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astonishment, it is caused by the fixing of the mind upon one object of cogitation, whereby it doth not spatiate and transcur, as it useth; for in wonder the spirits fly not, as in fear; but only settle, and are made less apt to move. As for the casting up of the eyes, and lifting up of the hands, it is a kind of appeal to the Deity, which is the author, by power and providence, of strange wonders.

721. Laughing causeth a dilatation of the mouth and lips; a continual expulsion of the breath, with the loud noise, which maketh the interjection of laughing; shaking of the breast and sides; running of the eyes with water, if it be violent and continued. Wherein first it is to be understood, that laughing is scarce properly a passion, but hath its source from the intellect; for in laughing there ever precedeth a conceit of somewhat ridiculous, and therefore it is proper to man. Secondly, that the cause of laughing is but a light touch of the spirits. And not so deep an impression as in other passions. And therefore, that which hath no affinity with the passions of the mind, it is moved, and that in great vehemency, only by tickling some parts of the body and we see that men even in a grieved state of mind, yet cannot sometimes forbear laughing. Thirdly, it is ever joined with some degree of delight and therefore exhilaration hath some affinity with joy, though it be a much lighter motion: "res severa est verum gaudium." Fourthly, that the object of it is deformity; absurdity, shrewd turns, and the like. Now to speak of the causes of the effects before mentioned whereunto these general notes give some light. For the dilatation of the mouth and lips, continued expulsion of the breath and voice, and shaking of the breast and sides, they proceed, all, from the dilatation of the spirits; especially being sudden. So likewise, the running of the eyes with water, as hath been formerly touched, where we spake of the tears of joy and grief, is an effect of dilatation of the spirits. And for suddenness, it is a great part of the matter: for we see, that any shrewd turn that lighteth upon another; or any deformity, &c., moveth laughter in the instant, which after a little time it doth not. So we cannot laugh at any thing after it is stale, but whilst it is new and even in tickling, if you tickle the sides, and give warning, or give a hard or continued touch, it doth not move laughter so much.

rous parts: in fear and anger to the heart; in shame to the face and in light dislikes to the head.

Experiments in consort touching drunkenness. 723. It hath been observed by the ancients, and is yet believed, that the sperm of drunken men is unfruitful. The cause is, for that it is over-moistened, and wanteth spissitude: and we have a merry saying, that they that go drunk to bed get daughters.

724. Drunken men are taken with a plain defect, or destitution in voluntary motion. They reel; they tremble; they cannot stand nor speak strongly. The cause is, for that the spirits of the wine oppress the spirits animal, and occupy part of the place where they are, and so make them weak to move. And therefore drunken men are apt to fall asleep : and opiates, and stupefactives, as poppy, henbane, hemlock, &c., induce a kind of drunkenness, by the grossness of their vapour, as wine doth by the quantity of the vapour. Besides, they rob the spirits animal of their matter, whereby they are nourished: for the spirits of the wine prey upon it as well as they: and so they make the spirits less supple and apt to move.

725. Drunken men imagine every thing turneth round: they imagine also that things come upon them: they see not well things afar off; those things that they see near hand, they see out of their place; and sometimes they see things double. The cause of the imagination that things turn round is, for that the spirits themselves turn, being compressed by the vapour of the wine, for any liquid body upon compression turneth, as we see in water, and it is all one to the sight, whether the visual spirits move, or the object moveth, or the medium moveth. And we see that long turning round breedeth the same imagination. The cause of the imagination that things come upon them is, for that the spirits visual themselves draw back; which maketh the object seem to come on; and besides, when they see things turn round and move, fear maketh them think they come upon them. The cause that they cannot see things afar off, is the weakness of the spirits; for in every megrim or vertigo there is an obtenebration joined with a semblance of turning round; which we see also in the lighter sort of swoonings. The cause of seeing things out of their place, is the refraction of the spirits visual; for the vapour is as an unequal medium; and it 722. Lust causeth a flagrancy in the eyes, and is as the sight of things out of place in water. The priapism. The cause of both these is, for that cause of seeing things double, is the swift and in lust, the sight and the touch are the things unquiet motion of the spirits, being oppressed, to desired, and therefore the spirits resort to those and fro; for, as was said before, the motion of parts which are most affected. And note well the spirits visual, and the motion of the object, in general, for that great use may be made of the make the same appearances; and for the swift observation, that, evermore, the spirits in all pas-motion of the object, we see that if you fillip a

sions, resort most to the parts that labour most, or are most affected. As in the last which hath been mentioned, they resort to the eyes and veneVOL. II.-13

lute-string, it showeth double or treble.

