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Experiment solitary touching the general sympathy men came forth out of one divine limbus; else

of men's spirits.

1000. The delight which men have in popularity, fanie, honour, submission, and subjection of other men's minds, wills, or affections, although these things may be desired for other ends, seemeth to be a thing in itself without contemplation of consequence, grateful and agreeable to the nature of man. This thing, surely, is not without some signification, as if all spirits and souls of

why should men be so much affected with that which others think or say? The best temper of minds desireth good name and true honour: the lighter, popularity and applause: the more depraved, subjection and tyranny; as is seen in great conquerors and troublers of the world: and yet more in arch-heretics; for the introduction of new doctrines is likewise an affectation of tyranny over the understandings and beliefs of men.

VOL. II.-18


M 2






I Do not find it strange, excellent king, that when Heraclitus, he that was surnamed the obscure, had set forth a certain book, which is not now extant, many men took it for a discourse of nature, and many others took it for a treatise of policy. For there is a great affinity and consent between the rules of nature, and the true rules of policy: the one being nothing else but an order in the government of the world: and the other an order in the government of an estate. And therefore the education and erudition of the kings of Persia was in a science which was termed by a name then of great reverence, but now degenerate and taken in the ill part. For the Persian magic, which was the secret literature of their kings, was an application of the contemplations and observations of nature unto a sense politic; taking the fundamental laws of nature, and the branches and passages of them, as an original or first model, whence to take and describe a copy and imitation for government.


After this manner the foresaid instructors set before their kings the examples of the celestial podies, the sun, the moon, and the rest, which nave great glory and veneration, but no rest or intermission: being in a perpetual office of motion, for the cherishing, in turn and in course, of inferior bodies: expressing likewise the true manner of the motions of government, which, though they ought to be swift and rapid in respect of despatch and occasions, yet are they to be constant and regular, without wavering or confusion.

So did they represent unto them how the heavens do not enrich themselves by the earth and the seas, nor keep no dead stock, nor untouched treasures of that they draw to them from below; but whatsoever moisture they do levy and take from both elements in vapours, they do spend and

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turn back again in showers, only holding and storing them up for a time, to the end to issue and distribute them in season.

But chiefly, they did express and expound unto them that fundamental law of nature, whereby all things do subsist and are preserved: which is, that every thing in nature, although it hath its private and particular affection and appetite, and doth follow and pursue the same in small moments, and when it is free and delivered from more general and common respects; yet, nevertheless, when there is question or case for sustaining of the more general, they forsake their own particularities, and attend and conspire to uphold the public.

So we see the iron in small quantity will ascend and approach to the loadstone upon a particular sympathy: but if it be any quantity of moment, it leaveth its appetite of amity to the loadstone, and, like a good patriot, falleth to the earth, which is the place and region of massy bodies.

So again, the water and other like bodies do fall towards the centre of the earth, which is, as was said, their region or country; and yet we see nothing more usual in all water-works and engines, than that the water, rather than to suffer any distraction or disunion in nature, will ascend, forsaking the love to its own region or country, and applying itself to the body next adjoining.

But it were too long a digression to proceed to more examples of this kind. Your majesty yourself did fall upon a passage of this nature in your gracious speech of thanks unto your council, when, acknowledging princely their vigilances and well-deservings, it pleased you to note, that it was a success and event above the course of nature to have so great change with so great a quiet: forasmuch as sudden mutations, as well in state as in nature, are rarely without violence and perturba

tion: so as still I conclude there is, as was said, | tior," being one of the common notions of the mind, a congruity between the principles of nature and needeth not much to be induced or illustrated. policy. And lest that instance may seem to oppone to this assertion, I may, even in that particular, with your majesty's favour, offer unto you a type or pattern in nature, much resembling this event in your state; namely, earthquakes, which many of them bring ever much terror and wonder, but no actual hurt; the earth trembling for a moment, and suddenly stablishing in perfect quiet as it was before.

This knowledge, then, of making the government of the world a mirror for the government of a state, being a wisdom almost lost, whereof the reason I take to be because of the difficulty for one man to embrace both philosophies, I have thought good to make some proof, as far as my weakness and the straits of time will suffer, to revive in the handling of one particular, wherewith now I most humbly present your majesty: for surely, as hath been said, it is a form of discourse anciently used towards kings; and to what king should it be more proper than to a king that is studious to conjoin contemplative virtue and active virtue together?

