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of wine, only boiled to height. Both these would likewise be tried in oranges, lemons, and pomegranates; for the powder of sugar, and syrup of wine, will serve for more times than once.

625. THE Conservation of fruit would be also tried in vessels filled with fine sand, or with powder of chalk; or in meal and flour; or in dust of oak wood; or in mill.

626. SUCH fruits as you appoint for long keeping, you must gather before they be full ripe; and in a fair and dry day towards noon; and when the wind bloweth not south; and when the moon is under the earth, and in decrease.

627. TAKE grapes, and hang them in an empty vessel well stopped; and set the vessel not in a cellar, but in some dry place; and it is said they will last long. But it is reported by some, they will keep better in a vessel half full of wine, so that the grapes touch not the wine.

628. It is reported, that the preserving of the stalk helpeth to preserve the grape; especially if the stalk be put into the pith of elder, the elder not touching the fruit.

629. IT is reported by some of the ancients, that fruit put in bottles, and the bottles let down into wells under water, will keep long.

630. Or herbs and plants, some are good to eat raw; as lettuce, endive, purslane, tarragon, cresses, cucumbers, musk-melons, radish, etc. others only after they are boiled, or have passed the fire; as parsley, clary, sage, parsnips, turnips, asparagus, artichokes, though they also being young are eaten raw: but a number of herbs are not esculent at all; as wormwood, grass, green corn, centaury, hyssop, lavender, balm, etc. The causes are, for that the herbs that are not esculent, do want the two tastes in which nourishment resteth; which are fat and sweet; and have, contrariwise, bitter and over-strong tastes, or a juice so crude as cannot be ripened to the degree of nourishment. Herbs and plants that are esculent raw, have fatness, or sweetness, as all esculent fruits; such

are onions, lettuce, etc. But then it must be such a fatness, (for as for sweet things, they are in effect always esculent,) as is not over-gross, and loading of the stomach: for parsnips and leeks have fatness; but it is too gross and heavy without boiling. It must be also in a substance somewhat tender; for we see wheat, barley, artichokes, are no good nourishment till they have passed the fire; but the fire doth ripen, and maketh them soft and tender, and so they become esculent. As for radish and tarragon, and the like, they are for condiments, and not for nourishment. And even some of those herbs which are not esculent, are notwithstanding poculent; as hops, broom, etc. Query, what herbs are good for drink besides the two aforenamed; for that it may, perhaps, ease the charge of brewing, if they make beer to require less malt, or make it last longer.

631. PARTS fit for the nourishment of man in plants are, seeds, roots, and fruits; but chiefly seeds and roots. For leaves, they give no nourishment at all, or very little: no more do flowers, or blossoms, or stalks. The reason is, for that roots, and seeds, and fruits, inasmuch as all plants consist of an oily and watery substance commixed, have more of the oily substance; and leaves, flowers, etc. of the watery. And secondly, they are more concocted; for the root which continueth ever in the earth, is still concocted by the earth; and fruits and grains we see are half a year or more in concocting; whereas leaves are out and perfect in a month.

632. PLANTS, for the most part, are more strong both in taste and smell in the seed, than in the leaf and root. The cause is, for that in plants that are not of a fierce and eager spirit, the virtue is increased by concoction and maturation, which is ever most in the seed; but in plants that are of a fierce and eager spirit, they are stronger whilst the spirit is inclosed in the root; and the spirits do but weaken and dissipate when they come to the air and sun; as we see it in onions, garlick, dragon, etc. Nay, there be plants that have their roots very hot and aromatical, and.

their seeds rather insipid; as ginger. The cause is, as was touched before, for that the heat of those plants is very dissipable; which under the earth is contained and held in; but when it cometh to the air it exhaleth.

633. THE juices of fruits are either watery or oily. I reckon among the watery, all the fruits out of which drink is expressed; as the grape, the apple, the pear, the cherry, the pomegranate, etc. And there are some others which, though they be not in use for drink, yet they appear to be of the same nature; as plums, services, mulberries, rasps, oranges, lemons, etc. and for those juices that are so fleshy, as they cannot make drink by expression, yet, perhaps, they may make drink by mixture of water.

Poculaque admistis imitantur vitea sorbis.

And it may be hips and brier-berries would do the like. Those that have oily juices, are olives, almonds, nuts of all sorts, pine-apples, etc. and their juices are all inflammable. And you must observe also, that some of the watery juices, after they have gathered spirit, will burn and inflame; as wine. There is a third kind of fruit that is sweet, without either sharpness or oiliness: such as is the fig and the date.

