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kill the patient: but a friend, that is wholly acquainted with a man's estate will beware, by furthering any present business, how he dasheth upon other inconvenience; and, therefore, rest not upon scattered counsels; they will rather distract and mislead, than settle and direct.

tue or picture, than to suffer his thoughts to pass | your body; and, therefore, may put you in a way in smother. for a present cure, but overthroweth your health Add now, to make this second fruit of friend-in some other kind, and so cure the disease, and ship complete, that other point which lieth more open, and falleth within vulgar observation: which is faithful counsel from a friend. Heraclitus saith well in one of his enigmas, "Dry light is ever the best," and certain it is, that the light that a man receiveth by counsel from another, is drier and purer than that which cometh After these two noble fruits of friendship, from his own understanding and judgment: (peace in the affections, and support of the judg which is ever infused and drenched in his affec- ment,) followeth the last fruit, which is, like the tions and customs. So as there is as much differ- pomegranate, full of many kernels; I mean, aid ence between the counsel that a friend giveth, and and bearing a part in all actions and occasions. that a man giveth himself, as there is between the Here the best way to represent to life the manicounsel of a friend and of a flatterer; for there is fold use of friendship, is to cast and see how no such flatterer as is a man's self, and there is many things there are which a man cannot do no such remedy against flattery of a man's self himself: and then it will appear that it was a spaas the liberty of a friend. Counsel is of two ring speech of the ancients, to say, "that a friend sorts; the one concerning manners, the other con- is another himself; for that a friend is far more cerning business: for the first, the best preserva- than himself." Men have their time, and die tive to keep the mind in health is the faithful many times in desire of some things which they admonition of a friend. The calling of a man's principally take to heart: the bestowing of a self to a strict account is a medicine sometimes child, the finishing of a work, or the like. If a too piercing and corrosive; reading good books man have a true friend, he may rest almost secure of morality is a little flat and dead; observing our that the care of those things will continue after faults in others is sometimes improper for our him; so that a man hath, as it were, two lives in case; but the best receipt (best I say to work and his desires. A man hath a body, and that body is best to take) is the admonition of a friend. It is confined to a place; but where friendship is, all a strange thing to behold what gross errors and offices of life are, as it were, granted to him and extreme absurdities many (especially of the greater his deputy; for he may exercise them by his sort) do commit for want of a friend to tell friend. How many things are there which a man them of them, to the great damage both of their cannot, with any face, or comeliness, say or do fame and fortune: for, as St. James saith, they himself? A man can scarce allege his own are as men "that looks sometimes into a glass,merits with modesty, much less extol them: a and presently forget their own shape and favour:" man cannot sometimes brook to supplicate, or as for business, a man may think, if he will, that beg, and a number of the like: but all these two eyes see no more than one; or, that a gamester things are graceful in a friend's mouth, which are seeth always more than a looker-on ; or, that a man | in anger is as wise as he that hath said over the four and twenty letters; or, that a musket may be shot off as well upon the arm as upon a rest; and such other fond and high imaginations, to think himself all in all: but when all is done, the help of good counsel is that which setteth business straight: and if any man think that he will take counsel, but it shall be by pieces; asking counsel in one business of one man, and in another business of another man; it is well, (that is to say, better, perhaps, than if he asked none at all,) but he runneth two dangers; one, that he shall not be faithfully counselled; for it is a rare thing, except it be from a perfect and entire friend, tonour and good actions; therefore extraordinary have counsel given, but such as shall be bowed and crooked to some ends which he hath that giveth it: the other, that he shall have counsel given, hurtful and unsafe, (though with good meaning,) and mixed partly of mischief, and partly of remedy; even as if you would call a physician, that is thought good for the cure of the disease you complain of, but is unacquainted with

blushing in a man's own. So again, a man's person hath many proper relations which he cannot put off. A man cannot speak to his son but as a father; to his wife but as a husband; to his enemy but upon terms: whereas a friend may speak as the case requires, and not as it sorteth with the person: but to enumerate these things were endless; I have given the rule, where a man cannot fitly play his own part, if he have not a friend, he may quit the stage.

