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memory. 3. Technical memory.

2. Reducing intellectual to sensible things." That impressions are strongly made when the mind is free and disengaged, may appear from the permanent impressions made in early life, which often remain in old age, when all intermediate impressions are forgotten.

That impressions may be strongly made when the mind is influenced by passion, may be illustrated by the following anecdote, from the Life of Benvenuto Cellini, who says, "My father happened to be in a little "room in which they had been washing, and where there was a good "fire of oak burning, with a fiddle in his hand he sang and played "near the fire; the weather being exceeding cold, he looked at this "time into the flames and saw a little animal resembling a lizard, "which could live in the hottest part of that element: instantly per"ceiving what it was, he called for my sister, and, after he had shown "us the creature, he gave me a box of the ear: I fell a crying, while "he soothing me with his caresses, spoke these words, My dear "child, I don't give you that box for any fault you have com"mitted, but that you may recollect that this little creature which you see in the fire, is a salamander."" Instances of the same nature occur daily, of which one of the most common and practical is the custom, when boys walk the boundaries of parishes, for the officer to strike the boy, that he may remember in old age the boundery which he walked; so that Bacon's doctrine seems to be well founded, that these things which make an impression by means of strong affection or passion assist the memory. The mind when disturbed, being, for this purpose, free from the same cause, the exclusion of all thought but the predominant passion.

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That strong impressions are produced by a variety of circumstances, appears by "proving the same geometrical proposition by different forms of "proofs, as algebraic and geometric, &c. Reading the same several "truths in prose and in verse, and in different styles in each, &c."

That impressions ought not to be too hastily made, may be inferred from the old adage, that " great wits have short memories."

With respect to cutting of infinity, or what Bacon terms, "the limita"tion of an indefinite seeking to an inquiry within a narrow compass."

The first mode is, he says, by order or distribution; the second by places for artificial memory; which he says, " May either be places in a proper sense, as a door, a window, a corner, &c., or familiar and known persons, or any known persons, or any other things "at pleasure: provided they be placed in a certain order, as "animals, plants, words, letters, characters, historical personages, &c., though some of these are more, and some less fit for the

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« purpose. But such kind of places greatly help the memory, "and raise it far above its natural powers." And we are told by Aubrey, that Lord Bacon's practice corresponded with his theory; for "In his description of Lord Bacon's house at Gorhambury, "he says, 'Over this portico is a stately gallery, where glass windows are all painted: and every pane with several figures of beast, bird, "or flower: perhaps his lordship might use them as topics for local memory.

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The third mode is, he says, by technical memory, of which there are an infinite number of modes, not very highly prized by Bacon, (see page 195 of this work), of which old Fuller says, "It "is rather a trick than an art, and more for the gain of the "teacher than profit of the learners. Like the tossing of a pike, "which is no part of the postures and motions thereof, and is rather "ostentation than use, to show the strength and nimbleness of the arm, and is often used by wandering soldiers as an introduction to "beg. Understand it of the artificial rules which at this day are de"livered by the memory mountebanks: for sure an art therefore "may be made (wherein as yet the world may be defective), and that no more destructive to natural memory than spectacles are to the eyes, which girls in Holland wear from twelve years of age."

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With respect to the reduction of intellectual to sensible things, Bacon is more copious in his treatise "De Augmentis, where he says, "What is presented to the senses strikes more forcibly than "what is presented to the intellect. The image of a huntsman "pursuing a hare; or an apothecary putting his boxes in order; or a man making a speech; or a boy reciting verses by heart; or an "actor upon the stage, are more easily remembered than the notions " of invention-disposition-elocution-memory-and action."

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Referring to page lxvii of Analysis.

This seed has, for the last two centuries, been apparently not really dormant. It has, during this interval, been softening and expanding, and has lately appeared above the surface. By the labours of foreign authors, from Montesquieu to the benevolent Beccarria, and of various philosophers and political economists in this island, and, above all, of Jeremy Bentham, it is beginning to be admitted that "law is a science," and that "pour diriger les mouvemens de la pouppée humaine, il faudroit connoitre les fils qui la meuvent." Commerce has already felt the influence of these opinions, the injurious restraints, by which its freedom was shackled, are mouldering away and the lesson taught 2000 years ago, of forgiveness of debtors, has, after the unremitted exertions of philosophy during this long period, been lately sanctioned by the legislature. It is now no longer contended that the counting-house has any alliance with the jail, or that a man should be judge in his own cause, and assign the punishment of his own pain. These errors have passed away. In the first year of the reign of his present Majesty, arbitrary imprisonment for debt, was abolished by the establishment of the Insolvent Court. The same influence has extended to our criminal law. The restraints upon conscience are gradually declining and the punishment of death is receding within its proper limits, which it has for years exceeded, by the erroneous notion, that the power of a law varied not inversely but directly as the opinion of its severity.

Twenty years have scarcely passed away since Sir Samuel Romilly first proposed the mitigation of the punishment of death. His proposal was met in the English parliament as disrespectful to the judges, and an innovation by which crime would be increased, and the constitution endangered. During the excesses of the French revolution, the prudence of this country stood upon the old ways, dreading the very name of change; but these fears no longer exist: timidity is finding its level, and, instead of being perplexed by fear of change, our intellectual government encourages improvement, which, thus fostered, is now moving upon the whole island. In the same first year of the reign of his present Majesty, the following laws were enacted: An Act, to repeal so much of the several Acts passed in the thirty-ninth year of the reign of Elizabeth, the fourth of George I., the fifth and eighth of George II. as inflicts capital punishments on certain offences therein specified, and to provide more suitable and effectual punishment for such offences.