634, IT hath been noted, that most trees, and specially those that bear mast, are fruitful but once in two years. The cause, no doubt, is the expence of sap; for many orchard trees, well cultured, will bear divers years together.

635. THERE is no tree, which besides the natural fruit doth bear so many bastard fruits as the oak doth: for besides the acorn, it beareth galls, oak apples, and certain oak nuts, which are inflammable; and certain oak berries, sticking close to the body of the tree without stalk. It beareth also misseltoe, though rarely. The cause of all these may be, the closeness and solidness of the wood, and pith of the oak, which maketh several juices find several eruptions. And therefore if you will devise to make any superplants, you must ever give the sap plentiful rising and hard issue,

636. THERE are two excrescences which grow upon trees; both of them in the nature of mushrooms: the one the Romans call boletus; which groweth upon the roots of oaks; and was one of the dainties of their table; the other is medicinal, that is called agaric, whereof we have spoken before, which groweth upon the tops of oaks; though it be affirmed by some, that it groweth also at the roots. I do conceive, that many excrescences of trees grow chiefly where the tree is dead or faded; for that the natural sap of the tree corrupteth into some preternatural substance.

637. The greater part of trees bear most and best on the lower boughs; as oaks, figs, walnuts, pears, etc. but some bear best on the top boughs; as crabs, etc. Those that bear best below, are such as shade doth more good to than hurt. For generally all fruits bear best lowest; because the sap tireth not, having but a short way: and therefore in fruits spread upon walls, the lowest are the greatest, as was for merly said: so it is the shade that hindereth the lower boughs; except it be in such trees as delight in shade, or at least bear it well. And therefore they are either strong trees, as the oak; or else they have large leaves, as the walnut and fig; or else they grow in pyramis, as the pear. But if they require very much sun, they bear best on the top; as it is in crabs, apples, plums, etc.

638. THERE be trees that bear best when they be gin to be old; as almonds, pears, vines, and all trees that give mast. The cause is, for that all trees that bear mast, have an oily fruit; and young trees have a more watery juice, and less concocted; and of the same kind also is the almond. The pear likewise, though it be not oily, yet it requireth much sap, and well concocted; for we see it is a heavy fruit and solid; much more than apples, plums, etc. As for the vine, it is noted, that it beareth more grapes when it is young; but grapes that make better wine when it is old; for that the juice is better concocted: and we see that wine is inflammable; so as it hath a kind of oiliness. But the most part of trees, amongst

which are apples, plums, etc. bear best when they are young.

639. THERE be plants that have a milk in them when they are cut; as figs, old lettuce, sow-thistles, spurge, etc. The cause may be an inception of putrefaction for those milks have all an acrimony: though one would think they should be lenitive. For if you write upon paper with the milk of the fig, the letters will not be seen, until you hold the paper before the fire, and then they wax brown: which sheweth that it is a sharp or fretting juice: lettuce is thought poisonous, when it is so old as to have milk; spurge is a kind of poison in itself; and as for sow-thistles, though coneys eat them, yet sheep and cattle will not touch them and besides, the milk of them rubbed upon warts, in short time weareth them away; which sheweth the milk of them to be corrosive. We see also that wheat and other corn, sown, if you take them forth of the ground before they sprout, are full of milk; and the beginning of germination is ever a kind of putrefaction of the seed. Euphorbium also hath a milk, though not very white, which is of a great acrimony and salladine hath a yellow milk, which hath likewise much acrimony; for it cleanseth the eyes. It is good also for cataracts.

640. MUSHROOMS are reported to grow, as well upon the bodies of trees, as upon their roots, or upon the earth; and especially upon the oak. The cause is, for that strong trees are towards such excrescences in the nature of earth; and therefore put forth moss, mushrooms, and the like.

641. THERE is hardly found a plant that yieldeth a red juice in the blade or ear; except it be the tree that beareth sanguis draconis; which groweth chiefly in the island Socotra: the herbamaranthus indeed is red all over; and brazil is red in the wood: and so is red sanders. The tree of the sanguis draconis groweth in the form of a sugar-loaf. It is like the sap of that plant concocteth in the body of the tree. For we see that grapes and pomegranates are red in the juice, but are green in the tear; and this maketh the tree of sanguis

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