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TWO

ADDITIONAL ESSAYS.

ADDITIONAL ESSAYS.

FIRST ADDITIONAL ESSAY.

Observations on the Difference between the Duration of Human Life in Towns and in Country Parishes and Villages.

Read to the Royal Society, June 22, 1775, and published in the 65th Volume of the Philosophical Transactions, Part II.

THIS Society has lately been much obliged to Dr. Percival, for the accounts he has communicated of the state of population in Manchester and other adjacent places". These accounts contain some facts, which appear to me curious and important. From the

See Philosophical Transactions, vol. lxv. p. 822, and vol. lxiv. p. 57.

The particulars of the surveys here referred to are the following.According to a survey executed with great

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the last in particular, there appears to be reason for concluding, that whereas a 28th part of the inhabitants die annually in the town of Manchester, not more than a 56th part die annually in the adjacent country. This implies a difference so great between the rates of human mortality in these different situations, that some, whose judgments I reverence, have thought it incredible. I will, therefore, beg leave to offer the following observations on this subject.

care there were, in the summer of 1773, in the town of

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.Married. ...Widowers .Widows.

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Salford,

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150........Female Lodgers....

44........Empty houses....

According to a survey in 1774 there were in the parisir of Manchester, containing thirty-one townships, exclusive of the towns of Manchester and Salford,

Tenanted Houses ....2371 | Under 15

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In the first place, the evidence in this instance is such as seems to leave little room for doubt. From an accurate survey it appears, that the number of inhabitants in the town was 27,246 in the year 1773. The number of deaths the same year (and also the average for 1772, 1773, and 1774), was 973; that is, a 28th part of the number of inhabitants. From an equally careful survey it appears, that the number of inhabitants in that part of the parish of Manchester which lies in the country, was 13,786. The number of deaths in 1772 was 246; that is, a 56th part of the number of inhabitants. The chief objection to this evidence is, that the number of deaths in that part of the parish which lies in the country is given only for one year; whereas the average of several years ought to be given. But first, the number of deaths in 1772, in the town, was nearly the same with the medium for seven years; and from hence there

The number of burials in the town, including the addition of '50 every year for Dissenters, was, in

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Within the parish, but out of the town, there are 13 episcopal and dissenting chapels; and the number of burials in all these chapels, in 1772, was 246. The christenings were 401. The number of burials brought from the country into the town is not considerable; and it is, I am informed, pretty exactly balanced by the burials carried out of the town into the country.

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