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The most ancient account of the bench is as follows:- | in Dantzic, that of St. Catharine, in the Altstadt, is re"In the year 1481, we met in King Arthur's Hof to markable for its handsome square tower and fine chime drink, when Austen Tiergnot was chosen president of of bells. This church is the burial-place of the celeSt. Reinhold's bench, Hans Schmoll his deputy, Klaus brated John Heveiius, recorded by a pyramidal monument of marble. There is an admirable portrait of him, Dongeheim his secretary, and Balzer Greibe his assistas well as an original oil painting of Copernicus, in the ant." At that time the number of the members of this bench was one hundred and six. The pewter Observatory, erected on the Bishofsberg, in 1780, by Dr. side-board, which stands near the north entrance, and Von Wolf. Among its valuable contents are a mural the music gallery over it, are of the same period. A quadrant by Sisson, a meridian telescope by Ramsden, manuscript of the seventeenth century describes in the a telescope by Short, one by Martini, a clock by Shelton, a Hadley's octant, &c. following terms the destination of Arthushof:

That the citizens met together in the evening, after the business of the day was over, and there drank together, and carried on instructive conversation on various subjects with great decorum; so that, when any one had a guest from the neighbouring towns, he hardly knew how to show him more honour than by inviting him to accompany him to the Junkerhof, not only to enjoy a good wholesome draught of Dantzic beer, but especially to witness the good order and social harmony which prevailed there.

About the year 1676 the Hof became used as an exchange, afterwards as a shew-room, and for the general purposes of trade.

Opposite the Hof is a handsome fountain of grey sandstone with bronze figures, and in the neighbourhood is the fine tower of the Senate-house, at the top of which is the statue of a man in armour richly gilt, serving as a weathercock. Not far from this place is a lofty square brick tower, called the Stockthurm, or Prisoners' Tower, erected in 1346, for the defence of the city, but now used as a prison.


One of the finest buildings in Dantzic is the metropolitan church of St. Mary's. It is in the form of a cross. The square tower contains seven bells of considerable size, the largest of which requires twelve men to ring it. Among the objects of curiosity within the church is the font under the great organ. This work, which was cast. in brass at Antwerp, and purchased in 1554, is sixtytwo feet in circumference, being an octagon in the form of a colonnade, surrounding the font, which is also of brass. There are three steps to the entrance, which is closed by folding doors, also of brass, and curiously fretted. The upper part of this work is wanting; it is reported to have been lost on the passage by sea. very old painting of the day of judgment is worthy of notice, both for its merit and its antiquity. It has been considered as a work of the brothers John and Hubert Van Eyk. In 1707, Peter the Great offered the senate a considerable sum for this picture, but it was refused. In 1807 it was by Napoleon's order sent to Paris; but in 1815 the Allies restored it to Dantzic. Another curiosity here is a large astronomical clock, made in 1470, by Hans Düringer, a native of this town. Besides the hours and days of the month it indicated the daily position of the planets, and was also furnished with a variety of figures set in motion by the works. It is related that Düringer having obtained great celebrity by this work, was invited to Hamburg to construct a similar one: but that the citizens of Dantzic moved by jealousy, had, as he would not refuse that invitation, caused his eyes to be put out. The blind artist, shortly before his death, caused himself to be led to his work, and with a pair of scissors, cut in two a single wire, by which the whole mechanism was deranged. All attempts to repair it have failed. Under this clock is an ancient vault, said to be the entrance to a subterraneous passage, which led from St. Mary's church to the palace of the Teutonic knights. In this church is also an admirably wrought crucifix, respecting which the absurd story has been related, that the artist, an Italian, (according to some accounts Michael Angelo,) enticed a handsome youth into his house, gained his attachment by kindness and flattery, and at length crucified him, in order to make a fiue copy from that original.

The library of the Senate, or Gymnasium, contains many rarities, among which are a fine copy of Hevelius' Machina Cœlestis, and one of his Selenographia; both works are most tastefully and splendidly coloured by Hevelius himself. The brass instruments as well as the constellations are painted in gold, and the spots of the moon in silver. These two copies were intended for Louis XIV.; but why they were allowed to remain in Dantzic is not known. The library possesses also a quarto volume, with several manuscript treatises of Luther, which he prepared for the press on the Wartburg, and a Psalter, by Frobin, which he had in daily use, and in which he has written in his own hand the history of

his excommunication.