XXVIII. OF EXPENSE.

RICHES are for spending, and spending for ho

expense must be limited by the worth of the occasion; for voluntary undoing may be as well for a man's country as for the kingdom of heaven; but ordinary expense ought to be limited by a man's estate, and governed with such regard, as it be within his compass; and not subject to de ceit and abuse of servants; and ordered to the best show, that the bill may be less than the estima

tion abroad. Certainly, if a man will keep but of even hand, his ordinary expenses ought to be but to the half of his receipts; and if he think to wax rich, but to the third part. It is no baseness for the greatest to descend and look into their own estate. Some forbear it, not upon negligence alone, but doubting to bring themselves into melancholy, in respect they shall find it broken: but wounds cannot be cured without searching. He that cannot look into his own estate at all, had need both choose well those whom he employeth, and change them often; for new are more timorous and less subtle. He that can look into his estate but seldom, it behoveth him to turn all to certainties. A man had need, if he be plentiful in some kind of expense, to be saving again in some other: as if he be plentiful in diet, to be saving in apparel: if he be plentiful in the hall, to be saving in the stable, and the like; for he that is plentiful in expenses of all kinds will hardly be preserved from decay. In clearing of a man's estate, he may as well hurt himself in being in too sudden, as in letting it run on too long; for hasty selling is commonly as disadvantageable as interest. Besides, he that clears at once will relapse; for finding himself out of straits, he will revert to his customs: but he that cleareth by degrees induceth a habit of frugality, and gaineth as well upon his mind as upon his estate. Certainly, who hath a state to repair, may not despise small things; and, commonly, it is less dishonourable to abridge petty charges than to stoop to petty gettings. A man ought warily to begin charges, which once begun will continue: but in matters that return not, he may be more magnificent.

XXIX. OF THE TRUE GREATNESS OF

KINGDOMS AND ESTATES,

name than fiddling; being things rather pleasing for the time, and graceful to themselves only, than tending to the weal and advancement of the state which they serve. There are also (no doubt) counsellors and governors which may be held sufficient, "negotiis pares," able to manage affairs, and to keep them from precipices and manifest inconveniences; which, nevertheless, are far from the ability to raise and amplify an estate in power, means, and fortune: but be the workmen what they may be, let us speak of the work; that is, the true greatness of kingdoms and estates, and the means thereof. An argument fit for great and mighty princes to have in their hand; to the end, that neither by over-measuring their forces they lose themselves in vain enterprises; nor, on the other side, by undervaluing them, they descend to fearful and pusillanimous counsels.

The greatness of an estate, in bulk and territory, doth fall under measure; and the greatness of finances and revenue doth fall under computation. The population may appear by musters; and the number and greatness of cities and towns by cards and maps; but yet there is not any thing, amongst civil affairs, more subject to error than the right valuation and true judgment concerning the power and forces of an estate. The kingdom of heaven is compared, not to any great kernel, or nut, but to a grain of mustard-seed; which is one of the least grains, but hath in it a property and spirit hastily to get up and spread. So are there states great in territory, and yet not apt to enlarge or command: and some that have but a small dimension of stem, and yet apt to be the foundations of great monarchies.

Walled towns, stored arsenals and armories, goodly races of horse, chariots of war, elephants, ordinance, artillery, and the like; all this is but a sheep in a lion's skin, except the breed and disposition of the people be stout and warlike. THE Speech of Themistocles, the Athenian, Nay, number (itself) in armies importeth not which was haughty and arrogant, in taking so much where the people is of weak courage; for, much to himself, had been a grave and wise ob- as Virgil saith, "It never troubles a wolf how servation and censure, applied at large to others. many the sheep be." The army of the Persians Desired at a feast to touch a lute, he said, "He in the plains of Arbela, was such a vast sea of could not fiddle, but yet he could make a small people, as it did somewhat astonish the commantown a great city." These words (holpen a little ders in Alexander's army, who came to him, with a metaphor) may express two differing abili- therefore, and wished him to set upon them by ties in those that deal in business of estate; for, night; but he answered, "he would not pilfer if a true survey be taken of counsellors and states- the victory;" and the defeat was easy. When men, there may be found (though rarely) those Tigranes, the Armenian, being encamped upon a which can make a small state great, and yet can-hill with four hundred thousand men, discovered not fiddle: as, on the other side, there will be found a great many that can fiddle very cunningly, but yet are so far from being able to make a sinall state great, as their gift lieth the other way; to bring a great and flourishing estate to ruin and decay: and, certainly, those degenerate arts and shifts, whereby many counsellors and governors gain both favour with their masters, and estimation with the vulgar deserve no better

the army of the Romans, being not above fourteen thousand, marching towards him, he made himself merry with it, and said, "Yonder men are too many for an ambassage, and too few for a fight;" but, before the sun set, he found them enow to give him the chase with infinite slaugh ter. Many are the examples of the great odds between number and courage: so that a man may truly make a judgment, that the principal point

of greatness, in any state, is to have a race of mili-
tary men.
Neither is money the sinews of war,
(as it is trivially said,) where the sinews of men's
arms in base and effeminate people are failing;
for Solon said well to Crœsus, (when in ostenta-
tion he showed him his gold,) "Sir, if any other
come that hath better iron than you, he will be
master of all this gold." Therefore, let any
prince, or state, think soberly of his forces, except
his militia of natives be of good and valiant sol-
diers; and let princes, on the other side, that have
subjects of martial disposition, know their own
strength, unless they be otherwise wanting unto
themselves. As for mercenary forces, (which is
the help in this case,) all examples show that,
whatsoever estate, or prince, doth rest upon them,
he may spread his feathers for a time, but he
will mew them soon after.