An Act to repeal so much of the several Acts passed in the first and second years of the reign of Phillip and Mary, the eighteenth of Charles II., the ninth of George I., and the twelfth of George II. as inflicts capital punishment on certain offences therein specified. An Act to repeal so much of an Act passed in the tenth and eleventh years of King William III., intituled, An Act for the better apprehending, prosecuting, and punishing of felons, that commit burglary, house-breaking, or robbery, in shops, ware-houses, coachhouses, or stables, or that steal horses, as takes away the benefit of clergy from persons privately stealing in any shop, ware-house, coach-house, or stable, any goods, wares, or merchandises, of the value of 5s., and for more effectually preventing the crime of stealing privately in shops, ware-houses, coach-houses, or stables.

May we not hope that during the next fifty years more progress will be made in sound legislation, than for some preceding centuries? and may we not ascribe these improvements partly to the exertions of this great philosopher, who, in his dedication of the Novum Organum to King James, says, "I shall, perhaps, when I am dead, hold "out a light to posterity, by this new torch set up in the obscurity of "philosophy."


Referring to page 319 of the body of the work.

There have been various editions of the New Atlantis. In 1631, it was translated into French, of which there is a copy in the British Museum; where there is also the New Atlantis continued A. D. 1660, by R. H. Esq. wherein is set forth a platform of monarchical government: and also in French, A. D. 1702, avec des reflexions sur Postitution et les occupations des academies, &c. par M. R.


ABEL and Cain, contemplation and action figured by, 55.
Abridgments, defects of, 306.

Accidents, their influence upon the mind, 294.

of words, 198.

Action and Contemplation, 224, 227.

necessary union between, 50.

figured in Cain and Abel, 55.

Adam, his employment in Paradise, 55.

Adoration, highest honour attainable among the Heathens, 62.

Adrian, a learned prince, 66.

Advancement in life, 269 to 292.

Affectation, deformity of, 258.

Affections, subdued to reason by eloquence, 211.

duties of, 237.

enquiry respecting, 245.

government of, a principal part of Ethics, 246.

poets and historians, the best doctors in the knowledge of, 246.

Alchemy, 147.

assistance derived by science from, 43.

Alexander, an example of the union of learning and power in arms, 15.

his education, 71.

his love of Homer, 71.

his preference of learning over empire, 71.

his shrewd speeches, 72.

his answer to Diogenes, 72.

to Calisthenes, 73.

his distinction between love of Alexander and love of the king, 74.
his answer to Parmenio, 74.

Allusive poetry, 121.

Ambiguity of terms, cautions against, 189.

Anatomy, deficience in, 163.

Ancients, interpretation of their fables, 44, 63.

honours rendered to eminent men among, 62.

inventors consecrated by, 178.

treasured up valuable observations in aphorisms or fables, 266.

Annals, component of history, 113.

Anthropomorphites, heresy of, 191.

Antipater, Alexander's knowledge of, 86.

Antiquity, overweening affection for, 46.

Antiquities, part of History, 107.

Antoninus Pius, a learned prince, 67.

Anytus, his accusation against Socrates, 15.

Apophegms of Cæsar, 118.

Aphorisms, a kind of methodical delivery, 203.


Aphorisms, excellence of, 204.

of Solomon, the wisdom and policy of, 260.

specimens of, 261 to 265.

the ancients treasured up valuable observations in, 266.

Argument, invention of, 183.

Aristippus, his answer to one reproving him for servility, 33.
Aristotle, his sparing use of feigned matter, 43.

errour of, in mingling philosophy and logic, 49.
his errour in undervaluing antiquity, 132.

his derision of the Sophists, 183.

defects in his labours, 213.

Art, duty of, to exalt nature, 179.

Arts and methods, errour of, in reducing knowledge into, 48.
Arts intellectual, division of, 176.

Arts liberal, when they most flourish, 169.

Arts military, when they most flourish, 169.
Astrology, 147, 171.

assistance derived by science from, 43.
Astronomy, exemplified in the book of Job, 57.
predictions of, 171.

Atheism, superficial knowledge inclines to, 13.
Athletique, 168.

Atlas, exposition of the fable of, 187.

Atticus, an example against irresolution, 19.
Authors, should be consuls, not dictators, 44.

Esculapius and Circe, exposition of the fable of, 160.

Basilisk, fable of, 281.

Behaviour, tendency of learned men to despise, 259.
Being, without well-being, a curse, 292.

Biography, most valuable species of history, 108.
deficiency in, 112.

Bird-witted minds, mathematics the proper study for, 144.
Body, knowledge of,

action of the mind on, 156.

good of, in what it consists, 158.

Books, new editions of, 215.

Borgia (Alexander), his saying of the French, 149.
Business, knowledge of, reduceable to precept, 259.
a branch of civil knowledge, 259.

habits of the Romans in respect of, 260.

wisdom and policy of the aphorisms of Solomon for, 260.
Cain and Abel, contemplation and action figured by, 55.
Callendar of existing inventions, 148.

of things not invented, 148.

of supposed impossibilities, 148.

of doubts and popular errours, 149, 150.

Carneades, conceit of Cato respecting the eloquence of, 14.
Cassander, his subtle answer to Alexander, 73.

Categories, cautions against ambiguity of speech, 189.
Cato, his conceit respecting the eloquence of Carneades, 14.
how punished for his censure against learning, 22.
Cæsar, example of learning and military greatness, 15, 75.
his writings, 76.

his shrewd speeches, 77.

his noble answer to Metellus, 78.

Celestial Hierarchy, supposed rank of, 54.

Ceremonial Law, its ordinances respecting meats, &c. 156.
Chaldean Astrology, 171.

Character, knowledge of, part of moral learning, 245.

how influenced by accidents of life, 244.

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