This library originated in 1580. It was subsequently enlarged by presents, especially in 1597 by a legacy of Marquis Doria. This accomplished nobleman, who was born at Naples in 1517, was highly esteemed, as well at the Papal Court, as by the Emperor Charles V. As a friend and promoter of the Reformation, he was, however, obliged to leave his country. After wandering about for forty years, and experiencing much adverse fortune, he found a permanent abode in Dantzic. In 1592 he made a will in which he left to the Gymnasium his very considerable library and various curiosities, all of which he then gave up, on condition that the senate should support him according to his rank till his death, which took place in 1597.

Attached to the library is a fine cabinet of medals, which has been gradually formed by bequests and donations. There are several other libraries in Dantzic, and also those buildings which being common to large towns we need not describe.

The environs of the city contain some pleasant walks. Broad paths running along the city moat, separated by barriers from the carriage way, lead to the Oliva and Petershagen gates. Proceeding along these paths there is on one side the green turf of the rampart, over which the city appears, and below is the broad clear moat, which almost resembles a river. These paths, which are much frequented, all lead to the Irrgarten, and passing through the Oliva gate the pedestrian comes to the double avenue of Dutch lime-trees, which is a favourite promenade of the citizens, and commands some beautiful and striking views, such as the Vistula and Weichselmunde, and on the left, hills and woods, plantations and villas, together also with the village of Langefuhr, which forms one long street, and consisting chiefly of country houses and public gardens, is a most agreeable place of recreation.


Beyond Langefuhr the prospect opens over level country, here and there diversified with wood, and then extends over the sea, the road and the harbour, and on the left to Oliva, of which the church is large, welllighted, and has several remarkable monuments. the convent of Oliva the celebrated treaty which restored the tranquillity and peace of the North, was concluded in the year 1660. The apartment in which the negocia tions were carried on is still shown, and the memorable event recorded on a slab of black marble.

The gardens belonging to the Abbey are extremely beautiful, not only for the taste and skill with which they are laid out, but for the fine prospects which they Among the other churches, of which there are twenty command. But the most extensive view is obtained from

Carlsberg, near Oliva. Bishop Charles, Count of Hohenzollern, purchased that eminence and two adjoining it, for the purpose of laying out gardens and plantations. To the very summit of the principal hill, which is entirely covered with shrubs and wood, a broad winding road was made, strengthened by large masses of rock and brick-work. From this principal road there issue numerous side paths, some dark and retired, and others lighter, which lead to pleasant resting-places, hermitages, and arbours, through winding paths, which every where aford a most beautiful and diversified prospect. At the summit of the hill is a Chinese summer-house. Over the saloon is a balcony, with an open staircase leading to it. Raised far above the surrounding woods and plantations, the eye looks down on the variegated carpet, with its groups of houses, trees, corn-fields, meadows, ponds, and brooks. In the horizon extends the broad and boundless surface of the sea, with its ships sailing in different directions. Nearer to the spectator, by the side of a bubbling stream, is a row of buildings belonging to a manufactory in the midst of trees of various hues, and at the foot of the hill is Oliva, with its gardens, the church, the convent, and the abbey. This natural panorama, when illumined by the morning or evening sun, affords a high treat to the lover of the picturesque.


But the most extensive view of the sea, with the road and peninsula of Hela, is from the terrace in front of the inn of the neighbouring tea-gardens of Hochevasser. The coasts of the distant islands, (says a traveller who visited it in 1807,) shone in liquid gold, and the sea lay extended like a sapphire mirror, traversed here and there with streaks of purple. It was a lovely picture, but life and tivity were still wanting; when on the distant edge of the horizon, sails, bright in the first rays of the morning sin, approached the harbour in different directions. division of the English fleet was then in the road, the report of the morning gun passed over the surface of the wares, and gave the whole squadron a signal to change its position. Boats, with the swiftness of arrows, shot backWards and forwards, and the immense masses of the men-ofar moved with majestic grandeur. Two of them hoisted sil, and soon disappeared in the horizon, while the ships approaching the coast became more and more distinguishable in the increasing lustre of the unclouded sun, till reaching the close of all their perils they cast anchor, cheerfally saluting their native shores.