hands of the owners, and not mere hirelings; and thus indeed you shall attain to Virgil's character, which he gives to ancient Italy:

"Terra potens armis atque ubere gleba." Neither is that state (which, for any thing I know, is almost peculiar to England, and hardly to be found anywhere else, except it be, perhaps, in Poland) to be passed over; I mean the state of free servants and attendants upon noblemen and gentlemen, which are noways inferior under the yeomanry for arms; and, therefore, out of all question, the splendour and magnificence, and great retinues, and hospitality of noblemen and gentlemen received into custom, do much conduce unto martial greatness; whereas, contrariwise, the close and reserved living of noblemen and gentlemen causeth a penury of military forces.

By all means it is to be procured, that the trunk of Nebuchadnezzar's tree of monarchy be great enough to bear the branches and the boughs; that is, that the natural subjects of the crown, or state, bear a sufficient proportion to the stranger subjects

The blessing of Judah and Issachar will never meet; that the same people, or nation, should be both the lion's whelp and the ass between burdens; neither will it be, that a people overlaid with taxes should ever become valiant and mar-that they govern; therefore all states that are tial. It is true, that taxes, levied by consent of the estate, do abate men's courage less; as it hath been seen notably in the exercises of the Low Countries; and, in some degree, in the subsidies of England; for, you must note, that we speak now of the heart, and not of the purse; so that, although the same tribute and tax laid by consent or by imposing, be all one to the purse, yet it works diversely upon the courage. So that you may conclude, that no people overcharged with tribute is fit for empire.

liberal of naturalization towards strangers are fit for empire; for to think that an handful of people can, with the greatest courage and policy in the world, embrace too large extent of dominion, it may hold for a time, but it will fail suddenly. The Spartans were a nice people in point of naturalization; whereby, while they kept their compass, they stood firm; but when they did spread, and their boughs were become too great for their stem, they became a windfall upon the sudden. Never any state was, in this point, so open to receive Let states, that aim at greatness, take heed how strangers into their body as were the Romans; their nobility and gentlemen do multiply too fast; therefore it sorted with them accordingly, for they for that maketh the common subject grow to be a grew to the greatest monarchy. Their manner peasant and base swain, driven out of heart, and, was to grant naturalization, (which they called in effect but the gentleman's labourer. Even as "jus civitatis,") and to grant it in the highest deyou may see in coppice woods; if you leave your gree, that is, not only "jus commercii, jus constaddles too thick, you shall never have clean un-nubii, jus hæreditatis;" but also, "jus suffragii," derwood, but shrubs and bushes. So in countries, and "jus honorum ;" and this not to singular perif the gentlemen be too many, the commons will sons alone, but likewise to whole families; yea, be base; and you will bring it too that, that not to cities, and sometimes to nations. Add to this, the hundredth poll will be fit for an helmet; espe- their custom of plantation of colonies, whereby cially as to the infantry, which is the nerve of the Roman plant was removed into the soil of an army; and so there will be great population other nations, and, putting both constitutions toand little strength. This which I speak of hath gether, you will say, that it was not the Romans been nowhere better seen than by comparing of that spread upon the world, but it was the world England and France; whereof England, though that spread upon the Romans; and that was the far less in territory and population, hath been sure way of greatness. I have marvelled some(nevertheless) an overmatch; in regard the middle times at Spain, how they clasp and contain so people of England make good soldiers, which the large dominions with so few natural Spaniards; peasants of France do not: and herein the device but sure the whole compass of Spain is a very of King Henry the Seventh (whereof I have spo- great body of a tree, far above Rome and Sparta ken largely in the history of his life) was profound at the first; and, besides, though they have not and admirable; in making farms and houses of had that usage to naturalize liberally, yet they husbandry of a standard; that is, maintained with have that which is next to it; that is, to employ, such a proportion of land unto them as may breed almost indifferently, all nations in their militia of a subject to live in convenient plenty, and no ser-ordinary soldiers; yea, and sometimes in their vile condition; and to keep the plough in the highest commands; nay, it seemeth, at this in

