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Sir David

and Letters

as palma ad pugnum. Your own love expressed to me, I heartily embrace; and hope that there will never be occasion of other, than intireness between us; which nothing but majores charitates shall ever be able to break off.

Interrogataries whereupon PEACHAM is to be


Questions in general.

1. WHO procured you, moved you, or advised you, relating to to put in writing these traiterous slanders which you have set down against his majesty's person and government, or any of them?

the history of Great Britain in

the reign of

First, p. 26.

James the 2. Who gave you any advertisement or intelligence Edit. Glas touching those particulars which are contained in gow. 1762. your writings; as touching the sale of the crown

lands, the deceit of the king's officers, the greatness of the king's gifts, his keeping divided courts, and the rest; and who hath conferred with you, or discoursed with you, concerning those points?

3. Whom have you made privy and acquainted with the said writings, or any part of them? and who hath been your helpers or confederates therein?

4. What use mean you to make of the said writings? was it by preaching them in sermon, or by publishing them in treatise? if, in sermon, at what time, and in what place meant you to have preached them? if, by treatise, to whom did you intend to dedicate, or exhibit, or deliver such treatise?

5. What was the reason, and to what end did you first set down in scattered papers, and after knit up, in form of a treatise or sermon, such a mass of treasonable slanders against the king, his posterity, and the whole state?

6. What moved you to write, the king might be stricken with death on the sudden, or within eight days, as Ananias or Nabal; do you know of any conspiracy or danger to his person, or have you heard of any such attempt?

7. You have confessed that these things were applied

to the king; and that, after the example of preachers and chroniclers, kings' infirmities are to be laid open: this sheweth plainly your use must be to publish them, shew to whom and in what manner.

8. What was the true time when you wrote the said writings, or any part of them? and what was the last time you looked upon them, or perused them before they were found or taken?

9. What moved you to make doubt whether the people will rise against the king for taxes and oppressions? Do you know, or have you heard, of any likelihood or purpose of any tumults or commotion?

10. What moved you to write, That getting of the crown-land again would cost blood, and bring men to say, this is the heir, let us kill him? Do you know, or have you heard of any conspiracy or danger to the prince, for doubt of calling back the crown-land?

11. What moved you to prove, that all the king's officers mought be put to the sword? Do you know, or have you heard of any petition is intended to be made against the king's council and officers, or any rising of people against them?

12. What moved you to say in your writing, That our king, before his coming to the kingdom, promised mercy and judgment, but we find neither? What promise do you mean of, and wherein hath the king broken the same promise?

There follows in the hand-writing of Secretary Winwood,

Upon these interrogatories, Peacham this day was examined before torture, in torture, between torture, and after torture; notwithstanding nothing could be drawn from him, he still persisting in his obstinate and insensible denials, and former answers.

January the 19th, 1614.









CXI. To the KING, concerning PEACHA M's


It may please your excellent Majesty,

IT grieveth me exceedingly that your majesty should be so much troubled with this matter of Peacham, whose raging devil seemeth to be turned into a dumb devil. But although we are driven to make our way through questions, which I wish were otherwise, yet, I hope well, the end will be good. But then every man must put to his helping hand; for else I may say to your majesty, in this and the like cases, as St. Paul said to the centurion, when some of the mariners had an eye to the cock-boat, Except these stay in the ship ye cannot be safe. I find in my lords, great and worthy care of the business: And for my part, I hold my opinion and am strengthened in it by some records that I have found. God preserve your majesty. Your majesty's most humble

Jan. 21, 1614.

and devoted subject and servant,


Ibid. CXII. To the KING, touching PEACHAM'S


It may please your excellent Majesty,

THIS day in the afternoon was read your majesty's letters of direction touching (a) Peacham; which because it concerneth properly the duty of my place, I thought it fit for me to give your majesty both a speedy and a private account thereof; that your majesty, knowing things clearly how they pass, may have the true fruit of your own wisdom and clearseeing judgment in governing the business.

First, for the regularity which your majesty, as a master in business of estate, doth prudently pre

(a) Peacham was accused of having inserted several treasonable passages in a sermon; but in a sermon never preached, nor intended to be made public: it had been taken out of his study. The king would have the judges give their opinion of this affair privately and apart; which my lord Čoke refused to do, as a thing of dangerous tendency. Peacham was found guilty of high treason; as was Algernon Sidney for the like crime, in Charles the second's time.

scribe in examining and taking examinations, I subscribe to it; only I will say for myself, that I was not at this time the principal examiner.