Here, too, I witnessed a storm: the waves rolled like mountains to the shore: with mighty power the wings of the storm swept the agitated waters. The whole sea was like a mountain of foam, which here rose gigantic from the depths, and there sunk again into the abyss. The ships danced like nutshells, in this immense tumult. Suddenly the cables of one broke; now it plunged into the bosom of the deep; now it appeared again above the surface. Now the waves tossed it like a ball upon their backs, and then covered it like mountains. Once more it appeared amidst the universal uproar; but the masts were broken, the cordag gone, the sails fluttered in the air, an avalanche of water rolled over it-one moment, and it was gone. The angry waves cast the wreck in large fragments on the beach.

Of all the blessings which are bestowed upon the good there is none perhaps more expedient for us, or more to be requested of God, than a spirit of impartiality with respect to ourselves, together with that accurate discernment, that Susp cious severity, that care to distinguish between real probity and the false appearance of it, and that caution not to be imposed upon by hypocrisy and dissimulation, which we usually exert, when we scan the actions and the pretensions of other people. This is the best security against the dangerous illusions of self-love. The lower we place ourives, the higher we shall rise in the favour of God; and the readier we are to censure our own defects, the nearer we shall be to repentance and amendment.-JoRTIN.


THE month of March is generally chosen for the scientific operations of grafting, inarching, and budding. These are branches of the gardener's art, of which it may be interesting to give a short account. Every one is acquainted with the fact that certain portions of some plants may be grafted upon others, so that the two shall completely unite and form but one tree. Even those who have never seen a graft in their lives, must have heard of this system, and must be familiar with the scriptural use of the term, which accords with the ancient way of writing the word, "graffing."

Grafting appears to be a practice of high antiquity, and it is imagined that it had its origin in the observation of a natural process of no unfrequent occurrence. When ivy has grown to a considerable size, the branches often interiace and graft together in various places; and so where two branches of a tree lie in close contact, the friction sometimes produces a wound or abrasion of the surfaces, and the juices that flow from the wounded parts gradually cause an incorporation of the substances, so that the two branches become united into one. is not to be wondered at, in different branches of the same tree; but it certainly does excite surprise, when we first become acquainted with the practice of grafting, to find that a tree bearing small and unpalatable fruit may be cut down, and the remaining part grafted with a scion from a species bearing large and delicious fruit,


and that this scion will flourish and become a tree, producing, not the sour offspring of the stock with which it is now amalgamated, but the same kind of fruit in every respect as the tree from which it was taken.

By grafting we may preserve and multiply approved varieties of trees, which could not be propagated from seed with any certainty of success: we may hasten the maturity of the tree, tending to produce fruit instead of vigorous growth: and we may increase the quantity of fruit; while we confine the size of the tree within certain limits. In the case of choice descriptions of fruit, as well as in many varieties of ornamental plants, it is highly it may be, advantageous to be able thus to procure, hundreds of grafts which can all be made to possess the The properties of individual trees during one season. precarious nature of the multiplication by seeds, and the disposition there is in cultivated plants to return to their original wild state, are sufficient reasons for the universal practice of this safer method of propagation. By grafting we obtain the peculiar flavour and richness of a particular fruit, or the delicate tint of an admired flower, perpetuated in a continued series of individuals, without change or deterioration.

In order to the full success of the operation, grafting must be performed according to the rules that experience has laid down. The first of these is, to graft or unite only such species as have a near relationship subsisting between them. The operation never succeeds unless this union of natures is attended to, and the plants belong to the same genus, or at least to allied genera of the same family. This is a rule which repeated experiments have confirmed, and yet we find the ancients to have been unacquainted with it. They considered it possible to graft any two plants together, and Pliny records a marvellous instance of a grafted tree bearing a variety of different fruits which he himself saw. This can only be explained by supposing him to have been the subject of an imposition still said to be common in Italy. This is a process called by a French writer, "greffe des charlatans," (rogues' graft,) aud consists in cutting down an orange-tree nearly to the ground, and then hollowing out the stump and planting within it several young trees of different species and families. In the course of a few years the young trees

Piry is a sentiment so natural, so appropriate to the female grow up so as entirely to fill the cavity, and to appear

character, that it is scarcely a virtue for a woman to possess it, but to be without it is a grievous crime.

to a casual observer as if blended and grafted into a single stem. Thus they make an olive, a jasmine, a


rose, and a pomegranate, all seem to grow in harmony | upon the stock of the orange, and the deception is rendered still more perfect when they leave a few buds upon the stump to keep this alive also. Some of the ancient writers even speak of apples and vines grafted on elms and poplars, though they acknowledge that such grafts were of short duration. Among modern writers, Evelyn mentions seeing a rose grafted upon an orangetree in Holland, and at the present period, we occasionally hear it spoken of as practicable to graft a rose upon a black currant, and thereby produce black roses. Whatever attempts may be made to produce unnatural unions of this sort, the success will be very short-lived, and all the grafts will perish sooner or later.