D

stant, they are sensible of this want of natives; | hath at hand, for cause of war, the propagation as by pragmatical sanction, now published, appeareth.

of his law or sect, a quarrel that he may always command. The Romans, though they esteemed It is certain, that sedentary and within-door the extending the limits of their empire to be arts, and delicate manufactures (that require great honour to their generals when it was done, rather the finger than the arm) have in their na- yet they never rested upon that alone to begin a ture a contrariety to a military disposition; and war: first, therefore, let nations that pretend to generally all warlike people are a little idle, and greatness have this, that they be sensible of love danger better than travail; neither must they wrongs, either upon borderers, merchants, or pobe too much broken of it, if they shall be pre-litic ministers; and that they sit not too long upon served in vigour: therefore it was great advan-a provocation: secondly, let them be pressed and tage in the ancient states of Sparta, Athens, ready to give aids and succours to their confedeRome, and others, that they had the use of slaves, rates; as it ever was with the Romans; insowhich commonly did rid those manufactures; but much, as if the confederates had leagues defenthat is abolished, in greatest part, by the Chris-sive with divers other states, and, upon invasion tian law. That which cometh nearest to it is, to leave those arts chiefly to strangers, (which, for that purpose, are the more easily to be received,) and to contain the principal bulk of the vulgar natives within those three kinds, tillers of the ground, free servants, and handicraftsmen of strong and manly arts; as smiths, masons, carpenters, &c. not reckoning professed soldiers..

offered, did implore their aids severally, yet the Romans would ever be the foremost, and leave it to none other to have the honour. As for the wars, which were anciently made on the behalf of a kind of party, or tacit conformity of estate, I do not see how they may be well justified: as when the Romans made a war for the liberty of Græcia; or, when the Lacedæmonians and Athenians made war to set up or pull down democracies and oligarchies: or when wars were made by foreigners, under the pretence of justice or protection, to deliver the subjects of others from tyranny and oppression, and the like. Let it suffice, that no estate expect to be great, that is not awake, upon any just occasion of arming.

No body can be healthful without exercise, neither natural body nor politic; and, certainly, to a kingdom, or estate, a just and honourable war is the true exercise. A civil war, indeed, is like the heat of a fever; but a foreign war is like the heat of exercise, and serveth to keep the body in health; for, in a slothful peace, both courages will effeminate, and manners corrupt; but howsoever it be for happiness, without all question for greatness, it maketh to be still for the most

But, above all, for empire and greatness, it importeth most, that a nation do profess arms as their principal honour, study, and occupation; for the things which we formerly have spoken of are but habilitations towards arms; and what is habilitation without intention and act? Romulus, after his death (as they report or feign) sent a present to the Romans, that above all they should intend arms, and then they should prove the greatest empire of the world. The fabric of the state of Sparta was wholly (though not wisely) framed and composed to that scope and end; the Persians and Macedonians had it for a flash; the Gauls, Germans, Goths, Saxons, Normans, and others, had it for a time: the Turks have it at this day, though in great declination. Of Christian Europe, they that have it are, in effect, only the Spaniards: but it is so plain, that every man pro-part in arms; and the strength of a veteran army fiteth in that he most intendeth, that it needeth not to be stood upon: it is enough to point at it; that no nation which doth not directly profess arms, may look to have greatness fall into their mouths; and, on the other side, it is a most certain oracle of time, that those states that continue long in that profession (as the Romans and Turks principally have done) do wonders; and those that have professed arms but for an age have, not-pey's preparation against Cæsar, saith, "Consiwithstanding, commonly attained that greatness in that age which maintained them long after, when their profession and exercise of arms hath grown to decay.

Incident to this point, is for a state to have those Jaws or customs which may reach forth unto them Just occasions (as may be pretended) of war; for there is that justice imprinted in the nature of men, that they enter not upon wars (whereof so many calamities do ensue,) but upon some, at the least specious, grounds and quarrels. The Turk

(though it be a chargeable business) always on foot, is that which commonly giveth the law; or, at least, the reputation amongst all neighbour states, as may well be seen in Spain, which hath had, in one part or other, a veteran army almost continually, now by the space of sixscore years. To be master of the sea is an abridgment of a monarchy. Cicero, writing to Atticus of Pom

lium Pompeii plane Themistocleum est; putat enim, qui mari potitur, eum rerum potiri;" and, without doubt, Pompey had tired out Cæsar, if upon vain confidence he had not left that way. We see the great effects of battles by sea: the battle of Actium decided the empire of the world; the battle of Lepanto arrested the greatness of the Turk. There be many examples, where sea fights have been final to the war: but this is when princes, or states, have set up their rest upon the battles; but thus much is certain, that he that

commands the sea is at great liberty, and may | clusion to say, "This agreeth not well with me, take as much and as little of the war as he will; therefore I will not continue it;" than this, "I whereas those that be strongest by land are many times, nevertheless, in great straits. Surely, at this day, with us of Europe, the vantage of strength at sea (which is one of the principal dowries of this kingdom of Great Britain) is great; both because most of the kingdoms of Europe are not merely inland, but girt with the sea most part of their compass; and because the wealth of both Indies scems, in great part, but an accessary to the command of the seas.

