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THERE is perhaps no feeling which reflects so much credit upon its possessor, as that pure and practical charity which in all ages, and especially after the Reformation, induced men to appropriate part of their wealth to the foundation of establishments for gratuitous education, and there is something elevating and noble in the principle which caused many of them to bestow those benefits upon the places of their nativity, rather than upon those where their possessions were acquired. Until the middle of the sixteenth century, the Church was generally the object of testators' attention, though even in that dark period, literature was frequently remembered. When, however, the mind became rescued from the trammels of superstition, those sums which, but a few years before, would in all probability have been bequeathed for the performance of masses, the support of priests, or for the purchase of articles for the service of the altar, were appropriated to far more useful purposes.*

The same objects-the honour and worship of Godwere still aimed at, but in a more reasonable manner. The extension of religious knowledge among the young, and their acquirement of various sorts of useful information came to be desired by benevolent individuals, and inculcated by the respective founders of schools.

To rational piety and well-directed philanthropy, Rugby is indebted for that splendid establishment which

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has conferred so much celebrity upon its name. The town of Rugby is situate near the eastern border of the county of Warwick, and is written Rocheberie in Doomsday Book, so called, according to Dugdale, from roach, a rock or quarry of stone, and berie, a court or habitation: but, according to another authority, the derivation is Either derivaCeltic, from rue a river and bye a town. tion will suit the local circumstances of the place, for there is a quarry of stone in the neighbourhood, and the river Avon is not far from the town.

Rugby is seated on a beautiful eminence and has a cheerful appearance. Until the foundation of the celebrated school it possessed but slight claims to notice; and although in the thirteenth century it obtained a grant of a weekly market and an annual fair, yet for nearly three hundred years it remained in comparative obscurity. Nor in that long period does it seem to have been once the scene of any event of historical interest, to have given birth to a single individual who became distinguished by his talents or conduct, or to have partaken in the least degree of the advantages which nume rous towns, of equal original insignificance, have derived from industry and commerce.

Of the founder of Rugby school little more is known than that his name was LAWRENCE SHERIFF, of the 626

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city of London, grocer. He appears to have been a member of the Grocers' Company, from his great partiality for their arms, which he has ordered on several occasions to accompany the initials of his name. He has been spoken of as a native of Brownsover, and of low origin, but probabilities are in favour of his having been born at Rugby, and of respectable parents. He died possessed of a handsome house at Rugby, which he assigned to the use of his schoolmaster. This house, in its day, must have been one of the first in the town, being a capacious mansion, with an arched porch over its chief entrance. It is imagined that it was the dwellingplace of Sheriff's parents, and his own abode in his early years. That his father and mother did not occupy the inferior station in society which has been attributed to them, appears pretty certain, from the fact of their having been buried within the walls of the church, a distinction which was never permitted but to persons of some property and consequence.

When Sheriff was settled in London as a grocer, he appears to have quickly risen to some consequence in his particular line of business, as he was appointed one of the tradesmen of the Royal Family: he appears also to have had some employment about the court; or, at least we may infer as much from the following anecdote of him, preserved in Fox's Book of Martyrs, which, being the only historical notice as yet discovered relating to the founder of Rugby School, and being moreover very characteristic of the times in which he lived, we quote entire. Fox introduces this narrative in order to "show forth the malicious hearts of the papists towards this virtuous queen, our Sovereign Lady, in the time of Queen Mary, her sister."