The second rule to be attended to is to observe the analogies of trees, as to the quality of the fruit, permanence, or otherwise, of the leaves, rising of the sap, &c., in order to estimate the probable advantage of grafting a fruit of any particular flavour on another of similar or different quality. When the stock is of slower growth than the scion, the over-luxuriance of the latter is checked; the juices are rendered less abundant, and the disposition to bear fruit is induced at an earlier age. But when the graft is of a weak species, and requires to be invigorated, this may be accomplished by uniting it with a stock which is of stronger growth.

The next rule requires that the inner bark of the scion and the inner bark of the stock be exactly united together, in order to facilitate the free course of the sap. This leads us to notice the most common method of grafting, called whip, or tongue-grafting. The name is given from the method of cutting the stock and the scion, sloping on one side, so as to fit each other, and then tying them together in the manner of a whipthong to the shaft or handle. The scion a and the stock b, as represented at fig. 1, are cut obliquely, and as nearly as possible at corresponding angles. The tip Fig. 1. of the stock is then cut off nearly horizontally, and a slit is made near the centre of the stock downwards, s, and a similar one in the scion upwards. The tongue, t, or wedge-like process, forming the upper part of the sloping face of the scion, is then inserted downwards in the cleft of the stock; the inner barks being brought closely to unite on one side, so as not to be displaced by tying, which ought to be done immediately with a riband of matting, or bass, brought in a neat manner several times round the stock. The next operation is to clay the whole over, an inch thick on every side, from about half an inch or more below the bottom of the graft, to an inch over the top of the stock, finishing the coat of clay in a kind of oval globular form, closing it effectually, so that no light, wet, nor wind may penetrate. Tongue-grafting is not materially different from whipgrafting, but by comparing the following directions, in connection with those given above, any difficulties which may appear to attend this operation will doubtless be removed. The stock being ready, cut it off at three or four inches from the ground, and with a very sharp, straight, and narrow-bladed grafting-knife, cut a thin slip of wood and bark upward, from about two inches below the top of the shortened stock. Make this cut at one pull of the knife, inserting the edge rather horizontally, and when it has gone through the bark, and into the wood a little short of the middle, pull straight upwards (see Fig. 2, No. 1, a, b.) Then, at less than halfway down this, cut a thin tongue (1, t,) not more than three-eighths of an inch long. Proceed in the same

way with the bottom part of the scion; make a sloping cut (2, c, d,) of about the same length as the cut in the stock; then make a tongue (2, t,) to correspond with that of the stock (1, t), but cut upward instead of downward. Then place the scion upon the stock, inserting the tongue of the scion into the tongue of the stock. Bring the four edges of the bark,—that is, the two edges of the cut in the top of the stock, and the two corresponding edges of the cut in the bottom of the scion, to meet precisely; or, if the scion be in diameter a smaller piece of wood than the stock, then let only one meet, but be sure that that one meets precisely. But observe well that this can never be, unless the first cut in the stock and that in the scion be as even as a die, and performed with a knife scarcely less sharp than a razor.


Fig. 2.

The two parts thus joined, the tongues and the stock clasping one another, as at No. 3, t, must be bound closely to one another by bass. A single piece of this, tied on to the stock an inch or so below the part grafted, and then wound closely up till it reach the very top of the stock, will, if well done, almost ensure the junction; but, lest parching winds should come, and knit up all vegetation, it is usual to put on, besides the matting, a ball of well-beaten clay, sprinkled over with a little wood-ashes, so as to cover the parts grafted, from an inch below to an inch above them. To prevent this ball of clay from being washed off by heavy rains, a covering of coarse canvass is sometimes tied over it.

