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COMMUNICATION OF APRIL, 11, 1921, ON THE CAIRO CON

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5. PROCLAMATION OF A GENERAL AMNESTY, MAY 30, 1921

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COMMUNICATION OF APRIL 18, 1921, DEALING WITH SAIYID
TALIB PASHA'S DEPORTATION

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COMMUNICATION WITH REGARD TO THE KURDISH DISTRICTS,
MAY 6, 1921

INCIDENCE OF CRIME

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Report by His Majesty's High Commissioner on the
Finances, Administration and Condition of
the 'Iraq, for the period from October
1st, 1920 to March 31st, 1922.

I.-SURVEY OF THE PERIOD.

1.-POLITICAL AND GENERAL.

In the long history of the 'Iraq there is perhaps no more pregnant The Political period than the 18 months under review in this report. It opened on strife Landscape. and uncertainty and the partial breakdown of the administration instituted during the years of military occupation; it closes on the picture of a National Government under an Arab Constitutional King, chosen by referendum to the people, its relations to the British Government to be defined by a treaty which will receive national confirmation at the elective congress which will shortly meet at Baghdad. To that congress will fall the duty of enacting an Organic Law which will give shape, on a, constitutional basis, to the institutions of the infant State

Yet though the change in the political landscape has been rapid it has. been effected by orderly development. Dissonant elements are being gradu. ally harmonized, inchoate instincts are merging towards sense of common interest in the stability of the new order and a growing appreciation of common nationality. It is on these features that I would lay special stress. Both from economic and from social aspects the population of the 'Iraq exhibits widely divergent stages of evolution; it comprises different races and creeds, and for the last 400 years its culture has been alien. Its future prosperity depends on the ability of its leading men to encourage fusion and the capacity of its peoples to see advantage in the abandonment of ancient separatist prejudices, that there may arise out of the strong existing sense of local patriotism and local piety, a wider loyalty and a more discerning reverence which will be prepared to subordinate the welfare of the group to the interests of the community as a whole. The growth of national intelligence, deliberately hindered by rulers who saw therein a menace to their own authority, may call for a prolonged exercise of high qualities of sympathy and mutual forbearance, but such foundations alone can assure the permanence of the 'Iraq kingdom of which the beginnings are here recorded.

Military Government, which had been in existence in the 'Iraq since the Occupation, terminated with my arrival at Basrah in the early days of October 1920, but in extensive areas military operations, in connection with the disturbances which had broken out during the summer, were still in progress and martial law prevailed. It will be convenient here to give a brief outline of the stages which led to the restoration of order.

(a) In the main area of disturbance, the valley of the Middle Euphrates, Karbala submitted unconditionally on October 13: Kufah, where the garrison had held out gallantly for three months, was relieved on October 17 and the submission of Najaf followed automatically. Samawah was relieved on October 12 and Rumaithah, which had witnessed in the beginning of July the first hostilities, was re-occupied a day or two later. By the end of November all the tribes of the Shamiyah had made surrender, on terms which included the handing over of arms and ammunition, and their leaders had ither given themselves up or had fled across the desert to Syria or the Hijaz. Diwaniyah was occupied in December by a column which encountered no resistance. Until the middle of February, when they were withdrawn from the whole area, troops were engaged in enforcing the terms of surrender. The tribes were heavily armed; to have left the Arab Government in its initial stages to deal with the problem they presented would have been to prejudice its success in the maintenance of administration. The fines were in the nature of a guarantee for the future. The total surrenders up to July 26th, 1921, were as follows: Rifles 65,435, of which over 21,100 are modern; S.A.A. 3,185,000 rounds.

E) The collapse of the movement in the Middle Euphrates reacted favourably on the Muntafiq, where, though the equilibrium had been preserved, largely by the co-operation of two influential shaikhs, sporadic disorders had resulted from endeavours on the part of emissaries from Najaf to raise the country. The return of the additional troops which had been sent

Termination of
ment and
Military Govern-
pacification of the
Country.

(a) The Middle Euphrates.

(b Muntafiq.

c) The Upper Euphrates.

(d) Diyala.

(e) Kirkuk.

(f) Mosul and Arbil,

Policy of H.MG.