Soon after the stir of Wyatt, and the troubles that happened to Queen Mary for that cause, it fortuned one Robert Farrer, a haberdasher of London, dwelling near to Newgate Market, in a certain morning to be at the Rose Tavern (from whence he was seldom absent), and falling to his common drink, as he was ever accustomed, and having in his company three other companions like himself, it chanced the same time one Lawrence Sheriff, grocer, dwelling also not far from thence, to come into the said tavern, and finding there the said Farrer, (to whom of long time he had borne good-will), sat down in the seat to drink with him, And Farrer, being in his full cups, and not having consideration who were present, began to talk at large, and, namely against the Lady Elizabeth, and said that Jill had been one of the chief doers of this rebellion of Wyatt, and before all be done, she, and all the heretics, her partakers, shall well understand it. Some of them hope that she shall have the crown, but she, and they, I trust, that so hope, shall hop headless, or be fried with faggots, before she come to it. The aforesaid Lawrence Sheriff, grocer, being then servant to the Lady Elizabeth, and sworn unto her grace, could no longer forbear his old acquaintance and neighbour Farrer, in speaking irreverently of his mistress, but said unto him, "Farrer, I have loved thee as a neighbour, and have had a good opinion of thee, but hearing of thee that I now hear, I defy thee, and tell thee, I am her grace's sworn servant, and she is a princess, and the daughter of a noble king, and it evil becometh thee to call her a Jill. For thy so saying, I say thou art a knave, and I will complain on thee.""Do thy worst," said Farrer, "for that I said I will say again:" and so Sheriff came from his company.

Shortly after, the said Sheriff, taking an honest neighbour with him, went before the commissioners to complain. The which commisioners sat at Bonner's the Bishop of London's house beside St. Paul's, and there were present, Bonner, then being chief commissioner, the Lord Mordaunt, Sir John Baker, Dr. Darbyshire, Chancellor to the bishop, Dr. Story, Dr. Harpfield, and others.

The aforesaid Sheriff, coming before them, declared the manner of the said Farrer's talk, against the Lady Elizabeth. Bonner answered, "Peradventure you took him worse than he meant."-" Yea, my lord," (said Dr. Story,) "if you knew the man as I do you would say there is not a better Catholick, nor an honester man, in the city of


"Well," said Sheriff, "my lord, she is my gracious lady and mistress, and it shall not be suffered, that such a varlet, as he is, should call so honourable a princess by the name of

a Jill. And I saw yesterday in the court, that my Lord Cardinal Pole, meeting her in her chamber of presence, kneeled down on his knees, and kissed her hand. And I also saw, that King Philip, meeting her, made her like obeysance, and that his knee touched the ground. And then me-thinketh it were too much to suffer such a varlet, as he is, to call her a Jill, and to wish them to hop headless that shall wish Her Grace to enjoy the possession of the crown, when God shall send it to her as in the right of her inheritance." "Yea, stay there," quoth Bonner; "when God sendeth it unto her, let her enjoy it. But truly," said he, "the man that spake the words you have reported, meant nothing against the Lady Elizabeth, your mistress, and no more do we. But he, like an honest and zealous man, feareth the alteration of religion, which every good man ought to fear; and therefore," said Bonner, "good man, go your ways home, and report well of us, and we will send for Farrer and rebuke him for his rash and indiscreet words, and we trust he will not do the like again." And thus Sheriff came away.

Such are the scanty biographical remains of a man to whom the county of Warwick in particular, and the public in general, are indebted for this splendid foundation.

We come now to notice Sheriff's will, some of the items of which are rather curious. He desires that his body may be decently buried in the church of St. Andrew's in Rugby, but the funeral to be first done in the city of London, whereat he will have a learned man to preach the word of God, and all other things meet to be done; and after that his body to be decently carried to Rugby, and there buried near the bodies of his father and mother. He gives ten pounds to be distributed on the day of his burial in Rugby, to all the poor people that shall attend it; that is to say, to every poor man and woman twelvepence, and to every poor child twopence; and to the master, wardens, and company of grocers he leaves the sum of 131. 6s. Sd., of which sum he wills, that 67. 13s, 4d. be bestowed on a recreation of the company on the day of his burial.

It appears to have been the original intention of the founder of this school to have endowed it only with his parsonage of Brownsover and his mansion-house in Rugby, adding fifty pounds towards the erection of the school; but from some cause now unknown he increased his donation with the third part of his estate in Middlesex,the great cause of the present prosperity of the school. His will bears date 22nd July, 1567, and it was probably made in London. But within less than six weeks he is found at Rugby revoking parts of his will by a codicil, dated 31st August of the same year, and adding this most important bequest to the same trusts and uses as he had before by deed settled his parsonage of Brownsover and his mansion in Rugby.