Cleft-grafting is practised extensively by cottagers who frequently insert from twenty to sixty scions into one tree. The head of the stock or branch to b grafted is sawn off, (fig. 3, a,) and the stump or limb i split with a strong knife and hammer, or even with a bill hook in the absence of a more refined tool; the graft i then cut into a sort of blade, s, two inches in length the split is forced open with a chisel, and the scion passed into the cleft, (g). When the chisel is with drawn the stock closes firmly on the graft, the limb i tied round with soft string, and the stock and graft ar clayed over, as in the case of whip-grafting. Sometime two or three scions are inserted into one stock as indi cated by the lines marked, 2, 3, in our engraving. objections to this mode of grafting, are, that the stoc or branch is left long uncovered, and where it is split t introduce the scions it frequently becomes unsound.

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The other methods of grafting, with the subseque treatment of grafted trees, will form the subject of second notice.



BUT though our ever-varying sky
Will oft the weatherwise defy,
Exact the future change to know;
Oft too its general state will show
That not impertinent or vain
Is many an old prophetic strain
Of sage experience; and 'tis true,
That March will oft at first indue
The lion's untam'd form, and pour
Abroad the blustering tempest's roar,
Which join'd with "April's" genial "showers"
Will fill" May's" lap with blooming "flowers."
MANT'S Months.

FICKLE as our seasons are, we have generally a sufficient
proportion of boisterous weather during the month of
March to justify the old sayings respecting it, and to
remind us of the homely proverb of our forefathers,

Which mark'd its entrance fierce and wild
In contrast with its exit mild,

And told how March to meet them came
"A lion," but retir'd "a lamb."

Regulated by the state of the weather, the numerous
employments of the farmer now proceed at a brisk rate.
Previous to entering on the details of agricultural opera-
tions, it is necessary to remark that some of those we
shall describe have been carried on during the latter
part of the last month in warm districts, but that the
present may be looked upon as the prevailing season for
the labours to which we give prominent attention.

First, then, let us consider the operation of barley sowing, which may be looked upon as next in importance to wheat sowing. Among the cereal grains cultivated in Great Britain, barley holds the second place, and though its use as bread-corn has greatly diminished amongst us, the demand for it, as a means of producing stimulating beverages has more than compensated for the deficiency. This grain is more cultivated than any other, in Sweden and Norway, where the short summers do not admit of the ripening of wheat, but are quite long enough for the perfection of a crop which requires so short a time in the soil as barley. The agriculturists of Spain and Sicily get two crops in the year, from the same soil, one being sown in autumn and reaped in May, the other sown in May and reaped in autumn. Barley may be propagated over a much wider range of soil than wheat, and has the superior advantages of growing upon Eight soils, and coming quickly to maturity. Yet in Britain tais crop is extremely liable to injury on account of the large proportion of wet weather, to which our climate is subject. A heavy shower, falling at seed time, will almost ruin a crop; and long continued rain, in any stage of its growth, is particularly hurtful.

objected to by some on account of the weight of the ear, which makes it liable to lodge. Sprat, or battledore barley, (Hordeum zeocriton,) is known by its low stature, coarse straw, and short broad ears, with long awns. The length of the awns and the crowded growth of the grains, form a protection from the attacks of birds; but as the straw is scanty and but of little use, this kind is not so much cultivated as either of the before named. Other varieties of barley are known as Thanet barley, Putney barley, and Chevalier barley, which at present is in high repute. In choosing grain for sowing, the farmer is careful to select that which is of a pale, but lively yellow colour with a whitish cast, and if the rind be slightly shrivelled, he is all the better pleased, as it is a proof that the barley is thin skinned; whereas if the skin were thick the grain might look smooth and full on the outside, while the flour had shrunk away from it within. With barley, as with other grain, it is quite necessary to change the seed from time to time, by sowing the growth of a different soil, otherwise the produce will deteriorate every year. Barley prospers best in a light, rich, finely pulverised loam: it generally follows turnips, and is often sown after wheat or oats. According to Brown, when sown after turnips it is generally taken with one furrow, which is given as fast as the turnips are consumed, the ground thus receiving much benefit from spring frosts. But often two or more furrows are necessary for the fields last consumed, because when a spring drought sets in, the surface, from being poached by the removal or consumption of the crop, gets so hardened as to render a greater quantity of ploughing, harrowing, and rolling necessary than would otherwise be called for. When barley succeeds beans or peas, one winter and one spring ploughing are usually bestowed upon the soil, but when it follows wheat or oats, three ploughings are necessary to bring the land into proper condition. These operations can seldom be carried on in a wet or backward season, so as to repay the cultivator for the expense of labour.

