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more certain, a second account was taken the same year; and the number found the same within 200. In 1755, the inhabitants were increased to 126,661. Their number, therefore, in 1758, could scarcely be less than 134,000; and must have been to the annual burials nearly as 26 to 1. This proportion is higher than could be expected in a town so considerable; and also so much crowded, as to have, at an average, 16 inhabitants in every house. But an observation already made, must be here remembered. BERLIN, for many years, had been increasing very fast, by a conflux of people from the surrounding country and provinces. About the year 1700, the medium of annual burials was no more than 1000. In 50 years, therefore, it has more than quadrupled itself. In a city increasing with such rapidity, the ratio of inhabitants to the annual deaths, must be greatly above the just standard.Were there now such accessions to LONDON of deserters from the country, in the beginning of mature life, as would cause the number of inhabitants to increase at the rate of 10,000 every year, it would in 50 years be doubled; and the proportion of inhabitants to deaths would rise gradually, till it came to be about one-third greater. BERLIN, we have seen, has, in fact, increased at double this rate; and, therefore, the number of inhabitants dying annually in it is in reality yery high.

The ingenious Susmilch, to whose works

78

24

I owe my information concerning BERLIN, makes the proportion of people who die annually in great towns, to be from to in moderate towns, from to; and in the country from to. The observations and facts in this Essay, joined to those which will be found in the second Essay, and the Supplement in this volume, prove, I think, that these proportions may be more truly stated as follows. Great towns, from

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or to or. Moderate towns, from to. The country, from or, to This, however, must be understood with exceptions. There may be moderate towns so ill situated, or whose inhabitants may be so crowded together, as to render the proportion of deaths in them greater than in the largest towns: And, of this, EDINBURGH, if it is not now, was 30 years ago. an example. There may be also great towns in which, from a sudden increase, this proportion may be less than in small towns: And of this I have just given an example in BERLIN. On the contrary; there may be moderate towns so advantageously circumstanced as to be equally healthy with many country parishes; and of this, Chester seems to be a very singular instance. See the Introduction to the Tables in this volume.And there are some country parishes so ill situated as to be no less unhealthy than great towns; of which a marshy parish in Switzerland, described in a letter to Dr. Horsley in this volume, is an instance.

In

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In Nottingham, according to a Survey in Houses, 3267

Sept. 1779, exclusive of 294 in hospitals

Inhabts. 17,417

To a house, 5 Houses,

According to the Survey in 1802. 4977

To a family,4 Families, 6707 Inhabts. 28,861 To a house,

-36,169 To a family, 5

Families, 9093

13,328

4

5,136

44

728

3732

402

The parish of Holy Cross,Shropshire, in 1760
Altringham, Cheshire, in 1772.

1050

1029

Birmingham, in 1770

-6025

-30,801

15,303

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Families,61162 Inhabts. 27,246 To a house, 64
-17,121 To a family,4

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Auuual average of deaths for 5 years to 1771, 1391

of births

.....

1398

Sce an Essay towards the History of Liverpool, by Dr. Enfield, p. 23 to 34.

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Little Bolton

Bolton, in Lancashire, in 1773, including Houses, 1178

....

3386

17,416 To a house, 54

Bury, in Lancashire, in 1770,

463

2090

1341

7072

483

2407

667

3366

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218

259

1303

5

Worsley, Parton, Pendleton, Pendlebury,
and Clifton, Lancashire, in 1778......
Warrington, and its vicinity, by a Survey
1 in April 1761 .....
Maidstone, by a Survey in 1781

Families, 500
-1685

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Ibid. p. 165

Town and parish of Ashton under-Line, near Manchester, by a Survey in 1775. See Phil, Trans. Vol. 66, p. 164.

Tattenhall and Waverton, two parishes, near Chester, by a Survey in 1774.

Swindon, Wilts, by a Survey in 1781

Parish of St. Michael's, in Chester, by a Families, 1512
Survey in 1772

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-10,567 To a house, 42

To a house, 6

To a family, 43

To a house, 52

-15,632 To a family, 54

a house,

{To a family,44

1198 To a house, 4,9%

725 {To a family,43

To a house, 6

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Speen, adjoining to Newbury, in 1768.. Families,

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37,449

158,442

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Houses, 268,120

-1,123,163 To a house,4

The Island of Sicily, (See the end of the
2d Vol. of Brydone's Travels)....
In fourteen market towns mentioned by
Dr. Short in his Comparative History, Families, 20,371
page 58

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97,611. To a family,4

76,284

To a house, 4

Families, 2,370

9731 To a family,4

24,931

99,332

24121

2525j

13,786 {TO

To a house, 5, To a family,5

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To a house, 6

205

824

To a house, 4

NOTE. The additional columns in the preceding page are taken from a Survey made in pursuance of an Act of Parliament passed in the year 1802, "for taking an account of the Population of Great Britain, and the increase or diminution thereof."-If this Survey be accurate, the number of inhabitants must have increased very considerably since the time in which the enumerations were given by Dr. Price: The proportions, however, of inhabitants to the families at least, (which is one of the principal facts intended to be proved in these statements) are nearly

the same in both accounts.

M.

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