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as in all other instances, the consequences of following nature must be favourable.

The facts recited here, and at the end of the Second Essay, prove, that there is a difference between the mortality of males and females.-I must however observe, that it may be doubted, whether this difference, so unfavourable to males, is natural; and the following facts will prove, that I have reason for such a doubt.

It appears, from several registers in Susmilch's works, that this difference is much less in the country parishes and villages of BRANDENBURG, than in the towns: And, agreeably to this, it appears likewise, from the accounts of the same curious writer, that the number of males in the country comes much nearer to the number of females.

In 1056 small villages in BRANDENBURG, the males and females, in 1748, were 106,234, and 107,540, or to one another as 100 to 101. In twenty small towns they were 9544, and 10,333; or as 100 to 1081. In BERLIN they were, exclusive of the garrison, 39,116 and 45,938; or as 100 to 117.

At the time the accounts, mentioned in p. 49, were taken of the inhabitants in the province of NEW-JERSEY in AMERICA, they were distinguished particularly into males and females under and above 16.

This is put out of all doubt in the present Edition of this work, by the Tables in the following collection, deduced from the Chester and Sweden observations.


In 1738, the number of

Males under 16 was, 10639. Females 9700, Males above 16 11631. Females 10725. In 1745, these numbers were

Males under 16
Males above 16→

14523. Females 13754.

15087. Females 13704,

The inference from these facts is very obvious. They seem to shew sufficiently, that human life in males is more brittle than in females, only in consequence of adventitious causes, or of some particular debility, that takes place in polished and luxurious societies, and especially in great townsTM.

See on this subject the remark at the end of Table XLVI.

It will not be amiss to insert here the following accounts of the mortality of summer compared with that of winter, that is, of the four months, June, July, August, and September, compared with December, January, February, and March.

The deaths for 60 years at VEVEY in the former months, were to the deaths in the latter, as 2140 to 1697, or 5 to 4. (See Mr. Muret's Tables, p. 100.) In LONDON and at PARIS, this proportion is nearly the same. At EDINBURGH, as 4 to 3. In 25 country towns and parishes mentioned by Dr. Short (New Observations, p. 142) as 50 to 41.The sick admitted into the Hotel Dieu at Paris, for 40 years, from 1724 to 1763, were, in the former months, 314,824; in the latter, 238,522, or as 4 to 3, See Recherches sur la Population, &c. par M. Messance, p. 181. It is remarkable that the births also in winter to those in summer, are, at VEVEY, as 5 to 4; in LonDON, as 8 to 7; in the country towns and parishes just mentioned as 7 to 6.


Annual average of births and deaths in all SWEDEN for 13 years.-See the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, published at Paris, 1772, p. 20, &c.

In the four summer months
In the four winter months.

In April and May..

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In October and November........17178

Annual average of births and deaths in STOCKHOLM, for

five years. Ibid.

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Whole number of births and deaths at Gainsborough, for 20

years ended at 1771.

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Whole number of deaths at WARRINGTON in Lancashire,

for eight years ended at 1780.

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. 968



Whole number of births and deaths at MANCHESTER, for

nine years ended at 1780.

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Whole number of births and deaths at ECCLES near MANCHESTER, for five years ended at 1779.

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The deaths at CHESTER, for the years 1772, 1773, and 1774, were, in summer, 340; in winter, 478; in April and May, 185; in October and November, 274. And they were more numerous in Autumn than Spring, only because in one of these years the small-pox carried off 90 persons in October and November.


Of POPULATION; the general Causes which promote or obstruct it; and the present State of it in ENGLAND compared with its State formerly.

FROM the proportion of the births to the

deaths in the district of VAUD, as mentioned in p. 118, it follows, by the rule in the Note, p. 52, that the inhabitants ought to double their own number in 120 years. But the fact is, that so many migrate into foreign armies and with commercial views, that their increase is scarcely sensible. Mr. Muret, after observing this, enters into a general account of the causes which obstruct population in his country. Among these he insists particularly on LUXURY and the ENCROSSING OF FARMS. I wish his observations on these subjects were not applicable to the present state of this kingdom: But, perhaps, there is no kingdom in the world to which they are so applicable.-In consequence of the easy communication, lately created, between the different parts of the kingdom, the LONDON fashions and manners and pleasures, have been propagated every where; and almost every distant town and village now vies with the capital in all


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