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so as the flame would not expel the hard body; but the hard body would kill the flame, and not suffer it to kindle or spread. But the cause of this so potent a motion, is the nitre, which we call otherwise saltpetre, which having in it a notable crude and windy spirit, first by the heat of the fire suddenly dilateth itself; and we know that simple air, being preternaturally attenuated by heat, will make itself room, and break and blow up that which resisteth it; and secondly, when the nitre hath dilated itself, it bloweth abroad the flame, as an inward bellows. And therefore we see that brimstone, pitch, camphire, wild-fire, and divers other inflammable matters, though they burn cruelly, and are hard to quench, yet they make no such fiery wind as gunpowder doth; and on the other side, we see that quicksilver, which is a most crude and watery body, heated, and pent in, hath the like force with gunpowder. As for living creatures, it is certain, their vital spirits are a substance compounded of an airy and flamy matter; and though air and flame being free, will not well mingle; yet bound in by a body that hath some fixing, they will. For that you may best see in those two bodies, which are their aliments, water and oil; for they likewise will not well mingle of themselves; but in the bodies of plants, and living creatures, they will. It is no marvel therefore, that a small quantity of spirits, in the cells of the brain, and canals of the sinews, are able to move the whole body, which is of so great mass, both with so great force, as in wrestling, leaping; and with so great swiftness, as in playing division upon the lute. Such is the force of these two natures, air and flame, when they incorporate.

It appeareth also, that the form of a pyramis in flame, which we usually see, is merely by accident, and that the air about, by quenching the sides of the flame, crusheth it, and extenuateth it into that form; for of itself it would be round; and therefore smoke is in the figure of a pyramis reversed; for the air quencheth the flame, and receiveth the smoke. Note also, that the flame of the candle, within the flame of the spirit of wine, is troubled; and doth not only open and move upwards, but moveth waving, and to and fro; as if flame of its own nature, if it were not quenched, would roll and turn, as well as move upwards. By all which it should seem, that the celestial bodies, most of them, are true fires or flames, as the Stoics held; more fine, perhaps, and rarified than our flame is. For they are all globular and determinate; they have rotation; and they have the colour and splendour of flame: so that flame above is durable, and consistent, and in its natural place; but with us it is a stranger, and momentary, and impure: like Vulcan that halted with his fall.

Experiment solitary touching the different force of

flame in the midst and on the sides.

32. Take an arrow, and hold it in flame for the space of ten pulses, and when it cometh forth, you shall find those parts of the arrow which were on the outsides of the flame more burned, blacked, and turned almost into a coal, whereas that in the midst of the flame will be as if the fire had scarce touched it. This is an instance of great consequence for the discovery of the nature of flame; and showeth manifestly, that flame burneth more violently towards the sides than in the midst: and which is more, that heat

Experiment solitary touching the secret nature of or fire is not violent or furious, but where it is

flame.

31. Take a small wax candle, and put it in a socket of brass or iron; then set it upright in a porringer full of spirit of wine heated: then set both the candle and spirit of wine on fire, and you shall see the flame of the candle open itself, and become four or five times bigger than otherwise it would have been; and appear in figure globular, and not in pyramis. You shall see also, that the inward flame of the candle keepeth colour, and doth not wax any whit blue towards the colour of the outward flame of the spirit of wine. This is a noble instance; wherein two things are most remarkable: the one, that one flame within another quencheth not; but is a fixed body, and continueth as air or water do. And therefore flame would still ascend upwards in one greatness, if it were not quenched on the sides: and the greater the flame is at the bottom, the higher is the rise. The other, that flame doth not mingle with flame, as air doth with air, or water with water, but only remaineth contiguous; as it cometh to pass betwixt consisting bodies.

checked and pent. And therefore the Peripatetics, howsoever their opinion of an element of fire above the air is justly exploded, in that point they acquit themselves well: for being opposed, that if there were a sphere of fire, that encompassed the earth so near hand, it were impossible but all things should be burnt up; they answer, that the pure elemental fire, in its own place, and not irritated, is but of a moderate heat.

