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jects through small crannies, or levels; so you | penurious colour, and where moisture is scant. may see great axioms of nature through small and So blue violets, and other flowers, if they be contemptible instances. The speedy depredation starved, turn pale and white: birds and horses, of air upon watery moisture, and version of the by age or scars turn white: and the hoar hairs same into air, appeareth in nothing more visible, of men come by the same reason. And therefore, than in the sudden discharge or vanishing of a in birds, it is very likely, that the feathers that little cloud of breath or vapour from glass, or the come first, will be many times of divers colours, blade of a sword, or any such polished body, such according to the nature of the bird, for that the as doth not at all detain or imbibe the moisture; skin is more porous; but when the skin is more for the mistiness scattereth and breaketh up sud- shut and close, the feathers will come white. denly. But the like cloud, if it were oily or fatty, This is a good experiment, not only for the prowill not discharge; not because it sticketh faster; ducing of birds and beasts of strange colours; but but because air preyeth upon water; and flame also for the disclosure of the nature of colours and fire upon oil; and therefore to take out a spot themselves: which of them require a finer poroof grease they use a coal upon brown paper; be- sity, and which a grosser. cause fire worketh upon grease or oil, as air doth upon water. And we see paper oiled, or wood oiled, or the like, last long moist; but wet with water, dry, or putrify sooner. The cause is, for that air meddleth little with the moisture of oil.

Experiment solitary touching the force of union. 92. There is an admirable demonstration in the same trifling instance of the little cloud upon glass, or gems, or blades of swords, of the force of union, even in the least quantities, and weakest bodies, how much it conduceth to preservation of the present form and the resisting of a new. For mark well the discharge of that cloud; and you shall see it ever break up, first in the skirts, and last in the midst. We see likewise, that much water draweth forth the juice of the body infused; but little water is imbibed by the body: and this is a principal cause, why in operation upon bodies for their version or alteration, the trial in great quantities doth not answer the trial in small; and so deceiveth many; for that, I say, the greater body resisteth more any alteration of form, and requireth far greater strength in the active body that should

subdue it.

Experiment solitary touching the producing of

feathers and hairs of divers colours.

93. We have spoken before in the fifth instance, of the cause of orient colours in birds; which is by the fineness of the strainer: we will now endeavour to reduce the same axiom to a work. For this writing of our "Sylva Sylvarum" is, to speak properly, not natural history, but a high kind of natural magic. For it is not a description only of nature, but a breaking of nature into great and strange works. Try therefore the anointing over of pigeons, or some other birds, when they are but in their down; or of whelps, cutting their hair as short as may be; or of some other beast: with some ointment that is not hurtful to the flesh, and that will harden and stick very close; and see whether it will not alter the colours of the feathers or hair. It is received, that the pulling off the first feathers of birds clean, will make the new come forth white: and it is certain that white is a

Experiment solitary touching the nourishment of
living creatures before they be brought forth.
94. It is a work of providence, that hath been
truly observed by some, that the yolk of the egg
conduceth little to the generation of the bird, but
only to the nourishment of the same; for if a
chicken be opened, when it is new hatched, you
shall find much of the yolk remaining. And it is
needful, that birds that are shaped without the
female's womb have in the egg, as well matter of
nourishment, as matter of generation for the body.
For after the egg is laid, and severed from the
body of the hen, it hath no more nourishment.
from the hen, but only a quickening heat when
she sitteth. But beasts and men need not the
matter of nourishment within themselves, because
they are shaped within the womb of the female,
and are nourished continually from her body.

Experiments in consort touching sympathy and an

tipathy for medicinal use.

95. It is an inveterate and received opinion, that cantharides applied to any part of the body, touch the bladder and exulcerate it, if they stay on long. It is likewise received, that a kind of stone, which they bring out of the West Indies, hath a peculiar force to move gravel, and to dissolve the stone; insomuch, as laid but to the wrist, it hath so forcibly sent down gravel, as men have been glad to remove it, it was so violent.

96. It is received, and confirmed by daily expe rience, that the soles of the feet have great affinity with the head and mouth of the stomach; as we see going wet-shod, to those that use it not, affecteth both: applications of hot powders to the feet attenuate first, and after dry the rheum: and therefore a physician that would be mystical, prescribeth, for the cure of the rheum, that a man should walk continually upon a camomile alley; meaning, that he should put camomile within his socks. Likewise pigeons bleeding, applied to the soles of the feet ease the head and soporiferous medicines applied unto them, provoke sleep.