Barley occupies the soil but a short time, therefore manure can seldom be given with advantage, and the seed is generally sown on ground that has been previouly enriched by some other crop. A common method of preparing the seed is by simply steeping it in water. For this purpose one third of the contents of the sacks is taken out, to allow for the swelling of the grain, and the sacks with the grain are then laid under water for twenty-four hours, or if the weather be very dry, for thirty-six hours. The grain is then sown wet from steeping, and is found to scatter well, as clean water does not render it tenacious. A third or fourth more seed is allowed than in the case of dry grain, to make up for the proportionate swelling of the barley. The quantity of seed allowed to an acre is different according to the soil. Upon the ordinary run of lands, about one sack per acre is the usual quantity, on poor lands considerably more, while on very rich soils, eight pecks per acre has been found sufficient. When barley is sown broad-cast, grass seeds and clover are sown with the grain. It is, however, sometimes sown in rows by the drill, or by ribbing. This latter process is a kind of imperfect ploughing, which was formerly adopted in autumn, on land intended for barley; but as it is liable to many objections, it has gradually fallen into disuse, and when it is now resorted to, it is employed as a substitute for the drill after the spring ploughings.

There are six species and sub-species of barley in cultivation, besides varieties; but we shall merely notice the four sorts that are most generally known. Spring barley (Hordeum vulgare,) is the most usually cultivated in the southern and eastern districts of England. It may be known by its double row of erect beards or awns, and also by its thin husk which makes it valuable to the maltster. Winter, or square barley, (Hordeum hexastichon,) is much grown in the northern counties, and in Scotland. The grains are large and thick-skinned, and disposed in six rows. This species is very hardy, but, on account of its thick rind, it is ill adapted for malting. A variety of this is called Bigg, Byg, or Barley-big. It is earlier than the parent variety, and has the grains smaller, and thickly arranged in six rows. Professor Martyn says he has frequently counted forty-two grains in one ear of bigg, when common, or long-eared barley, had only twenty-two. Common, or long-eared barley, (Hordeum dustichon,) is known by its very long flattened spike or ear, with chaff ending in an awn, sixteen times the length of the grain. The husk of the grain is thin, and its malting qualities are excellent. This species is partially cultivated throughout England and Scotland, but is And as the grey appearance given to the oak by the

It appears that those who have been the most successful cultivators of barley, in days gone by, have paid particular attention to the budding of trees, and have regulated the time of sowing chiefly by that circumstance. Thus the Norfolk farmers had a maxim, handed down from father to son:

When the oak puts on his gosling grey,
'Tis time to sow barley night and day.

first opening of the buds, was a sign to these agricultur- | ists, so the leafing of the birch is the token to the Swedish farmers, that it is the right season to begin their labours; and various signs of a similar nature are attended to in every country by the diligent observer of Nature. It has been urged that a farmer who would keep a calendar of nature for a few years, and at the same time register his days of sowing and the issue of his harvests, would secure an excellent set of rules for his guidance, applicable to the exact circumstances of situation and soil in which he is placed. The practice of very early sowing has been of late years resorted to.

to man.

The middle of this month is the season preferred by most farmers for sowing oats. This grain is of easier cultivation than barley, and will grow on almost any soil, and in situations where neither wheat nor barley can be raised. Cool and moist climates are most suitable for its growth, and its hardy nature makes it very serviceable It was formerly used in this country as breadcorn, but now acquires its importance as food for horses. The varieties of this grain are numerous. The most esteemed in Great Britain is the potato oat, so called from the first plants having been found growing on a heap of manure along with potato plants. This and the Poland oat are best adapted for lowlands; the white or common oat, and the Tartar or long bearded oat, for inferior soils. Oats are sown broad-cast in the proportion of from four to six bushels per acre. The crop is best in quantity and quality when it succeeds grass, and the soil is then left in good condition for succeeding crops. There is no preparation of the seed required previous to sowing oats; but the grain selected should be fresh, plump, and free from the seeds of weeds.

Field peas are also sown at this time. They may be considered, in common with all leguminous plants, as exhausting the soil less than other crops, and thus possessing an advantage in addition to the quantity of nourishing food they afford. They form a complete shade for the land, and drop many of their leaves upon it; they are also considered by the scientific agriculturist to nourish the soil by causing a stagnation of carbonic acid gas on its surface. The varieties of this vegetable are many; but these, with its growth and culture, are well known.