This act being done at Rugby so soon after his disposal of his affairs, makes it probable, (says Ackerman,) that some offence received, in the course of his visit, from his relations, who would not be much disposed to approve his leaving his house and land from them, for what they might consider as such romantic purposes, might be the occasion of this great alteration in favour of his charity: great, indeed, it was not at that time, for it was the gift of no more than a third part of twenty-four acres of land; but the particular situation of those few acres has since made them immensely valuable.

ten acres was not more than ten pounds a year. A few At the time of the founder's decease the rent of those years ago the rental was estimated at many thousand pounds. By an inquisition taken soon after Lawrence Sheriff's death, it appears that he died in London, on the 20th of October, 1567.

The benevolent intentions of the founder do not appear to have been scrupulously fulfilled by those in whom he placed confidence. Of the two trustees of his will, Harrison died soon after him, leaving Field the surviving trustee, who thought proper to retain, for his own benefit, the third part of Conduit Close, which had been devised for the maintenance of the school; and it continued in a state of alienation for many years. Several

suits were ineffectually instituted, by different masters of the school, for the recovery of it; until, in consequence of the act of the 43rd of Queen Elizabeth, to redress the misapplication of funds given to charitable uses, a commission was issued in Middlesex, in the 12th of King James I. 1614, and an inquisition taken at Hicks's Hall, before the Bishop of London, Sir Henry Montague, and others, the result of which was a report to the Chancellor in favour of the charity, and a restoration to the school of that part of the Conduit Close originally conveyed to Harrison and Field, with all arrears. At the same time twelve trustees of the most respectable gentlemen of the county and neighbourhood were appointed for the better securing of the same, and the application of it to the uses intended.

The strong arm of the law was also required to secure to the uses of the charity the property in Rugby and Brownsover. By an inquisition taken at Rugby, in April, 1653, the possession of the property was found to have been usurped, and it was ordered that payment of arrears and of sums which had been withholden, should be made to the trustees, to be applied, first, to the indemnification of those who had been injured by the usurpation in question, and then to the repairs of the school-house, alms-houses, and premises. It was likewise provided by this inquisition, that the trustees should hold four meetings at Rugby in every year, and that out of the rents and profits they should take to themselves, for their entertainment at those ineetings, a sum not exceed ing twenty shillings per annum.

The Middlesex estate, at the time it was bequeathed, consisted of the Conduit Close, and pasture-land, (on which Lamb's Conduit Street and the adjoining streets now stand,) lying nearly half a mile from any of the houses in the city then in being. There was not at that time much reason to suppose that the Conduit Close would ever form part of the metropolis, and shortly after the date of the bequest, viz., in the thirty-fifth year of Queen Elizabeth, an Act of Parliament was passed, forbidding the erection of any houses within three miles of London and Westminster. So also when James I. came to the throne, a proclamation was issued, strictly prohibiting all persons from building on new foundations within the walls, and within three miles of the city gates, on penalty of having all such houses destroyed. Other proclamations to the same effect appeared from time to time, probably under the idea that the frequent return of the plague was occasioned by the already too great population of the city. But as time passed on, these prohibitive laws and proclamations were forgotten, and many acres of land adjoining the city were gradually covered with houses. Accord ingly, in 1686, we find the Conduit Close described as an inclosed ground, let to one Nicholas Barbon, doctor physic, on a building-lease for fifty years, at the annual rent of 501. When sixteen years of this lease had expired, Sir William Mildman, knight, became entitled to the premises for the remainder of the term, and agreed with the trustees for a further term of fortythree years after the expiration of the previous term.

In the year 1748 the clear yearly produce of all the property belonging to this charity did not amount to more than 116/. 17s. 6d.; of which 637. 6s. 8d. was appropriated to the master's salary, and the remainder to the relief and clothing of the four almsmen, and the repairing of the school, mansion-house, and other buildings belonging to the charity, as also the chancel of Brownsover.