97. It seemeth, that as the feet have a sympathy with the head, so the wrists and hands have

a sympathy with the heart; we see the effects and passions of the heart and spirits are notably disclosed by the pulse: and it is often tried, that juices of stockgillyflowers, rose-campian, garlick, and other things, applied to the wrists, and renewed, have cured long agues. And I conceive, that washing with certain liquors the palms of the hands doth much good: and they do well in heats of agues, to hold in the hands eggs of alabaster and balls of crystal.

Of these things we shall speak more, when we handle the title of sympathy and antipathy, in the proper place.

Experiment solitary touching the secret processes of


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like. And the physicians are content to acknow ledge, that herbs and drugs have divers parts; as that opium hath a stupefactive part, and a heating part; the one moving sleep, the other a sweat following; and that rhubarb hath purging parts, and astringent parts, &c. But this whole inquisition is weakly and negligently handled. And for the more subtile differences of the minute parts, and the posture of them in the body, which also hath great effects, they are not at all touched: as for the motions of the minute parts of bodies, which do so great effects, they have not been observed at all; because they are invisible, and incur not to the eye; but yet they are to be deprehended by experience: as Democritus said well, when they charged him to hold, that the world was 98. The knowledge of man hitherto hath been made of such little motes, as were seen in the determined by the view or sight; so that whatso- sun: "Atomus," saith he, "necessitate rationis ever is invisible, either in respect of the fineness et experientia esse convincitur; atomum enim neof the body itself, or the smallness of the parts, mo unquam vidit." And therefore the tumult in or of the subtility of the motion, is little inquired. the parts of solid bodies, when they are compressAnd yet these be the things that govern nature ed, which is the cause of all flight of bodies principally; and without which you cannot make through the air, and of other mechanical motions, any true analysis and indication of the proceedings as hath been partly touched before, and shall be of nature. The spirits or pneumaticals, that are throughly handled in due place, is not seen at all. in all tangible bodies, are scarce known. Some- But nevertheless, if you know it not, or inquire it times they take them for "vacuum;" whereas not attentively and diligently, you shall never be they are the most active of bodies. Sometimes able to discern, and much less to produce, a numthey take them for air; from which they differ ex-ber of mechanical motions. Again, as to the mo ceedingly, as much as wine from water; and as wood from earth. Sometimes they will have them to be natural heat, or a portion of the element of fire; whereas some of them are crude and cold. And sometimes they will have them to be the virtues and qualities of the tangible parts which they see; whereas they are things by themselves. And then, when they come to plants and living creatures, they call them souls. And such superficial speculations they have; like prospectives, that show things inward, when they are but paint- 99. It is certain, that of all powers in nature ings. Neither is this a question of words, but heat is the chief; both in the frame of nature, and infinitely material in nature. For spirits are in the works of art. Certain it is, likewise, that nothing else but a natural body rarified to a pro- the effects of heat are most advanced, when it portion, and included in the tangible parts of bo- worketh upon a body without loss or dissipation dies, as in an integument. And they be no less of the matter; for that ever betrayeth the account. differing one from the other than the dense or And therefore it is true, that the power of heat is tangible parts; and they are in all tangible bodies best perceived in distillations which are performed whatsoever, more or less; and they are never al- in close vessels and receptacles. But yet there most at rest; and from them, and their motions, is a higher degree; for howsoever distillations do principally proceed arefaction, colliquation, con- keep the body in cells and cloisters, without going coction, maturation, putrefaction, vivification, and abroad, yet they give space unto bodies to turn most of the effects of nature: for, as we have into vapour; to return into liquor, and to separate figured them in our "Sapientia Veterum," in the one part from another. So as nature doth expatifable of Proserpina, you shall in the infernal regi- ate, although it hath not full liberty: whereby the ment hear little doings of Pluto, but most of true and ultime operations of heat are not attained. Proserpina: for tangible parts in bodies are stupid But if bodies may be altered by heat, and yet no things; and the spirits do in effect all. As for such reciprocation of rarefaction, and of condensathe differences of tangible parts in bodies, the in- tion, and of separation, admitted, then it is like dustry of the chymist hath given some light, in that this Proteus of matter, being held by the discerning by their separations the oily, crude, sleeves, will turn and change into many metamorpure, impure, fine, gross parts of bodies, and the phoses. Take therefore a square vessel of iron,

tions corporal, within the inclosures of bodies,. whereby the effects, which were mentioned before,. pass between the spirits and the tangible parts, which are arefaction, colliquation, concoction, maturation, &c. they are not at all handled. But they are put off by the names of virtues, and natures, and actions, and passions, and such other logical words.