For the course your majesty directeth and commandeth for the feeling of the judges of the King's Bench, their several opinions, by distributing ourselves and enjoining secresy; we did first find an encounter in the opinion of my lord Coke, who seemed to affirm, that such particular and, as he called it auricular taking of opinions was not according to the custom of this realm; and seemed to divine, that his brethren would never do it. But when I replied, that it was our duty to pursue your majesty's directions, and it were not amiss for his lordship to leave his brethren to their own answers; it was so concluded: and his lordship did desire that I might confer with himself; and Mr. Serjeant Montague was named to speak with Justice Crook; Mr. Sergeant Crew with Justice Houghton; and Mr. Solicitor with Justice (a) Dodderidge. This done, I took my fellows aside, and advised that they should presently speak with the three judges, before I could speak with my lord Coke, for doubt of infusion; and that they should not in any case make any doubt to the judges, as if they mistrusted they would not deliver any opinion apart, but speak resolutely to them, and only make their coming to be, to know what time they would appoint to be attended with the papers. This sorted not amiss; for Mr. Solicitor came to me this evening, and related to me that he had found Judge Dodderidge very ready to give opinion in secret; and fell upon the same reason which upon your majesty's first letter I had used to my

(a) Sir John Dodderidge was born in Devonshire, and sucessively admitted in Exeter college, Oxford, and the Middle Temple, London: where having acquired the reputation of being a very great common and civil lawyer, as well as a general scholar, he was made serjeant at law 1 Jacobi, then the king's solicitor, and after that the king's serjeant, till he was advanced to be one of the judges of the King's Bench; where he sat many years. He died 13 Sept. 1628, in the 73d year of his age, and was succeeded by Sir George Crook, who tells us, Sir John Dodderidge was a man of great knowledge, as well in the common law, as in other sciences, and divinity. Stephens.

lord Coke at the council-table: which was, that every judge was bound expressly by his oath, to give your majesty counsel when he was called; and whether he should do it jointly or severally, that rested in your majesty's good pleasure, as you would require it. And though the ordinary course was to assemble them, yet there might intervene cases, wherein the other course was more convenient. The like answer made (a) Justice Crook. Justice Houghton, (b) who is a soft

(a) Sir John Crook, eldest son of John Crook, of Chilton in Buckinghamshire, inherited his father's virtues and fortunes; and was very famous for his wisdom, eloquence, and knowledge in our laws: who being speaker of the House of Commons in the last parliament of queen Elizabeth, had from her this commendation at the end thereof; that he had proceeded therein with such wisdom and discretion, that none before him had deserved better. After he had been recorder of London, and serjeant at law, he was 5 Jacobi made one of the justices of the King's Bench; where he continued till his death, 23 Jan. 1619. He was brother to Sir George Crook, so well known to the professors of the common law by his three large volumes of reports: which Sir George was one of the judges of the court of Common Pleas, in the latter end of the reign of king James, and in a few years after removed into the King's Bench; where he sat till the year 1641, when by reason of his great age and infirmities, the king at his own request gave him a gracious discharge, as appears in the preface to one of his books, where a due character is given of his virtues by his son-in-law Sir Harbottle Grimston, late master of the rolls. But certainly nothing can raise in us a more lively idea of his merit, than part of a letter written to the duke of Buckingham, by the bishop of Lincoln, lord keeper of the great seal, which I copied from his own hand.

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"Westminster coll. Feb. 11, 1624.

"May it please your Grace,

"I will not trouble your grace with any long congratulation, for "the honour your grace hath gained, in the preferring of this most worthy man Sir George Crook to a judge in his place. I know you "must meet with the applause of this act from every man that cometh "from hence. In good faith I never observed in all my small ex"perience any accident in this kind, so generally and universally accompanied with the acclamation of all kind of people.


"I am importuned, by the rest of the judges of the Common Pleas, "to return their most humble and hearty thanks to the king's majesty for his choice, and to assure his majesty, that though his ma"jesty hath been extraordinary fortunate, above all his predecessors,


in the continual election of most worthy judges; yet hath his ma"jesty never placed upon any bench a man of more integrity and "sufficiency than this gentleman: for which act they do with tears "in their eyes praise and bless him." Stephens.

(6) This expression is to be understood in a favourable sense,

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