726. Men are sooner drunk with small draughts than with great. And again, wine sugared ineI

briateth less than wine pure. The cause of the | rosive; the pine-apple hath a kernel that is former is, for that the wine descendeth not so fast strong and abstersive; the fruit of the brier is to the bottom of the stomach, but maketh longer said to make children, or those that eat them, stay in the upper part of the stomach, and send- scabbed. And therefore no marvel, though caneth vapours faster to the head; and therefore ine- tharides have such a corrosive and cauterising briateth sooner. And for the same reason, sops quality; for there is not any other of the insecta, in wine, quantity for quantity, inebriate more than but is bred of a duller matter. The body of the wine of itself. The cause of the latter is, for that cantharides is bright coloured; and it may be, the sugar doth inspissate the spirits of the wine, that the delicate coloured dragon-flies may have and maketh them not so easy to resolve into va- likewise some corrosive quality. pour. Nay farther, it is thought to be some remedy against inebriating, if wine sugared be taken after wine pure. And the same effect is wrought either by oil or milk, taken upon much drinking.

Experiment solitary touching the help or hurt of

wine, though moderately used.

Experiments in consort touching lassitude. 730. Lassitude is remedied by bathing, or anointing with oil and warm water. The cause is, for that all lassitude is a kind of contusion, and compression of the parts; and bathing and anointing give a relaxation or emollition; and the 727. The use of wine in dry and consumed mixture of oil and water is better than either of bodies is hurtful; in moist and full bodies it is them alone; because water entereth better into good. The cause is, for that the spirits of the the pores, and oil after entry softeneth better. It wine do prey upon the dew or radical mois- is found also, that the taking of tobacco doth help ture, as they term it, of the body, and so deceive and discharge lassitude. The reason whereof is, the animal spirits. But where there is mois-partly, because by cheering or comforting of the ture enough, or superfluous, there wine helpeth to digest, and desiccate the moisture.

Experiment solitary touching caterpillars. 728. The caterpillar is one of the most general of worms, and breedeth of dew and leaves; for we see infinite number of caterpillars which breed upon trees and hedges, by which the leaves of the trees or hedges are in great part consumed; as well by their breeding out of the leaf, as by their feeding upon the leaf. They breed in the spring chiefly, because then there is both dew and leaf. And they breed commonly when the east winds have much blown; the cause whereof is, the dryness of that wind; for to all vivification upon putrefaction, it is requisite the matter be not too moist and therefore we see they have cobwebs about them, which is a sign of a slimy dryness; as we see upon the ground, whereupon, by dew and sun, cobwebs breed all over. We see also the green caterpillar breedeth in the inward parts of roses, especially not blown, where the dew sticketh; but especially caterpillars, both the greatest, and the most, breed upon cabbages, which have a fat leaf, and apt to putrefy. The caterpillar, towards the end of summer, waxeth volatile, and turneth to a butterfly, or perhaps some other fly. There is a caterpillar that hath a fur or down upon it, and seemeth to have affinity with the silk-worm.

Experiment solitary touching the flies cantharides. 729. The flies cantharides are bred of a worm or caterpillar, but peculiar to certain fruit-trees; as are the fig-tree, the pine-tree, and the wild brier; all which bear sweet fruit, and fruit that hath a kind of secret biting or sharpness: for the fig hath a milk in it that is sweet and cor

spirits, it openeth the parts compressed or contused; and chiefly because it refresheth the spirits by the opiate virtue thereof, and so dischargeth weariness, as sleep likewise doth.

731. In going up a hill, the knees will be most weary; in going down a hill, the thighs. The cause is, for that in the lift of the feet, when a man goeth up the hill, the weight of the body beareth most upon the knees; and in going down the hill, upon the thighs.

Experiment solitary touching the casting of the skin

and shell in some creatures.

732. The casting of the skin is by the ancients compared to the breaking of the secundine, or caul, but not rightly: for that were to make every casting of the skin a new birth: and besides, the secundine is but a general cover, not shaped according to the parts, but the skin is shaped according to the parts. The creatures that cast their skin are, the snake, the viper, the grasshopper, the lizard, the silk-worm, &c. Those that cast their shell are, the lobster, the crab, the crawfish, the hodmandod or dedman, the tortoise, &c. The old skins are found, but the old shells never : so as it is like, they scale off, and crumble away by degrees. And they are known by the extreme tenderness and softness of the new shell, and somewhat by the freshness of the colour of it. The cause of the casting of skin and shell should seem to be the great quantity of matter in those creatures that is fit to make skin or shell; and again, the looseness of the skin or shell, that sticketh not close to the flesh. For it is certain, that it is the new skin or shell that putteth off the old: so we see, that in deer it is the young horn that putteth off the old; and in birds, the young feathers put off the old: and so birds that have

much matter for their beak, cast their beaks, the | Experiment solitary, touching medicines that connew beak putting off the old. dense and relieve the sprits. Experiments in consort touching the postures of the coffee, made of a berry of the same name, as

body.