We see the sun when he entereth, and while he continueth under the sign of Leo, causeth more vehement heats than when he is in Cancer, what time his beams are nevertheless more perpendicular. The reason whereof, in great part, hath been truly ascribed to the conjunction and corradiation, in that place of heaven, of the sun with the four stars of the first magnitude, Sirius, Canicula, Cor Leonis, and Cauda Leonis.

So the moon likewise, by ancient tradition, while she is in the same sign of Leo, is said to be at the heart, which is not for any affinity which that place of heaven can have with that part of man's body, but only because the moon is then, by reason of the conjunction and nearness with the stars aforenamed, in greatest strength of influence, and so worketh upon that part in inferior bodies, which is most vital and principal.

So we see waters and liquors, in small quantity, do easily putrefy and corrupt; but in large quantity subsist long, by reason of the strength they receive by union.

So in earthquakes, the more general do little hurt, by reason of the united weight which they offer to subvert; but narrow and particular earthquakes have many times overturned whole towns and cities.

So then this point touching the force of union is evident: and therefore it is more fit to speak of the manner of union: wherein again it will not be pertinent to handle one kind of union, which is union by victory, when one body doth merely subdue another, and converteth the same into its own nature, extinguishing and expulsing what part soever of it it cannot overcome. As when the fire converteth the wood into fire, purging away the smoke and the ashes as unapt matter to inflame: or when the body of a living ereature doth convert and assimilate food and nourishment, purging and expelling whatsoever it cannot convert. For these representations do answer in matter of policy to union of countries by conquest, where the conquering state doth extinguish, extirpate, and expulse any part of the state conquered, which it findeth so contrary as it cannot alter and convert it. And, therefore, leaving violent unions, we will consider only of natural unions.

Your majesty is the first king that had the honour to be "lapis angularis;" to unite these two mighty and warlike nations of England and Scotland under one sovereignty and monarchy. It doth not appear by the records and memoirs of any true history, or scarcely by the fiction and pleasure of any fabulous narration or tradition, that ever, of any antiquity, this island of Great Britain was united under one king before this day. And yet there be no mountains nor races of hills, there be no seas or great rivers, there is no diversity of tongue or language that hath invited or provoked this ancient separation or divorce. The lot of Spain was to have the several kingdoms of that continent, Portugal only excepted, to be united in an age not long past; and now in our age that of Portugal also, which was the last that held out, to be incorporate with the rest. The lot of France hath been, much about the same time, likewise, to have re-annexed unto that crown the several duchies and portions which were in former times dismembered. The lot of this island is the last reserved for your majesty's happy times, by the special providence and favour of God, who hath brought your majesty to this happy conjunction with the great consent of The difference is excellent which the best obhearts, and in the strength of your years, and in servers in nature do take between "compositio" the maturity of your experience. It resteth but and "mistio," putting together, and mingling: that, as I promised, I set before your majesty's the one being but a conjunction of bodies in princely consideration, the grounds of nature place, the other in quality and consent: the one touching the union and commixture of bodies, the mother of sedition and alteration, the other of and the correspondence, which they have with the peace and continuance: the one rather a confusion grounds of policy in the conjunction of states and than a union, the other properly a union. kingdoms. Therefore we see those bodies, which they call First, therefore, that position, "Vis unita for-imperfecte mista," last not, but are speedily

dissolved. For take, for example, snow or froth,
which are compositions of air and water, and in
them you may behold how easily they sever and
dissolve, the water closing together and exclud-meet in one name of Latins.
ing the air.

distribution: that Italy should give the language
and the laws; Troy should give a mixture of men.
and some religious rites; and both people should

So those three bodies which the alchymists do so much celebrate as the three principles of things; that is to say, earth, water, and oil, which it pleaseth them to term salt, mercury, and sulphur, we see, if they be united only by composition or putting together, how weakly and rudely they do incorporate: for water and earth make but an imperfect slime; and if they be forced together by agitation, yet, upon a little settling, the earth resideth in the bottom. So water and oil, though by agitation it be brought into an ointment, yet after a little settling the oil will float on the top. So as such imperfect mixtures continue no longer than they are forced; and still in the end the worthiest getteth above.