Experiment solitary touching the decrease of the natural motion of gravity, in great distance from the earth; or within some depth of the earth. 33. It is affirmed constantly by many, as a usual experiment, that a lump of ore in the bottom of a mine will be tumbled and stirred by two men's strength, which, if you bring it to the top of the earth, will ask six men's strength at the least to stir it. It is a noble instance, and is fit to be tried to the full; for it is very probable, that the motion of gravity worketh weakly, both far from the earth, and also within the earth: the former, because the appetite of union of dense

Experiment solitary touching the contraction of bodies in bulk, by the mixture of the more liquid body with the more solid.

bodies with the earth, in respect of the distance, the medicine, or by the quantity. The qualities is more dull: the latter, because the body hath are three; extreme bitter, as in aloes, coloquintiin part attained its nature when it is in some da, &c. loathsome and of horrible taste, as in depth in the earth. For as for the moving to a agaric, black hellebore, &c. and of secret maligpoint or place, which was the opinion of the an- nity, and disagreement towards man's body, many cients, it is a mere vanity. times not appearing much in the taste, as in scammony, mechoachan, antimony, &c. And note well, that if there be any medicine that purgeth, and hath neither of the first two manifest qualities, it is to be held suspected as a kind of poison; for that it worketh either by corrosion, or by a secret malignity, and enmity to nature; and therefore such medicines are warily to be prepared and used. The quantity of that which is taken doth also cause purging; as we see in a great quantity of new milk from the cow; yea and a great quantity of meat; for surfeits many times turn to purges, both upwards and downwards. Therefore we see generally, that the working of purging medicines cometh two or three hours after the medicines taken: for that the stomach first maketh a proof whether it can concoct them. And the like happeneth after surfeits, or milk in too great quantity.

34. It is strange how the ancients took up experiments upon credit, and yet did build great matters upon them. The observation of some of the best of them, delivered confidently, is, that a vessel filled with ashes will receive the like quantity of water that it would have done if it had been empty. But this is utterly untrue, for the water will not go in by a fifth part. And I suppose, that that fifth part is the difference of the lying close, or open, of the ashes; as we see that ashes alone, if they be hard pressed, will lie in less room and so the ashes with air between, lie looser; and with water closer. For I have not yet found certainly, that the water itself, by mixture of ashes or dust, will shrink or draw into less room.

Experiment solitary touching the making vines more fruitful.

37. A second cause is mordication of the orifices of the parts; especially of the mesentery veins; as it is seen, that salt, or any such thing that is sharp and biting, put in the fundament, doth provoke the part to expel; and mustard provoketh sneezing: and any sharp thing to the eyes provoketh tears. And therefore we see that almost all purgers have a kind of twitching and vellication, besides the griping which cometh of wind. And if this mordication be in an over-high degree, it is little better than the corrosion of poison; and it cometh to pass sometimes in antimony; especially if it be given to bodies not replete with humours; for where humours abound, the hu

35. It is reported of credit, that if you lay good store of kernels of grapes about the root of a vine, it will make the vine come earlier and prosper better. It may be tried with other kernels laid about the root of a plant of the same kind; as figs, kernels of apples, &c. The cause may be, for that the kernels draw out of the earth juice fit to nourish the tree, as those that would be trees of themselves, though there were no root; but the root being of greater strength rob-mours save the parts. beth and devoureth the nourishment, when they have drawn it: as great fishes devour little.