CONTENT of mind, springing from innocence of life, from the faithful discharge of our duty, from satisfaction of conscience, from a good hope in regard to God and our future state, is much to be preferred before all the delights which any temporal possession or fruition can afford.—BARROW.



HAVING in the former paper given a slight sketch of the cultivation and commercial history of the small dried grapes which are sold at grocers' shops under the name of currants, we will proceed to notice the larger kinds of dried grapes, generally known as raisins or plums.

There are many varieties of the raisin, produced from different species of vine. They derive their names from two circumstances, one relating to the country where they grow, and the other to the kind of Thus there are Smyrnas, grape of which they are made. Valencias, Malagas, &c., named after the districts which produce them; whereas the terms muscatels, blooms, sultanas, &c., are distinctive names for different species. Some terms, too, such as jar-raisins, raisins of the sun, relate to the mode in which they are dried, or packed for exportation.

One of the finest species of raisin is the Malaga, When grown in Spain in the district of that name. Laborde wrote, about the commencement of the present century, he estimated the exports of Malaga raisins at 240,000 cwts., valued at 625,000l. sterling. In 1829, M. Moreau de Jonnès, however, stated the value at a much lower amount. In 1834, the exports of raisins from Malaga consisted of nearly 280,000 boxes, and 160,000 barrels, one half of which were shipped for the Two-thirds United States, and one-sixth for England. of all the raisins brought into this country are imported from Spain.

The raisins exported from Malaga are of three kinds, muscatels, blooms or raisins of the sun, and lexias. As the Malaga raisins are deemed finer than any other, and be sup muscatels are the finest of the Malagas, it may posed that they are deemed a choice and important fruit. The species of grape called the white muscat of AlexanThe berries dria is that which produces the muscatels. are large, oval, white, rather firm-fleshed, with a very rich and superior flavour. The names applied to the best varieties of raisin-grape in most countries, show how extensively the muscat species is cultivated for this purpose; for instance, there are the muscat of Jerusalem, the muscat of Malaga, the passé-musquée, the passélongue musquée, and the muscat d'Espagne. preparation as a raisin or dried grape, no art is used: the fruit is merely placed in the sun, and frequently There is a species of grape called the black muscat of Alexandria, and a red muscat or muscatel, both of which have a firmness of pulp sufficient to render them fit for drying; for grapes, however rich they may be, and excellent in a fresh state, yet if they do not possess a certain degree of firmness, are unfit for drying, inasmuch as their substance would be too much dissipated in the process. exported from Malaga in boxes.


In its

All muscatel raisins are

The blooms, or raisins of the sun, are rather a different species from the muscatel, but they are dried in a similar way, by the heat of the sun, and are exported from Spain in earthen jars. Different modes of drying are adopted, according to the quality of the grapes. The commonest kinds are placed in a heated oven, and there dried. The most simple, and when circumstances are favourable, the best mode of preparation, is that adopted in the case of muscatel and bloom raisins; in which the grapes are dried, after being cut when fully ripe, by exposure to the heat of the sun on a floor of hard earth or of stone. A third method is, to cut the stalk half-way through when the grapes are nearly ripe, and leave them suspended till the watery part is evaporated; the flow of sap is in a great measure prevented from entering the fruit, in consequence of the incision, and whilst evaporation continues to go on undiminished, desiccation must take place.


There is a curious mode of drying, adopted both at Malaga and Valencia, in the case of lexias, a kind of raisin which acquires that name from a ley or liquor in which the grapes are dipped. By this method, two or three bunches of grapes are tied firmly together, while yet on the vine, and dipped into a hot lixivium or ley of wood-ashes. This disposes the grapes to shrink and wrinkle and after this they are left on the vine three or four days, separated on sticks in a horizontal direction, and then dried in the sun at leisure. A por tion of olive oil is generally mingled with the ley, and the wood-ashes of which the ley itself is formed are those of vine branches and tendrils. In Valencia, the ashes are formed of rosemary branches combined with vine twigs, and a little slacked lime is sometimes added. It might at first thought be supposed, that, provided the temperature be equalized, it would matter but little whether the raisins were dried by the heat of the sun, or by that of a stove. But this is not the case; those dried by the former method acquire a sweet and pleasant taste; but those dried by artificial heat retain a latent acidity with the sweetness, which renders them much less agreeable.