Soon after the foundation of the city of Rome, the people of the Romans and the Sabines mingled upon equal terms: wherein the interchange went so even, that, as Livy noteth, the one nation gave the name to the place, the other to the people. For Rome continued the name, but the people were called Quirites, which was the Sabine word, derived of Cures, the country of Tatius.

But that which is chiefly to be noted in the whole continuance of the Roman government; they were so liberal of their naturalizations, as in effect they made perpetual mixtures. For the manner was to grant the same, not only to particular persons, but to families and lineages; and not only so, but to whole cities and countries. So as in the end it came to that, that Rome was "communis patria," as some of the civilians. call it.

But otherwise it is of perfect mixtures. For we see these three bodies, of earth, water, and oil, when they are joined in a vegetable or mine- So we read of St. Paul, after he had been ral, they are so united, as, without great subtlety beaten with rods, and thereupon charged the of art and force of extraction, they cannot be se- officer with the violation of the privilege of a parated and reduced into the same simple bodies citizen of Rome; the captain said to him, "Art again. So as the difference between "composi-thou then a Roman? That privilege hath cost me tio" and "mistio" clearly set down is this; that dear." To whom St. Paul replied, “But I was "compositio" is the joining or putting together so born;" and yet, in another place, St. Paul of bodies without a new form : and "mistio" is the joining or putting together of bodies under a new form: for the new form is "commune vinculum," and without that the old forms will be at strife and discord.

Now, to reflect this light of nature upon matter of estate; there hath been put in practice in government these two several kinds of policy in uniting and conjoining of states and kingdoms; the one to retain the ancient form still severed, and only conjoined in sovereignty; the other to s perinduce a new form, agreeable and convenient to the entire estate. The former of these hath been more usual, and is more easy; but the latter is more happy. For if a man do attentively revolve histories of all nations, and judge truly thereupon, he will make this conclusion, that there was never any states that were good commixtures but the Romans; which, because it was the best state of the world, and is the best example of this point, we will chiefly insist thereupon. In the antiquities of Rome, Virgil bringeth in Jupiter, by way of oracle or prediction, speaking of the mixture of the Trojans and the Italians:

Sermonem Ausonii patrium moresque tenebunt:
Utque est, nomen erit: commixti corpore tantum
Subsident Teucri; morem ritusque sacrorum
Adjiciam faciamque omnes uno ore Latinos.
Hinc genus, Ausonio mixtum quod sanguine surget,
Supra homines, supra ire Deos pietate videbis.
Æn. xii. 834.

professeth himself, that he was a Jew by tribe: so as it is manifest that some of his ancestors were naturalized; and so it was conveyed to him and their other descendants.

So we read that it was one of the first despites that was done to Julius Cæsar, that whereas he obtained naturalization for a city in Gaul, one of the city was beaten with rods of the consul Marcellus.

So we read in Tacitus, that in the Emperor Claudius's time, the nation of Gaul, that part which is called Comata, the wilder part, were suitors to be made capable of the honour of being senators and officers of Rome. His words are these: "Cum de supplendo senatu agitaretur primoresque Galliæ, quæ Comata appellata fœdera, et civitatem Romanam pridem assecuti, jus adipiscendorum in urbe honorum expeterent: multus ea super re variusque rumor, et studiis diversis, apud principem certabatur." And in the end, after long debate, it was ruled they should be admitted.

So, likewise, the authority of Nicholas Machiavel seemeth not to be contemned; who, inquiring the causes of the growth of the Roman empire, doth give judgment; there was not one greater than this, that the state did so easily compound and incorporate with strangers.

It is true, that most estates and kingdoms have taken the other course: of which this effect hath followed, that the addition of further empire and territory hath been rather matter of burden, than Wherein Jupiter maketh a kind of partition or matter of strength unto them: yea, and, farther, it

hath kept anve the seeds and roots of revolts and nounced by an ancient father, touching the diversity rebellions for many ages; as we may see in a fresh of rites in the church; for finding the vesture of and notable example of the kingdon of Arragon: the queen in the psalm, which did prefigure the which, though it were united to Castile by mar-church, was of divers colours; and finding again riage, and not by conquest, and so descended in that Christ's coat was without a seam, he conhereditary union by the space of more than a cluded well, "in veste varietas sit, scissura non hundred years; yet, because it was continued in sit." a divided government, and not well incorporated and cemented with the other crowns, entered into a rebellion upon point of their "fueros," or liberties, now of very late years.