38. The third cause is attraction: for I do not deny, but that purging medicines have in them a direct force of attraction: as drawing plaisters Experiments in consort touching purging medi- have in surgery: and we see sage or betony

cines.

bruised, sneezing powder, and other powders, or 36. The operation of purging medicines and liquors, which the physicians call "errhines," the causes thereof, have been thought to be a put into the nose, draw phlegm and water from great secret; and so according to the slothful the head; and so it is in apophlegmatisms and manner of men, it is referred to a hidden proprie- gargarisms, that draw the rheum down by the ty, a specifical virtue, and a fourth quality, and palate. And by this virtue, no doubt, some purthe like shifts of ignorance. The causes of purg-gers draw more one humour, and some another, ing are divers: all plain and perspicuous, and thoroughly maintained by experience. The first is, that whatsoever cannot be overcome and digested by the stomach, is by the stomach either put up by vomit, or put down to the guts; and by that motion of expulsion in the stomach and guts, other parts of the body, as the orifices of the veins, and the like, are moved to expel by consent. For nothing is more frequent than motion of consent in the body of man. This surcharge of the stomach is caused either by the quality of

according to the opinion received: as rhubarb draweth choler; sena melancholy; agaric phlegm, &c. but yet, more or less, they draw promiscuously. And note also, that besides sympathy between the purger and the humour, there is also another cause why some medicines draw some humour more than another. And it is, for that some medicines work quicker than others: and they that draw quick, draw only the lighter and more fluid humours; and they that draw slow, work upon the more tough and viscous humours. B

And therefore men must beware how they take rhubarb, and the like, alone familiarly; for it taketh only the lightest part of the humour away, and leaveth the mass of humours more obstinate. And the like may be said of wormwood, which is so much magnified.

39. The fourth cause is flatuosity; for wind stirred moveth to expel: and we find that in effect all purgers have in them a raw spirit or wind; which is the principal cause of tortion in the stomach and belly. And therefore purgers lose, most of them, the virtue by decoction upon the fire; and for that cause are given chiefly in infusion, juice, or powder.

are well digested of the stomach, and well re-
ceived also of the mesentery veins; so they come
as far as the liver, which sendeth urine to the
bladder, as the whey of blood: and those medi-
cines being opening and piercing do fortify the
operation of the liver, in sending down the wheyey
For medicines
part of the blood to the reins.
urinative do not work by rejection and indigestion,
as solutive do.

44. There be divers medicines, which in greater quantity move stool, and in smaller urine: and so contrariwise, some that in greater quantity move urine, and in smaller stool. Of the former sort is rhubarb, and some others. The cause is, 40. The fifth cause is compression or crushing; for that rhubarb is a medicine which the stomach as when water is crushed out of a sponge: so in a small quantity doth digest and overcome, we see that taking cold moveth looseness by being not flatuous nor loathsome, and so sendeth contraction of the skin and outward parts; and it to the mesentery veins; and so being opening, so doth cold likewise cause rheums, and deflux-it helpeth down urine: but in a greater quantity, ions from the head; and some astringent plaisters the stomach cannot overcome it, and so it goeth crush out purulent matter. This kind of opera- to the guts. Pepper by some of the ancients is tion is not found in many medicines; myrobolanes noted to be of the second sort; which being in have it; and it may be the barks of peaches; small quantity, moveth wind in the stomach and for this virtue requireth an astriction; but such guts, and so expelleth by stool; but being in an astriction as is not grateful to the body; for a greater quantity, dissipateth the wind; and itself pleasing astriction doth rather bind in the hu-getteth to the mesentery veins, and so to the liver mours than expel them: and therefore, such astriction is found in things of a harsh taste.

41. The sixth cause is lubrefaction and relaxation. As we see in medicines emollient; such as are milk, honey, mallows, lettuce, mercurial, pellitory of the wall, and others. There is also a secret virtue of relaxation in cold: for the heat of the body bindeth the parts and humours together, which cold relaxeth: as it is seen in urine, blood, pottage, or the like; which, if they be cold, break and dissolve. And by this kind of relaxation, fear looseneth the belly: because the heat retiring inwards towards the heart, the guts, and other parts are relaxed; in the same manner as fear also causeth trembling in the sinews. And of this kind of purgers are some medicines made of mercury.