Experiment solitary touching the power of heat.

in form of a cube, and let it have good thick and strong sides. Put into it a cube of wood, that may fill it as close as may be, and let it have a cover of iron, as strong at least as the sides, and let it be well luted, after the manner of the chymists. Then place the vessel within burning coals, kept quick kindled for some few hours' space. Then take the vessel from the fire, and take off the cover, and see what is become of the wood. I conceive, that since all inflammation and evaporation are utterly prohibited, and the body still turned upon itself, that one of these two effects will follow: either that the body of the wood will be turned into a kind of "amalgama," as the chymists call it, or that the finer part will be turned into air, and the grosser stick as it were baked, and incrustate upon the sides of the vessel, being become of a denser matter than the wood itself crude. And for another trial, take also water, and put it in the like vessel, stopped as before, but use a gentler heat, and remove the vessel sometimes from the fire; and again, after some small time, when it is cold, renew the heating of it; and repeat this alteration some few times: and if you can once bring to pass, that the water, which is one of the simplest of bodies, be changed in colour, odour, or taste, after the manner of compound bodies, you may be sure that there is a great work wrought in nature, and a notable entrance made into strange changes of bodies and productions; and also a way made to do that by fire, in small time, which the sun and age do in long time. But of the admirable effects of this distillation in close, (for so we call it,) which is like the wombs and matrices of living creatures, where nothing expireth nor separateth, we will speak fully, in the due place; not that

we aim at the making of Paracelsus's pygmies, or any such prodigious follies; but that we know the effects of heat will be such, as will scarce fall under the conceit of man, if the force of it be altogether kept in.

Experiment solitary touching the impossibility of


100. There is nothing more certain in nature than that it is impossible for any body to be utterly annihilated; but that as it was the work of the omnipotency of God to make somewhat of nothing, so it requireth the like omnipotency to turn somewhat into nothing. And therefore it is well said by an obscure writer of the sect of the chymists, that there is no such way to effect the strange transmutations of bodies, as to endeavour and urge by all means the reducing of them to nothing. And herein is contained also a great secret of preservation of bodies from change; for if you can prohibit, that they neither turn into air, because no air cometh to them, nor go into the bodies adjacent, because they are utterly heterogeneal; nor make a round and circulation within themselves; they will never change though they be in their nature never so perishable or mutable. We see how flies, and spiders, and the like, get a sepulchre in amber, more durable than the monument and embalming of the body of any king. And I conceive the like will be of bodies put into quicksilver. But then they must be but thin, as a leaf, or a piece of paper or parchment; for if they have a greater crassitude, they will alter in their own body, though they spend not. But of this we shall speak more when we handle the title of conservation of bodies.


102. The sounds that produce tones are ever from such bodies as are in their parts and pores equal; as well as the sounds themselves are equal; and such are the percussions of metal, as in bells; of glass, as in the filliping of a drinking glass; of air, as in men's voices whilst they sing,

Experiments in consort touching music. Music, in the practice hath been well pursued, and in good variety; but in the theory, and especially in the yielding of the causes of the practice, very weakly; being reduced into certain mystical subtilties of no use and not much truth. We shall, therefore, after our manner, join the contem-in pipes, whistles, organs, stringed instruments, plative and active part together.

101. All sounds are either musical sounds, which we call tones; whereunto there may be a harmony; which sounds are ever equal; as singing, the sounds of stringed and wind instruments, the ringing of bells, &c.; or immusical sounds, which are ever unequal; such as are the voice in speaking, all whisperings, all voices of beasts and birds, except they be singing-birds, all percussions of stones, wood, parchment, skins, as in drums, and infinite others.

