more to be depended on, and must give a juster valuation of lives among mankind at large, including all town and country inhabitants. I have, for my own satisfaction, constructed tables for SwEDEN and STOCKHOLM from the former of the data I have' mentioned (or the numbers dying every year in every stage of life, as given by Mr. Wargentin); but being afraid of crowding this volume too much with tables, I have not inserted them. The reader, if he chuses to make such tables for himself, is furnished with sufficient means of doing it in the first Essay in the beginning of this volume: and he will find, on comparing them with Tables 44th, &c. all the errors exemplified arising from the common methods of constructing tables of observation. In particular; he will find that though it appears from the tables for Sweden in the following collection, that the true expectation of a child just born in that kingdom, taking males and females together, is 35; yet, a table formed from the numbers dying in every stage of life in the method described in the second Essay in this Volume, will, (in consequence of the births exceeding the burials near a third of the burials) give this expectation only 25 years and three quarters; in connexion with which, he will also find, that in all the first stages of life life it gives the probabilities of living much too low. I must add, that such a table formed for Stockholm, and compared with the correct table (or Table 46th), will exhibit all the errors in the common tables for London, described in the Essay just referred to°. For e In a table thus constructed (that is, on the supposition that all who die at Stockholm were born there) the numbers in the column of the living will be, These totals divided by 10,000, and the quotients di minished by half unity, give 23.71 the expectation of a male at birth in Stockholm, and 28 the expectation of a female. The expectation, therefore, at birth of males and females conjointly, is, by this table, 25.85 (or 254) which agrees almost exactly with the expectation at birth by For instance. According to the correct table, the expectation of a male at birth in Stockholm is only 14; and of a female 18. But in a table formed from the deaths only, in the same manner with Table 13th for London, the former expectation comes out no less than 23, and the latter 28.— Again. The correct table makes 62 hundredths die annually of the males living between birth by a table formed in the same manner for London. See Essay II. p. 82, and Table 13th, in the following collection. It deserves particular notice, that there is a like agreement between these tables at every age between birth and the utmost extent of life, as will sufficiently appear from the following comparison. EXPECTATIONS of males and females conjointly, by a table of observations constructed from the bills, on the supposition that all who die were born. With these expectations compare the true expectations at Stockholm, deduced from Table 44th. 3 of the one in 65, and five years of age; one in males living between 5 and 10; between 8 and 16; one in 69, between 10 and 20; one in 40, between 20 and 30; one in 29 between 30 and 40; one in 22, between 40 and 50; one in 16, between 50 and 60; one in 11, between 60 and 70; and one in 7 between 70 and 80. But the other table, would make only 43 hundredths die between birth and five years of age; one in 70, between 5 and 10; one in 120, between 8 and 16; one in 117, between 10 and 20; one in 50, between 20 and 30; one in 30, between 30 and 40; one in 23, between 40 and 50; one in 18, between 50 and 60; one in 13, between 60 and 70; and one in 9 between 70 and 80. 9 ΤΟ one in 107, between 20 30 and 40; one in 24, Of FEMALES, the correct table makes fifty-nine hundredths die annually of the living between birth and five years of age; one in 3 of the living between 5 and 10; one in 90, between 8 and 16; between 10 and 20; one in 68, and 30; one in 41, between one in 30, between 40 and 50; between 50 and 60; one in 15, between 60 and 70; and one in 7, between 70 and 80. But the other table would make only fortytwo hundredths of females die between birth and five years of age; one in 72, Compare the last note with the correct Table, or Table 46th. between between 5 and 10; one in 180, between 8 and 16; one in 191, between 10 and 201; one in 70, between 20 and 30; one in 42, between 30 and 40; one in 35, between 40 and 50; one in 32, between 60 and 60; one in 21, between 60 and 70; and one in 10, between 70 and 80. Farther. The correct table 'makes the number of inhabitants (taking males and females together) dying annually at Stockholm, to be nearly a 16th and a half. The other would make it a 26th part of the inhabitants; whereas the number actually dying is nearly a 19th. The former table gives this proportion too great, because, in consequence of giving the true order in which a given number born will die, it gives only the expectation at birth in Stockholm; and therefore, cannot include the expectation at entrance of those who begin their residence in Stockholm after infancy-The other must give this proportion too little, for the reasons explained in the 2d Essay, p. 82, &c. In order to make a table constructed for Stockholm in the manner mentioned in the note p. 253, a just representation of the inha And this too on the supposition, that the probabilities of living, at every particular age, among the inhabitants born in Stockholm, are the same that they are among the whole body of inhabitants at that age, consisting of natives and foreigners; whereas the truth is, that the mortality of great towns falls more on the new comers, than on those who have been seasoned to it by having lived in it some time. VOL. II. " S bitants, |