There is a kind called raisins of Damascus, named from the capital city of Syria, in the neighbourhood of which they are cultivated. They are much used in the composition of ptisans, together with jujubes and dates. They are of a flattish shape, seeded, and nearly as large as the thumb; from which some conception may be formed of the extraordinary bulk of the grape when fresh: There have been instances known of bunches of these grapes weighing twenty-five pounds each. The flavour of the grape is faintish, and not very agreeable

when taken alone.

The finest raisins, as we have already observed, are brought from Spain; but the next finest quality are brought from a very different quarter, viz., Smyrna, on the western coast of Asia Minor. It is stated by the agent of a commercial house at Smyrna, that dried fruit, comprising raisins and figs, occupy the attention of all Smyrna, more or less, and produce during the season great interest and activity. Figs are brought to market early in September, and raisins are ready for shipping early in October; the former are procurable only at Smyrna; the latter may be procured there also, but the shipments are generally made at Chesmé, Vourla, Carabourna, Usbeek, &c., from which ports the name of the raisin takes its origin. Large sums are frequently gained in fruit speculation; and when the demand in England is brisk, and the prices and quality good, it very seldom happens that any loss is sustained by the speculators. Some risk, however, is incurred, dependent on the damp or dry state of the raisins when shipped.

Mr. M'Farlane, when residing at Smyrna, gave a lively account of the traffic in figs and raisins at the ports of Smyrna and its neighbourhood. It does not fall within our plan to treat of figs in this place'; but we must say a few words respecting their shipment from Smyrna, in order to understand the subsequent remarks concerning raisins. After speaking of the tormenting visitations of the mosquitoes, our traveller states that he found another annoyance at Smyrna almost as vexatious -this was the fig trade! This branch of commerce was then in full activity. The passenger could hardly stir in the streets for the long lines of camels loaded with figs; he could hardly move in the Marina for the drums of figs rolling to be shipped; and it was scarcely possible for one within doors to sleep after three o'clock in the morning, for the noise of the women and children employed in picking and packing figs. Figs were the subject of conversation among all classes-some sellers, some growers, some pickers and packers, some buyers, some shippers-all seemed to have some interest or other in the fig-trade.

When the traveller went from Smyrna to a small sea

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port town near it, caned Chesmé, he met with another busy scene, which he thus describes:

Driven from Smyrna by figs, I fell from Scylla on Charybdis*, at Chesme: I found all the world engaged with raisins! There was scarcely room to land on the little quay, for the casks of fruit lying there for embarkation. The narrow streets were thronged with hamals, camels, mules, and asses, all carrying raisins; vast heaps of raisins were seen piled up in every magazine, and in the lower part kindness of my friend Mr. Wof the wooden house where I was accommodated by the were regiments of casks and barrels, mountains of raisins, and about a hundred half-naked, bawling fellows, (Turks, Greeks, and Jews,) picking and packing raisins. If at Smyrna I had found every man's mind absorbed in sweetmeat, here it was worse. Chesmé has no other trade but these exports of raisins. The Franks go down there merely to ship the fruit; this they must do with the greatest expedition for the interest of the shippers.

Not only are the Smyrniotes active and bustling during this season; but even the indolent, slow-moving Turks seem to be affected with the raisin-fever at this period,-hurrying about in their papooshes in a manner seldom exhibited by them at any other period. The town of Chesmé owes its prosperity entirely to the exportation of raisins, which are grown in immense abundance in its neighbourhood, as may be well conceived from the fact that fourteen English vessels, three Austrian, and one American, took fruit (many of them, though large ships, whole cargoes,) during a few days that Mr. M'Farlane remained at Chesmé; and that with the exception of a small, fine species of raisins, called sultanas, which are shipped at Smyrna, nearly all the fruit that goes in England by the name of Smyrna raisins, is sent from Chesmé.