42. The seventh cause is abstersion; which is plainly a scouring off, or incision of the more viscous humours, and making the humours more fluid; and cutting between them and the part; as is found in nitrous water, which scoureth linen cloth speedily from the foulness. But this incision must be by a sharpness, without astriction: which we find in salt, wormwood, oxymel, and the like. 43. There be medicines that move stools, and not urine; some other, urine, and not stools. Those that purge by stool are such as enter not at all, or little, into the mesentery vein: but either at the first are not digestible by the stomach, and therefore move immediately downwards to the guts; or else are afterwards rejected by the mesentery veins, and so turn likewise downwards to the guts; and of these two kinds are most purgers. But those that move urine are such as

and reins; where, by heating and opening, it sendeth down urine more plentifully.

Experiments in consort touching meats and drinks that are most nourishing.

45. We have spoken of evacuating of the body; we will now speak something of the filling of it, by restoratives in consumptions and emaciating diseases. In vegetables, there is one part that is more nourishing than another; as grains and roots nourish more than the leaves; insomuch as the order of the Foliatanes was put down by the pope, as finding leaves unable to nourish man's body. Whether there be that difference in the flesh of living creatures is not well inquired, as whether livers, and other entrails be not more nourishing than the outward flesh. We find that amongst the Romans, a goose's liver was a great delicacy; insomuch as they had artificial means to make it fair and great; but whether it were more nourishing appeareth not. It is certain, that marrow is more nourishing than fat. And I conceive that some decoction of bones and sinews, stamped and well strained, would be a very nourishing broth: we find also that Scotch skinck, which is a pottage of strong nourishment, is made with the knees and sinews of beef, but long boiled: jelly also, which they use for a restorative, is chiefly made of knuckles of veal. The pulp that is within the crawfish or crab, which they spice and butter, is more nourishing than the flesh of the crab or crawfish. The yolks of eggs are clearly more nourishing than the whites. So that it should seem, that the parts of living creatures that lie more inwards, nourish more than the outward

flesh; except it be the brain: which the spirits prey too much upon, to leave it any great virtue of nourishing. It seemeth for the nourishing of aged men, or men in consumptions, some such thing should be devised, as should be half chylus, before it be put into the stomach.

50. Pistachoes, so they be good, and not musty, joined with almonds in almond milk; or made into a milk of themselves, like unto almond milk, but more green, are an excellent nourisher: but you shall do well to add a little ginger, scraped, because they are not without some subtile windiness.

46. Take two large capons; parboil them upon a soft fire, by the space of an hour or more, till in 51. Milk warm from the cow is found to be a effect all the blood is gone. Add in the decoction great nourisher, and a good remedy in consumpthe pill of a sweet lemon, or a good part of the pill tions: but then you must put into it, when you of a citron, and a little mace. Cut off the shanks, milk the cow, two little bags; the one of powder and throw them away. Then with a good strong of mint, the other of powder of red roses; for they chopping-knife mince the two capons, bones and keep the milk somewhat from turning or curdling all, as small as ordinary minced meat; put them in the stomach; and put in sugar also, for the into a large neat boulter; then take a kilderkin same cause, and hardly for the taste's sake; sweet and well seasoned, of four gallons of beer, but you must drink a good draught, that it of 8s. strength, new as it cometh from the tun- may stay less time in the stomach, lest it ning: make in the kilderkin a great bung-hole of curdle: and let the cup into which you milk the purpose: then thrust into it the boulter, in which cow, be set in a greater cup of hot water, that the capons are, drawn out in length; let it steep you may take it warm. And cow milk thus prein it three days and three nights, the bung-hole pared, I judge to be better for a consumption than open to work, then close the bung-hole, and so let ass milk, which, it is true, turneth not so easily, it continue a day and half; then draw it into bot- but it is a little harsh; marry it is more proper tles, and you may drink it well after three days' for sharpness of urine, and exulceration of the bottling; and it will last six weeks: approved. bladder, and all manner of lenifying. Woman's It drinketh fresh, flowereth and mantleth exceed- milk likewise is prescribed, when all fail; but I ingly; it drinketh not newish at all; it is an ex-commend it not, as being a little too near the cellent drink for a consumption, to be drunk either juice of man's body, to be a good nourisher; exalone, or carded with some other beer. It quench- cept it be in infants, to whom it is natural. eth thirst, and hath no whit of windiness. Note, that it is not possible, that meat and bread, either in broths, or taken with drink, as is used, should get forth into the veins and outward parts so finely and easily as when it is thus incorporate, and made almost a chylus aforehand.