one.

find no offence of this, therefore I may use it:" for strength of nature in youth passeth over many excesses which are owing a man till his age. Discern of the coming on of years, and think not to do the same things still; for age will not be defied. Beware of sudden change in any great point of diet, and, if necessity enforce it, fit the rest to it; for it is a secret both in nature and state, that it is safer to change many things than Examine thy customs of diet, sleep, exerThe wars of later ages seem to be made in the cise, apparel, and the like; and try, in any thing dark, in respect to the glory and honour which thou shalt judge hurtful, to discontinue it by little reflected upon men from the wars in ancient time. and little; but so, as if thou dost find any inconThere be now, for martial encouragement, some venience by the change, thou come back to it degrees and orders of chivalry, which nevertheless again: for it is hard to distinguish that which is are conferred promiscuously upon soldiers and no generally held good and wholesome, from that soldiers, and some remembrance perhaps upon the which is good particularly, and fit for thine own escutcheon, and some hospitals for maimed sol- body. To be free-minded and cheerfully disposed diers, and such like things; but in ancient times, at hours of meat and of sleep, and of exercise, the trophies erected upon the place of the victory; is one of the best precepts of long lasting. As the funeral laudatives and monuments for those for the passions and studies of the mind, avoid that died in the wars; the crowns and garlands envy, anxious fears, anger, fretting inwards, subpersonal; the style of emperor, which the great tle and knotty inquisitions, joys and exhilarations king of the world after borrowed; the triumphs in excess, sadness not communicated. Entertain of the generals upon their return; the great dona- hopes, mirth rather than joy, variety of delights, tives and largesses upon the disbanding of the rather than surfeit of them; wonder and admiraarmies, where things able to inflame all men's tion, and therefore novelties; studies that fill the courages; but above all, that of the triumph mind with splendid and illustrious objects, as amongst the Romans was not pageants, or gau-histories, fables, and contemplations of nature. If dery, but one of the wisest and noblest institutions that ever was; for it contained three things, honour to the general, riches to the treasury out of the spoils, and donatives to the army: but that honour, perhaps, were not fit for monarchies, except it be in the person of the monarch himself, or his sons; as it came to pass in the times of the Roman emperors, who did impropriate the actual triumphs to themselves and their sons, for such wars as they did achieve in person, and left only for wars achieved by subjects, some triumphal garments and ensigns to the general.

you fly physic in health altogether, it will be too strange for your body when you shall need it; if you make it too familiar, it will work no extraor dinary effect when sickness cometh. I commend rather some diet for certain seasons, than frequent use of physic, except it be grown into a custom; for those diets alter the body more, and trouble it less. Despise no new accident in your body, but ask opinion of it. In sickness, respect health principally; and in health, action: for those that put their bodies to endure in health, may, in most sicknesses which are not very sharp, be cured To conclude: no man can by care taking (as only with diet and tendering. Celsus could never the Scripture saith) "add a cubit to his stature," have spoken it as a physician, had he not been a in this little model of a man's body; but in the wise man withal, when he giveth it for one of the great fame of kingdoms and commonwealths, it great precepts of health and lasting, that a man is in the power of princes, or estates, to add am- do vary and interchange contraries, but with an plitude and greatness to their kingdoms; for by inclination to the more benign extreme: use fastintroducing such ordinances, constitutions, and ing and full eating, but rather full eating; watchcustoms, as we have now touched, they may sowing and sleep, but rather sleep; sitting and greatness to their posterity and succession: but these things are commonly not observed, but left to take their chance.

exercise, but rather exercise, and the like; so shall nature be cherished, and yet taught masteries. Physicians are some of them so pleasing and conformable to the humour of the patient, as XXX. OF REGIMEN OF HEALTH. they press not the true cure of the disease: and some other are so regular in proceeding according THERE is a wisdom in this beyond the rules of to art for the disease, as they respect not suffi physic: a man's own observation, what he finds ciently the condition of the patient. Take one of good of, and what he finds hurt of, is the best a middle temper; or, if it may not be found in one physic to preserve health; but it is a safer con-man, combine two of either sort; and forget not

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