738. They have in Turkey a drink called

black as soot, and of a strong scent, but not aro733. Lying not erect, but hollow, which is in matical; which they take, beaten into powder, in the making of the bed; or with the legs gathered water, as hot as they can drink it: and they take up, which is in the posture of the body, is the it, and sit at it in their coffee-houses, which are more wholesome. The reason is, the better com- like our taverns. This drink comforteth the brain forting of the stomach, which is by that less pen- and heart, and helpeth digestion. Certainly this sile: and we see that in weak stomachs, the lay-berry coffee, the root and leaf beetle, the leaf toing up of the legs high, and the knees almost tobacco, and the tear of poppy, opium, of which the the mouth, helpeth and comforteth. We see also, Turks are great takers, supposing it expelleth that galley-slaves, notwithstanding their misery all fear, do all condense the spirits, and make otherwise, are commonly fat and fleshy; and the them strong and aleger. But it seemeth they reason is, because the stomach is supported some- are taken after several manners; for coffee and what in sitting, and is pensile in standing or go- opium are taken down, tobacco but in smoke, and ing. And therefore, for prolongation of life, it is beetle is but champed in the mouth with a little good to choose these exercises where the limbs lime. It is like there are more of them, if they move more than the stomach and belly; as in were well found out, and well corrected. Query, rowing, and in sawing, being set. of henbane-seed; of mandrake; of saffron, root and flower; of folium indum; of ambergrease; of the Assyrian amomum, if it may be had; and of the scarlet powder which they call kermes: and, generally, of all such things as do inebriate and provoke sleep. Note, that tobacco is not taken in root or seed, which are more forcible ever than leaves.

734. Megrims and giddiness are rather when we rise after long sitting, than while we sit. The cause is, for that the vapours, which were gathered by sitting, by the sudden motion fly more up into the head.

735. Leaning long upon any part maketh it numb, and as we call it asleep. The cause is, for that the compression of the part suffereth not the spirits to have free access; and therefore when we come out of it, we feel a stinging or pricking, which is the re-entrance of the spirits.

Experiment solitary touching pestilential years. 736. It hath been noted, that those years are pestilential and unwholesome, when there are great numbers of frogs, flies, locusts, &c. The cause is plain; for that those creatures being engendered of putrefaction, when they abound, show a general disposition of the year, and constitution of the air, to diseases of putrefaction. And the same prognostic, as hath been said before, holdeth, if you find worms in oak-apples: for the constitution of the air appeareth more subtilly in any of these things, than to the sense of man.

Experiment solitary touching paintings of the body. 739. The Turks have a black powder, made of a mineral called alcohol, which with a fine long pencil they lay under their eyelids, which doth colour them black; whereby the white of the eye is set off more white. With the same powder they colour also the hairs of their eyelids, and of their eyebrows, which they draw into embowed arches. You shall find that Xenophon maketh mention, that the Medes used to paint their eyes. The Turks use with the same tincture to colour the hair of their heads and beards black. And divers with us that are grown gray, and yet would appear young, find means to make their hair black, by combing it, as they say, with a leaden comb, or the like. As for the Chineses, who are of an ill complexion, being olivaster, they paint their cheeks scarlet, especially their king and grandees. Generally, barbarous people, that go naked, do not only paint themselves, but they 737. It is an observation amongst country peo-pounce and raise their skin, that the painting ple, that years of store of haws and hips do commonly portend cold winters; and they ascribe it to God's providence, that, as the Scripture saith, reacheth even to the falling of a sparrow; and much more is like to reach to the preservation of birds in such seasons. The natural cause also may be the want of heat, and abundance of moisture, in the summer precedent; which putteth forth those fruits, and must needs leave great quantity of cold vapours not dissipated; which causeth the cold of the winter following.

Experiment solitary touching the prognostics of hard

winters.

may not be taken forth; and make it into works. So do the West Indians; and so did the ancient Picts and Britons; so that it seemeth men would have the colours of birds' feathers, if they could tell how; or at least they will have gay skins instead of gay clothes.

Experiment solitary touching the use of bathing and anointing.