The Shi'ah

from India in the autumn was an urgent measure of economy: military operations in this Division were therefore confined to a peaceful demonstration along the Gharraf in January. Under the circumstances it was impracticable to impose a general levy of rifle fines and the subsequent tranquility of this area suffered in consequence.

(c) On the Upper Euphrates, thanks to the unswerving support given by Ali Sulaiman, Shaikh of the Dulaim, to the preservation of social order, Fallujah and Ramadi had not suffered and Hit was reoccupied on October 8. Higher up the river it had been impossible to maintain control, and when in September 'Anah was evacuated by the tribal force provided by the Dulaim, as well as by the British authorities, it was attacked and looted by the inhabitants of the neighbouring town of Rawah, in league with sections of the 'Aqaidat from regions, at that time lawless, across the 'Iraq frontier. Rawah submitted in the middle of January, but civil administration was established until, in April, the organization of a desert force under the standard of the Dulaim made it possible to overcome the difficulties presented by the long desert route up the river.

It

) On the Diyala, where the rising had worn its most savage aspect, there was no shaikh of sufficient importance to control the petty tribes of the Division; even after they had been subdued by the operations of a British column, their private dissensions led to constant breaches of local peace. may fairly be said that the brutal license which had been aroused in August, 1920, was not laid to rest until a comprehensive inter-tribal agreement was concluded in Baghdad, under the auspices of the 'Iraq Government, in the last days of 1921.

(e) Kirkuk Division, though for a short time sympathetically affected by the troubles in Diyala; had yielded only in part to the contagion of lawlessness. When, the column which had been sent to Kifri after the murder of Captain Salmon was withdrawn, the influence of Shaikh Habib, the widely-respected head of the Talabani clan (he died in the spring of 1921), :stabilized the situation, and if the Dilo chief and other marauders remained at large for a considerable period, the fear of further trouble of a serious nature was at an end.

(f) Mosul Division, under the skilful handling of the Political Officer, Mr. L. Nalder, C.B.E., had remained generally tranquil, but here, as at Arbil, the main cause for anxiety lay in incitement from beyond the border. The intrigues of the Turkish Qaimmaqam of Jazirat ibn Umar kept the Arab tribes of the North-West frontier restless and culminated, on October 24, in a daring raid on the Mosul-Sharqah road, carried out by the Albu Hamad who had fled from the 'Iraq to take refuge with the Turks. This incident produced a profound impression, for travelling with the convoy which was attacked was the distinguished Arab Nationalist, Sharif al Faruqi, who, with several other persons, was killed by the raiders. Until the Shammar chiefs made submission to the Amir Faisal after his arrival in the 'Iraq, security on this line of communications was not assured. Throughout the period under review Kamalist propaganda has never been absent. though in the Mosul Division it has produced no more tangible results than the robbing of kalaks on the Tigris, tribal attacks on Faish Khabur and similar small annoyances. But in Arbit Division, where one of the Surchi chiefs who had been a party with Shaikh Ahmad of Barzan in the murder of Mr. Bill and Captain Scott, in December 1919, was still at large, conditions were more favourable to hostile influences. Rawanduz, which was evacuated by the Government of Occupation in the last days of August 1920, has been occupied almost uninterruptedly, as will be related in a subsequent section, by a small Turkish detachment.

But even if the complete pacification of the country was a process of several months, the salient feature of the period after my arrival was the rapid progress in that direction in the Middle Euphrates area. While the programme of the extremists was discredited by failure, men who held moderate views were encouraged by the benevolent intentions of the British Government which it was my mission to make known, namely that His Majesty's Government had charged me with the duty of assisting the leaders of the people to create in the 'Iraq, with the guidance of Great Britain, an Arab National Government, the constitution of which would be drawn up under the auspices of an elective assembly; but I pointed out that as long as sections of the tribes and communities were in active rebellion, it was obviously impossible to hold a general election and in a proclamation, issued on October 17. I expressed myself at a loss to understand the object of the tribes in continuing hostilities and desired them to put themselves into communication with my Political Officers with the object of clearing up any misunderstanding that might still exist. (Appendix I).

An attempt was made by some of the tribal leaders to refer negotiations religious leaders. to the foremost Shi'ah divine at Najaf, the Shaikh al Shari'ah, who had been induced to take an important part in promoting disturbances, and he himself proposed to send representatives to Baghdad. These suggestions

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