A more important and equally familiar vegetable has also to be committed to the earth during this month. From the middle to the end of March is the proper season for planting the early crop of potatoes, and there is this peculiar advantage attending their culture, i. e., that an almost unlimited supply may be raised, without diminishing the breadth of our corn-lands. The potato thrives well where it would be impossible to raise corn; so that ground which seems little else than loose sand, will often yield this vegetable in perfection. In some of the hilly districts of Scotland, the rains are so frequent in all seasons of the year, that their cessation for a whole week is looked upon as something extraordinary. In these situations, so peculiarly unfavourable to all other crops, the potato succeeds well, and forms an important resource to the inhabitants.

Potatoes are planted either whole, or divided into as many parts as there are sets, or eyes. They are planted in lines from twenty to twenty-four inches apart, either in drills, or by the dibble, at intervals of from twelve to fifteen inches. From eighteen to twenty-eight bushels of seed potatoes are allowed to the acre. Nothing more is required for their culture than to keep them free from weeds and to hoe up the earth round the lower part of the stem when they are about a foot high. No plant profits more by change from one district to another than the potato; and thus, though by the planting of the tubers no new varieties can be obtained, yet a good sort of potato may be extended, preserved, and still farther improved. A frequent change of the product of one soil for that of

another has also been found the means of preventing a destructive disease to which the potato plant is liable, known by the technical name of the curl or curl top, from the shrivelled appearance it gives to the plant. It has been found, however, that over-ripeness in the seedpotatoes is a principal cause of this disease, and it seldom happens that with attention to change of soil, and with care that the seed be not fully ripe, a crop of potatoes is infested with it.

When we consider the productiveness of the potato, and the circumstances attending its growth and culture, we have every reason to be thankful for its introduction, as affording one of the cheapest articles of substantial food, which a population can use. With respect to the produce and nourishment afforded by it, in comparison with that afforded by wheat, we have some interesting statements in JACOB's Tracts on the Corn Trade; by which it appears that an acre of land with the same degree of labour bestowed upon it, and the same proportion of manure applied to it, may yield either three hundred bushels of potatoes, or twenty-four bushels of wheat. The food produced by the former at thirty-eight pounds to the bushel will be 11,400 lbs. in weight; the food from the latter, at sixty pounds to the bushel, will be 1400 lbs., making the weight of the wheat to be one-eighth that of the potatoes. Now the chemical experiments of Sir Humphrey Davy show that wheat contains about three times the quantity of mucilage or starch, and of gluten or albumen, of what is contained in a like quantity of potatoes. The difficulty of estimating the nutritive power of the two substances is not wholly removed by this appeal to chemistry, because we are still ignorant of the effect which the combination of the saccharine matter with the mucilage and gluten may produce, when used as aliment. A small addition of the former to the two latter may communicate to the whole mass a degree of nutritive power very far exceeding its own separate proportion of weight: without being far from the truth we may probably estimate the nutritive power of wheat to that of potatoes as about seven is to two; or that two pounds of wheat afford as much subsistence as seven pounds of potatoes. Assuming then that the consumption of an individual is yearly one quarter, or 480 lbs. of wheat, or an equivalent quantity of potatoes, being 1680 lbs., then one acre of wheat will produce sustenance for three persons, or one acre of potatoes will afford it to nearly seven persons.

The sower has not finished his labours during this month when he has attended to the crops already spoken of. There are carrot, parsnep, and grass seeds to be committed to the earth; but these, with the processes connected with them, we cannot here enlarge upon. This is in an especial manner the seed-time of the year, and therefore it is a season of hope and expectation. The labour connected with the farming operations of the month is enlivened by the thought of the future recompense. Happy are they who in this, as in every other concern, having done their utmost in the way of industry and duty, can calmly leave the result to the Disposer of all events, and though their faith be tried by "unkind seasons" and inauspicious weather, can check the murmurings of impatience and despondency, and believe that all will yet be well. Having diligently embraced every opportunity afforded to them, such persons will be ready to join in the language of the poet, and say:

Man's work is done. ALL BOUNTEOUS POWER!
"Tis now for Thee the genial hour
To regulate; for Thee to rear
The germ, the blade, the pregnant ear,
Last on the ear the full-grown grain,
Each in its kind: erect to train
The bristling barley, give the oat
Light on the buoyant air to float,
Abroad the winding pea to trail,
And bid the blossomed bean exhale

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