to be derived from grafting, alluded to in our late notice of this art, it must be recollected that no change whatever can be produced in the scion, except that occasional increase of luxuriance which arises from its having a more plentiful supply of nourishment from the juices of the stock into which it is inserted, than from the parent tree. In perennial trees, a new alburnum, and a new system of vessels are annually produced, and the nutriment for the next year deposited in them, so that the new buds are supplied with a reservoir of matter essential to their first developement. Yet, though the leaves, blossoms, and fruit of the graft are of the same kind as if it had vegetated upon the parent stock, it is rendered for a time more vigorous, and produces fairer blossoms and richer fruit. This flourishing state of the graft however does not prevent it from participating in those qualities for which the parent tree was remarkable. Diseases and disposition to early decay, if they existed in the parent, will be sure to manifest themselves in the posterity. Thus it is that we sometimes see an ingrafted tree looking vigorous and beautiful for two or three years, and then gradually deteriorating and falling into decay.

From what we have said it will be evident that too

young

much stress cannot be laid on the injunction to choose the scions from among healthy branches, growing on equally healthy trees, in order that a sound and not a sickly progeny may be multiplied.

Crown-grafting, or "grafting in the rind," is a ready method of grafting on large limbs, with thick bark, or on large stems. It is generally practised from the end of March to the third week in April, because at that time the bark separates the more easily from the wood. The process is as follows:-Saw off the head of an old

espalier or standard tree horizontally at a place where the bark appears to be as firm, even, and smooth as possible; and should such a place be found at only about six inch above the level of the ground, it will, if the object be to obtain a new espalier, be all the better. Pare the surface of the wood and the edges of the bark smooth; then select the scions, either from those reserved for the purpose, or take them at once from the With a sharp budding-knife cut one side only of each scion flat and a little sloping, and let the cut be an

trees.

1

1

No. 1. Fig. 1.

inch and a half or two inches long: then make a sort of shoulder at the top of the cut, that the graft may rest upon the wood of the stock. In the next place raise the back by thrusting in a tapering flattened piece of smooth hard wood or ivory, between the wood and the bark;

when this is withdrawn insert the end of the scion with its cut side next the wood, till the shoulder reach it, and rest upon the stock. It has been remarked, that if the scion draw in going down, and make a kind of whistling sound, like that of an exhausting syringe, it is likely to be a successful graft.

In this way three or four scions may with propriety be inserted into the same branch or stem, as indicated by the lines (No. 1, fig. 1). The grafting being - completed, a smooth soft cord should be passed several

times round the top of the stock, tight enough to secure The whole the scions, but without injuring the bark. is then clayed over in the form of a dome, that the rain may be effectually thrown off.

for the following reasons:-the section of the scion is Objections have been made to this mode of grafting plane, the part of the stock to which it is applied is circular; consequently the surfaces can only come in ably larger than the space covered by the scion, particupartial contact. Again, the abrasion must be considerlarly if the back of the stock be ridged. The cavity on each side of the scion will therefore be filled either with air, which is injurious, or, if the tree be vigorous, with sap, which frequently "drowns" the graft. It is also a disadvantage attending this mode of grafting, that in exposed situations the ingrafted shoots are liable to be blown out of their position by violent winds; the only remedy for which is tying long rods to the body of the stock or branch, and tying up each scion and its shoots to one of the rods.

Apples and pears are the fruits usually propagated by cleft and crown-grafting. Mr. Towers states in his Gardener's Manual that repeated experiments have satisfied him that crown-grafting is applicable to the For apples he considers Siberian youngest stocks.

crabs, two or three years old, to be very proper: for suckers, or layers; the stocks need not be more than a pears, young plants of the quince, raised from seed, by quarter of an inch over; and the scions only a little less. year or two, form a perfect junction with the stock, and A graft carefully inserted within the rind, will, in a cover it so completely, as almost to obliterate any mark of the wounds, leaving the stem entire, and nearly without a cicatrix.

Saddle-grafting is so termed because the scion is shaped to be seated across the stock, which is cut into a wedge-like form to receive it. When the operation is skilfully performed it produces a neat and handsome graft. With respect to this method we may quote the valuable obversations of Mr. Knight.

As this method has rarely or never been properly executed, it will be necessary to describe the motion of the sap, as I conceive it to be, at the period when grafts are most advantageously inserted. The graft first begins its efforts to unite itself with the stock, just at the period when the formation of a new internal layer of bark commences in the spring; and the fluid which generates this layer of bark, and which also feeds the inserted graft, radiates in every direction from the vicinity of the medulla, to the external surface of the alburnum. The graft is of course most advantageously placed when it presents the largest surface to receive such fluid, and when Fig. 2.9 the fluid itself is made to deviate least from its natural course. This takes place most efficiently, when a graft of nearly equal size with the stock is divided at its base (g), and made to stand astride the stock (s); and when the two divisions of the graft are pared extremely thin, at and near the lower extremities, so that they may be brought into close contact with the stock, (from which but a little bark or wood should be pared off,) by the ligature. I have adopted this mode chiefly in grafting cherry-trees, and I have rarely ever seen graft fail, even where the wood has been so succulent and immature as to preclude every hope of success by any other method.

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A ligature of soft bass matting should be passed round the whole intermediate space between s and g, fig. 2, excepting the bud b.

By referring to No. 2, fig. 1, the reader will find a representation of a curious method of grafting, called root-grafting. This is performed on parts of the roots of removed trees, when the proper stocks are scarce. In removing young trees intended for stocks, if the perpendicular roots have grown to an inconvenient

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