740. It is strange part of diet, is left.

that the use of bathing, as a With the Romans and Gre

|

Experiments in consort touching sleep.

cians it was as usual as eating or sleeping; and that very day when the river first riseth, great so is it amongst the Turks at this day: whereas plagues in Cairo use suddenly to break up. with us it remaineth but as a part of physic. I am of opinion, that the use of it, as it was with the Romans, was hurtful to health; for that it made the body soft, and easy to waste. For the Turks it is more proper, because that their drinking water and feeding upon rice, and other food of small nourishment, maketh their bodies so solid and hard, as you need not fear that bathing should make them frothy. Besides, the Turks are great sitters, and seldom walk, whereby they sweat less, and need bathing more. But yet certain it is that bathing, and especially anointing, may be so used as it may be a great help to health, and prolongation of life. But hereof we shall speak in due place, when we come to handle experiments medicinal.

Experiment solitary touching chambletting of paper.

744. Those that are very cold, and especially in their feet, cannot get to sleep: the cause may be, for that in sleep is required a free respiration, which cold doth shut in and hinder; for we see that in great colds, one can scarce draw his breath. Another cause may be, for that cold calleth the spirits to succour, and therefore they can-not so well close, and go together in the head, which is ever requisite to sleep. And for the same cause, pain and noise hinder sleep; and darkness, contrariwise, furthereth sleep.

745. Some noises, whereof we spake in the hundred and twelfth experiment, help sleep: as the blowing of the wind, the trickling of water, humming of bees, soft singing, reading, &c. The cause is, for that they move in the spirits a gentle attention; and whatsoever moveth attention with

741. The Turks have a pretty art of chamblet-out too much labour stilleth the natural and disting of paper, which is not with us in use. They cursive motion of the spirits. take divers oiled colours, and put them severally, in drops, upon water, and stir the water lightly, and then wet their paper, being of some thickness, with it, and the paper will be waved and veined, like chamblet or marble.

Experiment solitary touching cuttle-ink. 742. It is somewhat strange, that the blood of all birds and beasts and fishes should be of a red colour, and only the blood of the cuttle should be as black as ink. A man would think, that the cause should be the high concoction of that blood; for we see in ordinary puddings, that the boiling turneth the blood to be black; and the cuttle is accounted a delicate meat, and much in request.

Experiment solitary touching increase of weight in

earth.

743. It is reported of credit, that if you take earth from land adjoining to the river of Nile, and preserve it in that manner that it neither come to be wet nor wasted; and weigh it daily, it will not alter weight until the seventeenth of June, which is the day when the river beginneth to rise; and then it will grow more and more ponderous, till the river cometh to its height. Which if it be true, it cannot be caused but by the air, which then beginneth to condense; and so turneth within that small mould into a degree of moisture, which produceth weight. So it hath been observed, that tooacco, cut, and weighed, and then dried by the fire, loseth weight; and after being laid in the open air, recovereth weight again. And it should seem, that as soon as ever the river beginneth to increase, the whole body of the air thereabouts suffereth a change: for, that which is more strange, it is credibly affirmed, that upon

746. Sleep nourisheth, or at least preserveth bodies, a long time, without other nourishment. Beasts that sleep in winter, as it is noted of wild bears, during their sleep wax very fat, though they eat nothing. Bats have been found in ovens, and other hollow close places, matted one upon another and therefore it is likely that they sleepin the winter time, and eat nothing. Query, whether bees do not sleep all winter, and spare their honey? Butterflies, and other flies, do not only sleep, but lie as dead all winter; and yet with a little heat of sun or fire, revive again. A dormouse, both winter and summer, will sleep some days together, and eat nothing.

Experiments in consort touching teeth and hard substances in the bodies of living creatures.

To restore teeth in age, were magnale naturæ. It may be thought of. But howsoever, the nature of the teeth deserveth to be inquired of, as well as the other parts of living creatures' bodies.

747. There be five parts in the bodies of living creatures, that are of hard substance; the skull, the teeth, the bones, the horns, and the nails. The greatest quantity of hard substance continued is towards the head. For there is the skull of one entire bone; there are the teeth; there are the maxillary bones; there is the hard bone that: is the instrument of hearing; and thence issue the horns; so that the building of living creatures" bodies is like the building of a timber house, where the walls and other parts have columns and beams; but the roof is, in the better sort of houses, all tile, or lead, or stone. As for birds., they have three other hard substances proper to them; the bill, which is of like matter with the teeth: for no birds have teeth: the shell of the egg: and their quills: for as for their spur, it is

but a nail. But no living creatures that have shells very hard, as oysters, cockles, muscles, scallops, crabs, lobsters, craw-fish, shrimps, and especially the tortoise, have bones within them, but only little gristles.