&c.; and of water, as in the nightingale pipes of regals, or organs, and other hydraulics; which the ancients had, and Nero did so much esteem, but are now lost. And if any man think, that the string of the bow and the string of the viol are neither of them equal bodies, and yet produce tones, he is in an error. For the sound is not created between the bow or "plectrum" and the string; but between the string and the air; no more than it is between the finger or quill, and the string'in other instruments. So there are, in

effect, but three percussions that create tones; percussions of metals, comprehending glass and the like, percussions of air, and percussions of


103. The diapason or eighth in music is the sweetest concord, insomuch as it is in effect a unison; as we see in lutes that are strung in the base strings with two strings, one an eighth above another; which make but as one sound. And every eighth note in ascent, as from eight to fifteen, from fifteen to twenty-two, and so in "infinitum," are but scales of diapason. The cause is dark, and hath not been rendered by any; and therefore would be better contemplated. It seemeth that air, which is the subject of sounds, in sounds that are not tones, which are all unequal, as hath been said, admitteth much variety; as we see in the voices of living creatures, and likewise in the voices of several men, for we are capable to discern several men, by their voices, and in the conjugation of letters, whence articulate sounds proceed; which of all others are most various. But in the sounds which we call tones, that are ever equal, the air is not able to cast itself into any such variety; but is forced to recur into one and the same posture or figure, only differing in greatness and smallness. So we see figures may be made of lines, crooked and straight, in infinite variety, where there is inequality; but circles, or squares, or triangles equilateral, which are all figures of equal lines, can differ but in greater or lesser.

sound returneth after six or after twelve; so that the seventh or the thirteenth is not the matter, but the six or the twelfth; and the seventh and the thirteenth are but the limits and boundaries of the return.

107. The concords in music which are perfect or semiperfect, between the unison and the diapason, are the fifth, which is the most perfect; the third next: and the sixth, which is more harsh: and, as the ancients esteemed, and so do myself and some other yet, the fourth, which they call diatessaron. As for the tenth, twelfth, thirteenth, and so in "infinitum," they be but recurrences of the former, viz. of the third, the fifth, and the sixth; being an eighth respectively from them.

108. For discords, the second and the seventh are of all others the most odious in harmony, to the sense; whereof the one is next above the unison, the other next under the diapason: which may show that harmony requireth a competent distance of notes.

109. In harmony, if there be not a discord to the base, it doth not disturb the harmony, though there be a discord to the higher parts: so the discord be not of the two that are odious; and therefore the ordinary consent of four parts consisteth of an eighth, a fifth, and a third to the base; but that fifth is a fourth to the treble, and the third is a sixth. And the cause is, for that the base striking more air, doth overcome and drown the treble, unless the discord be very odious; and so hideth a small imperfection. we see, that in one of the lower strings of a lute, there soundeth not the sound of the treble, nor any mixed sound, but only the sound of the base.


104. It is to be noted, the rather least any man should think that there is any thing in this number of eight, to create the diapason, that this computation of eight is a thing rather received, 110. We have no music of quarter-notes; and than any true computation. For a true computa- it may be they are not capable of harmony; for tion ought ever to be by distribution into equal we see the half-notes themselves do but interpose portions. Now there be intervenient in the rise sometimes. Nevertheless we have some slides of eight, in tones, two beemolls, or half notes: or relishes of the voice or strings, as it were so as if you divide the tones equally, the eight is continued without notes, from one tone to another, but seven whole and equal notes; and if you sub-rising or falling, which are delightful. divide that into half notes, as it is in the stops of a lute, it maketh the number of thirteen.

111. The causes of that which is pleasing or ingrate to the hearing, may receive light by that 105. Yet this is true, that in the ordinary rises which is pleasing or ingrate to the sight. There and falls of the voice of man, not measuring the be two things pleasing to the sight, leaving tone by whole notes, and half-notes, which is pictures and shapes aside, which are but secondthe equal measure, there fall out to be two bee-ary objects; and please or displease but in memomolls, as hath been said, between the unison and ry; these two are colours and orders. The the diapason: and this varying is natural. For pleasing of colour symbolizeth with the pleasing if a man would endeavour to raise or fall his voice, still by half-notes, like the stops of a lute; or by whole notes alone without halves, as far as an eighth; he will not be able to frame his voice unto it. Which showeth, that after every three whole notes, nature requireth, for all harmonical use, one half-note to be interposed.

106. It is to be considered, that whatsoever virtue is in numbers, for conducing to consent of notes, is rather to be ascribed to the ante-number, than to the entire number; as namely, that the VOL. II.-4

of any single tone to the ear; but the pleasing of order doth symbolize with harmony. And therefore we see in garden-knots, and the frets of houses, and all equal and well answering figures, as globes, pyramids, cones, cylinders, &c. how they please; whereas unequal figures are but deformities. And both these pleasures, that of the eye, and that of the ear, are but the effects of equality, good proportion, or correspondence: so that, out of question, equality and correspond ence are the causes of harmony. But to find the C

proportion of that correspondence is more abstruse; | in themselves. But yet it hath been noted, that whereof notwithstanding we shall speak some- though this variety of tunes doth dispose the what, when we handle tones, in the general inquiry of sounds.