A word or two respecting the medicinal qualities of raisins. The chief employment of raisins in medicine is to flavour unpleasant mixtures, or for their demulcent properties. They partake in part of the quality of the grapes. Grapes, when fresh, are cooling, aperient, moderately nutritive, and demulcent: their use in the south of France is thought to contribute greatly to the amelioration which consumptive persons experience there, and in some instances their effect is so striking as to have given rise to the term "cure de raisins." dried raisin is less acid, but more nourishing and more demulcent. It possesses all the soothing qualities of jujube, and is much lower in price. It may be easily made into a conserve, by removing the seeds, and beating the pulp into a thick mass. It has been recommended for persons with irritable throats, and a liability to winter coughs, that a portion of this conserve be put put into the mouth before going into the open air: this is said to be an excellent protective measure, by which cough is frequently prevented. If used in large quantity, raisins are apt to produce unfavourable effects on the system, since they are very subject to fermentation with juices of any kind. Dried currants contain more acid than raisins, and are therefore used medicinally under different circumstances.

But the medicinal employment of these dried fruits is very limited. Nearly the whole of the four hundred thousand hundredweights (raisins and currants together). consumed yearly in this country, are used in making puddings, pastry, wines, &c.

by writers, that unless its origin be borne in mind, it must necessarily "Fall from Scylla on Charybdis."-This expression is so often use seem to the reader a useless introduction of hard words. Scylla is th name of a rock, situated in the Straits of Messina, which separate Sicil from the mainland of Italy. Charybdis is the name of a whirlpool, situ ated not very far from Scylla; and the ancient navigators found extremely difficult to effect a passage between these obstacles; for i avoiding the rock, they were likely to be engulfed in the whirlpool. misfortune or inconvenience in endeavouring to escape from another, 1 it has come to be a sort of proverb, that when a person plunges into on is said to "fall into Charybdis in avoiding Scylla."




You must now learn the moves of the pieces and pawns;
for which purpose, place your board in the proper posi-
tion, which, you know, is with a white square at your
right hand corner, and then place the king's rook on its
square, the rest of the board being unoccupied. The
move of the rook is always in straight lines, parallel with
the sides of the board. In its present position this
piece can be played to your adversary's king's rook's
square, which square you know is the same as your
K. R. 8th, or it may be played to your Q. R. square,
from thence to Q. R. 8th square, thence to K. R. 8th,
and so home again, thus taking four moves to go along
all four sides of the board. The rook may also take a
short as well as a long move. Its shortest move is one
square forwards or backwards, or one square to the
right, or one square to the left. In its present position
it can neither move backwards nor to the right, because
it is at home; and so also the queen's rook, when at home,
can neither move backwards nor to the left: but place
either rook on any but a rook's file, and you will find
that it can move in three different directions: place
K. R. on K. square, and you will find that it commands
four squares to the left, three squares to the right, and
all the seven squares in the king's file. Still in this posi-
tion the rook cannot move backwards. But place K. R.
on Q. 4th square, and you will find that it can now
move backwards, but although it can move in four
different directions, it does not command a larger number
squares than before. Remember that a piece is said
to command a certain number of squares only when
they are unoccupied. If, for example, your K. R. pawn
be at K. R. 2nd square, the rook has no power what-
ever in a forward direction, but only to the left, where
it commands seven squares; but if we place the K. Kt.
at its square, the K. R. has no power whatever to move,
and commands nothing. Remember also that a piece
does not command or defend the square on which it
actually stands, but only those squares to which it can
be moved.


powers of the rook and bishop, and then tracing to them the moves of the other pieces.

