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4. What claims had William I., Stephen, James I., George I., to the English throne? Who were their immediate predecessors? What European sovereigns were contemporary with any of them?

5. Mention the most important events that occurred, and the most remarkable persons who flourished, either between 1500 or 1550, or between 1700 and 1750 A.D.

6. Who were the parties, and who the most remarkable individuals engaged in the following wars, what were their causes and results, and what were the most important actions fought in them?

The Peloponnesian War, the second Punic War,

the Peninsular War, the American War.

7. Give some account of the establishment and extension of the Turkish power in Europe.

No. 2.

1. What were the principal causes which led to the French Revolution?


2. Give a sketch of the political state of Europe in year 1800.

3. Discuss briefly the most important political questions which have agitated Ireland during the last thirty years, mentioning the enactments they may have led to, and the most eminent men who have taken a prominent part in connection with them.

4. Who were the Jacobins, and why were they so called? Give a brief sketch of the lives and characters of three of the leading men among them.

5. What causes led to the war between England and America in 1812? How were the matters in dispute finally adjusted?

6. Mention the dates, the contracting parties, and the most important conditions of the following peaces or treaties: Tilsit, Leoben, Amiens, Jassy, Campo Formio, Adrianople.

7. Give a short account, with dates, of the following sieges: Saragossa, Ciudad Rodrigo, Antwerp, Toulon,

8. Who were the parties to the Quadruple Alliance in 1814? Where was it signed, and what were its provisions? What was the Holy Alliance, and why so called?

9. When and where did the following eminent persons flourish, and for what were they respectively famous Chateaubriand, Necker, Wittgenstein, Murat, Moreau, De Saussure, Diebitsch?

10. What additions have been made to the British Empire in India in the present century?

Mention briefly the circumstances which attended these annexations.

11. What are the colonial possessions at present (1) of Spain, (2) of Portugal?

Mention when they were severally acquired, and describe the constitution and present condition of one of them.

12. Point out any permanent traces of Napoleon's conquests still existing on the map of Europe.

13. Give some account of the following congresses and conferences, stating when they took place, what powers were represented, and what were the results: Erfurt, Presburg, Pilnitz, Rastadt, Vienna.

14. Who were the following persons? Mention the most important facts connected with them: Vergniaud, George Cadoudal, Argenteau, Edmund Burke, Don Pedro, Kutusoff, Casimir Perrier.

15. When and under what circumstances did Prussia become a kingdom? Trace the rise of her power as a On what occasions has she either made important acquisitions or sustained material losses of territory?


16. Mention in order the most memorable engagements which took place in the Peninsular war, and describe any one of them minutely.

17. Write a short account of the revolution in Belgium in 1830.

Questions in Section a of this subject are ordinarily set to candidates for situations in the Customs, the

Inland Revenue, and other offices in which a knowledge of English History is essential; while those under Section bare given to candidates for appointments under the Indian government. These latter situations being at present filled by unlimited competition, the mode of examination, as will be remarked by the larger number and more difficult nature of the questions, is far more severe than in other branches of the public service. Finally, questions under Section c are set to candidates in the Colonial, the Foreign, and other offices where a knowledge of universal history is required. Candidates for the situation of unpaid attaché are also required by the Commissioners to show " a general knowledge of modern history since the year 1789," and for text books they are particularly recommended" the fourth volume of Russell's Modern Europe, and so much of Heeren's Historical Manual of the Political System of Europe and its Colonies as treats of History since the year 1789."



A knowledge of either the ancient or modern languages is in many branches of the service merely required as a test subject" for candidates; in some others, however, specified before, an acquaintance with one or more languages is absolutely necessary. The following series of examination papers are arranged in the alphabetical order of the languages.

a. Arabic.

To be translated into Arabic.

Among the savage nations of hunters and fishers, every individual who is able to work is more or less employed in useful labour, and endeavours to provide, as well as he can, the necessaries and conveniencies of life for himself, or such of his family or tribe as are

hunting and fishing. Such nations, however, are so miserably poor, that from mere want they are frequently reduced, or at least think themselves reduced, to the necessity sometimes of directly destroying, and sometimes of abandoning, their infants, their old people, and those afflicted with lingering diseases, to perish with hunger, or to be devoured by wild beasts. Among civilised and thriving nations, on the contrary, though a great number of people do not labour at all, many of whom consume the produce of ten times, frequently of a hundred times, more labour than the greater part of those who work; yet the produce of the whole labour of the society is so great, that all are often abundantly supplied; and a workman, even of the lowest and poorest order, if he is frugal and industrious, may enjoy a greater share of the necessaries and conveniences of life than it is possible for any savage to acquire.—Adam


To be translated into English.

ވ. ملوك الفرس كلن سميناً مثقلاً قيل ان ملكا من انه لا ينتقع بنسه فجمع الأطباء على ان حتي دلك فصا كلما عالجوه لا يزداد الا

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يعالجوه من الاطباء فقال شحماً فيجبي اليه ببعض الحداق من

له انا اعالجك ايها الملك ولكن امهلني ثلاثه ايام حتي اتامل و انظر الي طالعك وما يُوافتك الادوية فلما مضَتَ له ثلاثه ايام قال أيها


الملكُ اني نظرتُ في طالعك فظهرت لي انه ما بني من عمرك الا اربعون يوماً فان لم تصدقني فاحبسني عندك لتقتص مني فامر الملك بحبسه

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الملاهي و ركبه الغم و الهم و احتَجَبَ عن و صار كلما مضي يوم يزداد هماً و يتناقص حاله فلما مضت الايام المذكورة طلب الحليم و كلمه في ذلك فقال له ايها المَلكُ أنما فعلت ذلك حيلة علي ذهاب شحمك و ما رايت لك دواء الاهذا الان يفيدك الدواء فخلع عليه الملك خلعة سنيه و أمر له بمال جزيل

A young

b. French.

To be translated into French.

nobleman of Genoa, named Marini, had a large estate in the island of Corsica, whither he went to regulate his affairs. At the years five or six every age of five-and-twenty he was married to a beautiful lady, called Monimia, who had refused the greatest

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