112. Tones are not so apt altogether to procure sleep as some other sounds; as the wind, the purling of water, humming of bees, a sweet voice of one that readeth, &c. The cause whereof is, for that tones, because they are equal and slide not, do more strike and erect the sense than the other. And overmuch attention hindereth sleep. 113. There be in music certain figures or tropes, almost agreeing with the figures of rhetoric, and with the affections of the mind, and other senses. First, the division and quavering, which please so much in music, have an agreement with the glittering of light; as the moon-beams playing upon a wave. Again, the falling from a discord to a concord, which maketh great sweetness in music, hath an agreement with the affections, which are reintegrated to the better, after some dislikes; it agreeth also with the taste, which is soon glutted with that which is sweet alone. The sliding from the close or cadence hath an agreement with the figure in rhetoric, which they call "præter expectatum;" for there is a pleasure even in being deceived. The reports, and fuges, have an agreement with the figures in rhetoric of repetition and traduction. The triplas, and changing of times, have an agreement with the changes of motions; as when galliard time, and measure time, are in the medley of one dance. 114. It hath been anciently held and observed, that the sense of hearing, and the kinds of music, have most operation upon manners; as, to encourage men, and make them warlike; to make them soft and effeminate; to make them grave; to make them light; to make them gentle and inclined to pity, &c. The cause is, for that the sense of hearing striketh the spirits more immediately than the other senses; and more incorporeally than the smelling; for the sight, taste, and feeling, have their organs not of so present and immediate access to the spirits as the hearing hath. And as for the smelling, which indeed worketh also immediately upon the spirits, and is forcible while the object remaineth, it is with a communication of the breath or vapour of the object odorate; but harmony entering easily, and mingling not at all, and coming with a manifest motion, doth by custom of often affecting the spirits, and putting them into one kind of posture, alter not a little the nature of the spirits, even when the object is removed. And therefore we see, that tunes and airs, even in their own nature, have in themselves some affinity with the affec⚫tions; as there be merry tunes, doleful tunes, solemn tunes; tunes inclining men's minds to pity; warlike tunes, &c. So as it is no marvel if they alter the spirits, considering that tunes have a predisposition to the motion of the spirits

spirits to variety of passions, conform unto them, yet generally music feedeth that disposition of the spirits, which it findeth. We see also, that several airs and tunes do please several nations and persons, according to the sympathy they have with their spirits.

Experiments in consort touching sounds; and first touching the nullity and entity of sounds. Perspective hath been with some diligence inquired; and so hath the nature of sounds, in some sort, as far as concerneth music: but the nature of sounds in general hath been superficially observed. It is one of the subtilest pieces of nature. And besides, I practise, as I do advise; which is, after long inquiry of things immersed in matter, to interpose some subject which is immateriate, or less materiate; such as this of sounds; to the end, that the intellect may be rectified, and become not partial.

115. It is first to be considered, what great.. motions there are in nature, which pass without sound or noise. The heavens turn about in a most rapid motion, without noise to us perceived; though in some dreams they have been said to make an excellent music. So the motions of the comets, and fiery meteors, as "stella cadens, &c., yield no noise. And if it be thought that it is the greatness of distance from us, whereby the sound cannot be heard; we see that lightnings and coruscations, which are near at hand, yield no sound neither: and yet in all thesethere is a percussion and division of the air, The winds in the upper region, which move the clouds above, which we call the rack, and are not perceived below, pass without noise. The lower winds, in a plain, except they be strong, make no noise; but amongst trees, the noise of such winds will be perceived. And the winds, generally, when they make a noise, do ever make it unequally, rising and falling, and sometimes, when they are vehement, trembling at the height of their blast. Rain or hail falling, though vehemently, yieldeth no noise in passing through the air, till it fall upon the ground, water, houses, or the like. Water in a river, though a swift stream, is not heard in the channel, but runneth in silence, if it be of any depth; but the very stream upon shallows, of gravel or pebble, will be heard. And waters, when they beat upon the shore, or are straitened, as in the falls of bridges, or are dashed against themselves, by winds, give a roaring noise. Any piece of timber, or hard body, being thrust forwards by another body contiguous, without knocking, giveth no noise. And so bodies in weighing one upon another, though the upper body press the lower body down, make no noise. So the motion in the minute parts of any solid body, which is the

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