The king is allowed the shortest move of the rook and the shortest move of the bishop, but not both at once. Place your king on his square; he can then move to any one of the following squares: K. B. square, Q. square, K. 2nd square, Q. 2nd square, K. B. 2nd square. But if we place the king on one of the central Place your squares, his power to move is increased. K. on his fourth square; he then commands K. 3rd and 5th squares, Q. 3rd 4th and 5th squares, and K. B. 3rd 4th and 5th squares. Remember that your king can never be on a square immediately adjoining that on which your adversary's king stands.

The queen is allowed the move either of the rook or of the bishop, but not both at once. Place your queen on her square; she can move four squares to the right, three squares to the left; she commands seven squares of the queen's file, a diagonal to the left of three white squares, and a diagonal to the right of four white squares." You can therefore already form an idea of the great value of this the most powerful piece at chess.


The knight is the most remarkable of all the pieces; it is the only one that has the privilege of moving over the other pieces, and this it often does, under the guidance of a good player, in a remarkable manner, threading its way safely through its own and the enemy's ranks until it can form an attack on some distinguished piece, or mar an ingenious plot of the adversary. This piece is not only difficult to play well, but difficult also to resist, so that it is a deserved favourite among skilful players. The move of the knight consists of the shortest rook's move and the shortest bishop's move, both at For example, place your king's knight at home; he can move to K. R. 3rd square, i. e., from K. Kt. square to K. Kt. 2nd, the shortest rook's move, and from K. Kt. 2nd to K. R. 3rd, the shortest bishop's move, or from K. Kt. square to K. R. 2nd, the shortest bishop's move, and from thence to K. R. 3rd, the shortest rook's move. Wherever we can combine the shortest move of the rook with the shortest move of the bishop, the` knight can be played, provided the square to which you Your board being again unoccupied, place the king's wish to play him be not occupied by one of your own bishop and the queen's bishop on their respective squares. pieces or pawns. on their respective squares. pieces or pawns. But if such square be occupied The move of the bishop is always diagonal or oblique. by a piece or pawn of your adversary, the knight Your king's bishop being on a white square, must can capture it. When your K. Kt. is at home, he can always remain on that colour, because it cannot by any be played to your K. 2nd square, or to K. B. 3rd square, oblique move pass to a black square. The queen's or to K. R. 3rd square; but when the knight gets to bishop is on a black square, and remains on that colour the middle of the board his power is wonderfully induring the whole of the game. Play your K. B. to creased. Place him on your K. 4th, for example, and K. R. 3rd, thence to your Q. B. 8th, thence to your you will find that he can be played to any one of eight Q. R. 6th, and thence home again. So also play your squares. See if you can find out these squares, and Q. B. to Q. R. 3rd, thence to your adversary's K. B., write down their names correctly. thence to your K. R. 6th, and thence home again. Play your K. B. to K. Kt. 2nd, thence to K. R. square, thence to your adversary's Q. R. This last move is the longest stride the bishop can take. Perform a similar exercise with your Q. B.

When the two bishops are at home, they each command seven squares. But play K. B. to Q. B. 4th square, or Q. B. to K. B. 4th square, and you will find their power to be greatly increased, each bishop commanding eleven squares. The bishop has the same privilege as the rook of moving through many squares or few, or of moving only one square.

Now as we are strongly inclined to the opinion that the moves of the pieces at chess originated from two ancient games, in one of which the men were played as we now play the rook, and in the other the moves were similar to those of our bishop, and that by a combination of the powers of these two pieces, the moves of the other pieces derive their origin, we have thought that a better understanding of the moves in the

Should you find any difficulty in remembering the knight's move, the following exercise will fix it in your memory. It is one of those numerous solutions of the problem wnich requires the knight to be played to the sixty-four squares of the chess board in sixty-four leaps, without twice touching any one squaret.


modern game might be had by first describing the easy method of solving it, and several remarkable details respecting the

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XIX., pp. 165, 191.

+ The reader will find the history of this problem, together with an knight's move, in two articles in the Saturday Magazine, Vol. XIX, Pp. 204 and 228.

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