748. Bones, after full growth, continue at a stay; and so doth the skull: horns, in some creatures, are cast and renewed: teeth stand at a stay, except their wearing: as for nails, they grow continually: and bills and beaks will overgrow, and sometimes be cast, as in eagles and parrots.

749. Most of the hard substances fly to the extremes of the body: as skull, horns, teeth, nails, and beaks: only the bones are more inward, and clad with flesh. As for the entrails, they are all without bones: save that a bone is sometimes found in the heart of a stag; and it may be in some other creature.

750. The skull hath brains, as a kind of marrow, within it. The back-bone hath one kind of marrow, which hath an affinity with the brain; and other bones of the body have another. The jaw-bones have no marrow severed, but a little pulp of marrow diffused. Teeth likewise are thought to have a kind of marrow diffused, which causeth the sense and pain; but it is rather sinew for marrow hath no sense, no more than blood. Horn is alike throughout; and so is the nail. 751. None other of the hard substances have sense, but the teeth; and the teeth have sense, not only of pain, but of cold.

But we will leave the inquiries of other hard substances unto their several places, and now inquire only of the teeth.

752. The teeth are, in men, of three kinds : sharp, as the fore-teeth: broad, as the back-teeth, which we call the molar-teeth, or grinders, and pointed teeth, or canine, which are between both. But there have been some men that have had their teeth undivided, as of one whole bone, with some litle mark in the place of the division, as Pyrrhus had. Some creatures have over-long or out-growing teeth, which we call fangs, or tusks: as boars, pikes, salmons, and dogs, though less. Some living creatures have teeth against teeth, as men and horses; and some have teeth, especially their master-teeth, indented one within another like saws, as lions; and so again have dogs. Some fishes have diverse rows of teeth in the roofs of their mouths, as pikes, salmons, trouts, &c. And many more in salt-waters. Snakes and other serpents have venomous teeth, which are sometimes mistaken for their sting.

753. No beast that hath horns hath upper teeth; and no beast that hath teeth above wanteth them below: but yet if they be of the same kind, it followeth not, that if the hard matter goeth not into upper teeth, it will go into horns, nor yet e converso; for does, that have no horns, have no upper teeth.

754. Horses have, at three years old, a tooth put forth, which they call the colt's tooth: and at four years old there cometh the mark tooth, which hath a hole as big as you may lay a pea within it, and that weareth shorter and shorter every year, till that at eight years old the tooth is smooth, and the hole gone: and then they say, that the mark is out of the horse's mouth.

755. The teeth of men breed first, when the child is about a year and half old: and then they cast them, and new come about seven years old. But divers have backward teeth come forth at twenty, yea some at thirty and forty. Query, of the manner of the coming of them forth. They tell a tale of the old Countess of Desmond, who lived till she was seven-score years old, that she did dentire twice or thrice, casting her old teeth, and others coming in their place.

756. Teeth are much hurt by sweetmeats; and by painting with mercury; and by things overhot; and by things over-cold; and by rheums. And the pain of the teeth is one of the sharpest of pains.

757. Concerning teeth, these things are to be considered. 1. The preserving of them. 2. The keeping of them white. 3. The drawing of them with least pain. 4. The staying and easing of the tooth-ache. 5. The binding in of artificial teeth, where teeth have been strucken out. And last of all, that great one of restoring teeth in age. The instances that give any likelihood of restoring teeth in age, are the late coming of teeth in some, and the renewing of the beaks in birds, which are commaterial with teeth. Query, therefore, more particularly how that cometh. And again, the renewing of horns. But yet that hath not been known to have been provoked by art; therefore let trial be made, whether horns may be procured to grow in beasts that are not horned, and how? And whether they may be procured to come larger than usual, as to make an ox or a deer have a greater head of horns? And whether the head of a deer, that by age is more spitted, may be brought again to be more branched? for these trials, and the like, will show, whether by art such hard matter can be called and provoked. It may be tried, also, whether birds may not have something done to them when they are young, whereby they may be made to have greater or longer bills; or greater and longer talons? And whether children may not have some wash, or something to make their teeth better and stronger? Coral is in use as a help to the teeth of children.

Experiments in consort touching the generation and

bearing of living creatures in the womb.

758. Some living creatures generate but at certain seasons of the year, as deer, sheep, wild conies, &c., and most sorts of birds and fishes: others at any time of the year, as men; and all

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