47. Trial would be made of the like brew with potatoe roots, or burr roots, or the pith of artichokes, which are nourishing meats: it may be tried also with other flesh; as pheasant, partridge, young pork, pig, venison, especially of young deer, &c.

48. A mortress made with the brawn of capons, stamped and strained, and mingled, after it is made, with like quantity, at the least, of almond butter, is an excellent meat to nourish those that are weak; better than blanckmanger, or jelly: and so is the cullice of cocks, boiled thick with the like mixture of almond butter; for the mortress or cullice, of itself, is more savoury and strong, and not so fit for nourishing of weak bodies; but the almonds, that are not of so high a taste as flesh, do excellently qualify it.

49. Indian maiz hath, of certain, an excellent spirit of nourishment; but it must be throughly boiled, and made into a maiz-cream like a barley

I judge the same of rice, made into a cream; for rice is in Turkey, and other countries of the east, most fed upon; but it must be thoroughly boiled in respect of the hardness of it, and also because otherwise it bindeth the body too much.

52. Oil of sweet almonds, newly drawn, with sugar and a little spice, spread upon bread toasted, is an excellent nourisher: but then to keep the oil from frying in the stomach, you must drink a good draught of mild beer after it; and to keep it from relaxing the stomach too much, you must put in a little powder of cinnamon.

53. The yolks of eggs are of themselves so well prepared by nature for nourishment, as, so they be poached, or reare boiled, they need no other preparation or mixture; yet they may be taken also raw, when they are new laid, with Malmsey, or sweet wine: you shall do well to put in some few slices of eryngium roots, and a little ambergrice; for by this means, besides the immediate faculty of nourishment, such drink will strengthen the back, so that it will not draw down the urine too fast; for too much urine doth always hinder nourishment.

54. Mincing of meat, as in pies, and buttered minced meat, saveth the grinding of the teeth; and therefore, no doubt, it is more nourishing, especially in age, or to them that have weak teeth; but the butter is not so proper for weak bodies; and therefore it were good to moisten it with a little claret wine, pill of lemon or orange, cut small, sugar, and a very little cinnamon or nutmeg. As for chuets, which are likewise minced meat, instead of butter and fat, it were good to moisten them, partly with cream, or almond, or pistacho milk: or barley, or maiz-cream; adding a little coriander seed and caraway seed, and a

very little saffron. The more full handling of that the spirits do less spend the nourishment in alimentation we reserve to the due place. sleep, than when living creatures are awake, and We have hitherto handled the particulars which because, that which is to the present purpose, it yield best, and easiest, and plentifullest nourish-helpeth to thrust out the nourishment into the ment; and now we will speak of the best means parts. Therefore in aged men, and weak bodies, of conveying and converting the nourishment. and such as abound not with choler, a short sleep

what of easy digestion, as milk from the cow, nourishing broth, or the like, doth further nourishment: but this would be done sitting upright, that the milk or broth may pass the more speedily to the bottom of the stomach.