Now, to speak briefly of the several parts of that form, whereby states and kingdoms are perfectly united, they are, besides the sovereignty itself, four in number; union in name, union in language, union in laws, union in employments.

For name, though it seem but a superficial and outward matter, yet it carrieth much impression and enchantment: the general and common name of Græcia made the Greeks always apt to unite, though otherwise full of divisions amongst themselves, against other nations whom they called barbarous. The Helvetian name is no small band to knit together their leagues and confederacies the faster. The common name of Spain, no doubt, hath been a special means of the better union and conglutination of the several kingdoms of Castile, Arragon, Granada, Navarre, Valentia, Catalonia, and the rest, comprehending also now lately Portugal.

For language, it is not needful to insist upon it; because both your majesty's kingdoms are of one language, though of several dialects; and the difference is so small between them, as promiseth rather an enriching of one language than a continuance of two.

For laws, which are the principal sinews of government, they be of three natures; "jura," which I will term freedoms or abilities, "leges," and mores."

For abilities and freedoms, they were amongst the Romans of four kinds, or rather degrees. "Jus connubii, jus civitatis, jus suffragii," and "jus petitionis" or "honorum." "Jus connubii" is a thing in these times out of use: for marriage is open between all diversities of nations. "Jus civitatis" answereth to that we call denization or naturalization. "Jus suffragii" answereth to the voice in parliament. "Jus petitionis" answereth to place in council or office. And the Romans did many times sever these freedoms; granting "Jus connubii, sine civitate," and "civitatem, sine suffragio," and "suffragium, sine jure petitionis," which was commonly with them the last.

For those we called "leges," it is a matter of curiosity and inconveniency, to seek either to extirpate all particular customs, or to draw all subjects to one place or resort of judicature and session. It sufficeth there be a uniformity in the principal and fundamental laws, both ecclesiastical and civil: for in this point the rule holdeth which was pro

For manners: a consent in them is to be sought industriously, but not to be enforced: for nothing amongst people breedeth so much pertinacy in holding their customs, as sudden and violent offer to remove them.

And as for employments, it is no more but an indifferent hand, and execution of that verse:

Tros, Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur. There remaineth only to remember cut of the grounds of nature the two conditions of perfect mixture; whereof the former is time: for the natural philosophers say well, that "compositio" is "opus hominis" and "mistio opus naturæ." For it is the duty of man to make a fit application of bodies together: but the perfect fermentation and incorporation of them must be left to time and nature; and unnatural hasting thereof doth disturb the work, and not despatch it.

So we see, after the graft is put into the stock and bound, it must be left to time and nature to make that "continuum," which at the first was but "contiguum." And it is not any continual pressing or thrusting together that will prevent nature's season, but rather hinder it. And so in liquors, those commixtures which are at the first troubled, grow after clear and settled by the benefit of rest and time.

The second condition is, that the greater draw the less. So we see when two lights do meet, the greater doth darken and dim the less. And when a smaller river runneth into a greater, it loseth both its name and stream. And hereof, to conclude, we see an excellent example in the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. The kingdom of Judah contained two tribes; the kingdom of Israel contained ten. King David reigned over Judah for certain years; and, after the death of Ishbosheth, the son of Saul, obtained likewise the kingdom of Israel. This union continued in him, and likewise in his son Solomon, by the space of seventy years, at least, between them both: but yet, because the seat of the kingdom was kept still in Judah, and so the less sought to draw the greater: upon the first occasion offered, the kingdoms brake again, and so continued ever after.

Thus having in all humbleness made oblation to your majesty of these simple fruits of my devotion and studies, I do wish, and do wish it not in the nature of an impossibility, to my apprehension, that this happy union of your majesty's two kingdoms of England and Scotland, may be in as good an hour and under the like divine providence, as that was between the Romans and the Sabines.

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