55. The first means is to procure that the nourish- after dinner doth help to nourish; for in such ment may not be robbed and drawn away; where-bodies there is no fear of an over-hasty digestion, in that which we have already said is very mate- which is the inconvenience of postmeridian sleeps. rial; to provide that the reins draw not too strong-Sleep also in the morning, after the taking of somely an over great part of the blood into urine. To this add that precept of Aristotle, that wine be forborne in all consumptions; for that the spirits of the wine do prey upon the roscid juice of the body, and inter-common with the spirits of the body, and so deceive and rob them of their nourish- 58. The fourth means is, to provide that the ment. And therefore, if the consumption, grow- parts themselves may draw to them the nourishing from the weakness of the stomach, do force ment strongly. There is an excellent observation you to use wine, let it always be burnt, that the of Aristotle; that a great reason, why plants, quicker spirits may evaporate; or, at the least, some of them, are of greater age than living creaquenched with two little wedges of gold, six or tures, is, for that they yearly put forth new leaves seven times repeated. Add also this provision, and boughs: whereas living creatures put forth that there be not too much expense of the nourish-after their period of growth, nothing that is young, ment, by exhaling and sweating; and therefore if but hair and nails, which are excrements, and no the patient be apt to sweat, it must be gently re-parts. And it is most certain, that whatsoever is strained. But chiefly Hippocrates's rule is to be young, doth draw nourishment better than that followed, who adviseth quite contrary to that which is old; and then, that which is the mystewhich is in use: namely, that the linen or gar-ry of that observation, young boughs, and leaves, ment next the flesh be, in winter, dry and oft calling the sap up to them, the same nourisheth changed; and in summer seldom changed, and the body in the passage. And this we see notasmeared over with oil; for certain it is, that any bly proved also, in that the oft cutting, or polling substance that is fat, doth a little fill the pores of of hedges, trees, and herbs, doth conduce much to the body, and stay sweat in some degree: but the their lasting. Transfer therefore this observation more cleanly way is, to have the linen smeared to the helping of nourishment in living creatures: lightly over with oil of sweet almonds; and not the noblest and principal use whereof is, for the to forbear shifting as oft as is fit. prolongation of life; restoration of some degree of youth, and inteneration of the parts; for certain it is, that there are in living creatures parts that nourish and repair easily, and parts that nourish and repair hardly; and you must refresh and renew those that are easy to nourish, that the other may

56. The second means is, to send forth the nourishment into the parts more strongly; for which the working must be by strengthening of the stomach; and in this, because the stomach is chiefly comforted by wine and hot things, which otherwise hurt, it is good to resort to outward ap-be refreshed, and as it were, drink in nourishment plications to the stomach: Wherein it hath been in the passage. Now we see that draught oxen, tried, that the quilts of roses, spices, mastic, worm- put into good pasture, recover the flesh of young wood, mint, &c. are nothing so helpful, as to take beef; and men-after long emaciating diets wax a cake of new bread, and to bedew it with a little plump and fat, and almost new: so that you may sack, or Alicant, and to dry it, and after it be dried surely conclude, that the frequent and wise use a little before the fire, to put it within a clean of those emaciating diets, and of purgings, and napkin, and to lay it to the stomach; for it is cer- perhaps of some kind of bleeding, is a principal tain, that all flour hath a potent virtue of astric-means of prolongation of life, and restoring some tion; in so much as it hardeneth a piece of flesh, or a flower, that is laid in it: and therefore a bag quilted with bran is likewise very good; but it drieth somewhat too much, and therefore it must not lie long.

57. The third means, which may be a branch of the former, is to send forth the nourishment the better by sleep. For we see, that bears, and other creatures that sleep in the winter, wax exceeding fat and certain it is, as it is commonly believed, that sleep doth nourish much, both for

degree of youth; for as we have often said, death
cometh upon living creatures like the torment of
Mezentius:

Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis
Componens manibusque manus, atque oribus ora.
Æn. viii. 485.

For the parts in man's body easily reparable, as
spirits, blood, and flesh, die in the embracement
of the parts hardly reparable, as bones, nerves, and
membranes; and likewise some entrails, which
they reckon amongst the spermatical parts, are

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