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no general and practical improvement resulting from it. It was only from the period of the discoveries made by the telescope that the science advanced with sure and rapid progress. Now, the astronomer does not make telescopes. I presume it would be impossible for a person who is employed in the abstract study of astronomical science to find time enough to comprehend its profound investigations, and to learn and practise the trade of making glass. It is mentioned as a remarkable versatility of talent in one or two eminent observers, that they have superintended the cutting and polishing of the glasses of their own telescopes. But I presume, if there never had been a telescope till some scientific astronomer had learned to mix, melt, and mould glass, such a thing would never have been heard of. It is not less true that those employed in making the glass could not, in the nature of things, be expected to acquire the scientific knowledge requisite for carrying on those arduous calculations, applied to bring into a system the discoveries made by the magnifying power of the telescope. I might extend the same remark to the other materials of which a telescope consists. It cannot be used to any purpose of nice observation without being very carefully mounted on a frame of strong metal, which demands the united labours of the mathematical instrument maker and the brass-founder. Here, then, in taking but one single step out of the philosopher's observatory, we find he needs an instrument to be produced by the united labours of the mathematical instrument maker, the brass-founder, the glass-polisher, and the maker of glass,-four trades. He must also have an astronomical clock, and it would be easy to count up half a dozen trades, which directly or indirectly are connected in making a clock. But let us go back to the object-glass of the telescope. A glass-factory requires a building and furnaces. The man who makes the glass does not make the building. But the stone and brick mason, the carpenter and the blacksmith, must furnish the greater part of the labour and skill required to construct the building. When it is built, a large quantity of fuel, wood and wood-coal, or mineral coal of various kinds, or all together, must be provided; and then the materials of which the glass is made, and with which it is coloured, some of which are furnished by commerce from different and distant regions, and must be brought in ships across the sea. We cannot take up any one of these trades without immediately finding that it connects itself with numerous others. Take, for instance, the mason who builds the furnace. He does not make his own bricks, nor burn his own lime; in common cases the bricks come from one place, the lime from another, the sand from another. The brickmaker does not cut down his own wood. It is carted or brought in boats to his yard. The man who carts it does not make his own waggon; nor does the person who brings it in boats build his own boat. The man who makes the waggon does not make the tire. The blacksmith who makes the tire does not smelt the ore; and the forgeman who smelts the ore does not build his own furnace, (and there we get back to the point whence we started,) nor dig his own mine. The man who digs the mine does not make the pickaxe with which he digs it, nor the pump with which he keeps out the water. The man who makes the pump did not discover the principle of atmospheric pressure, which led to pump-making: that was done by a mathematician at Florence, experimenting in his chamber on a glass tube. And here we come back again to our glass, and to an instance of the close connection of scientific research with practical art. It is plain that this enumeration might be pursued till every art and every science were shown to run into every other. No one can doubt this who will go over the subject in his own mind, beginning with any one of the processes of mining and working metals, of ship-building, and navigation, and the other branches of art and industry pursued in civilized communities.

Tf then, on the one hand, the astronomer depends for his telescope on the ulti

mate product of so many arts; in return, his observations are the basis of an astronomical system, and of calculations of the movements of the heavenly bodies, which furnish the mariner with his best guide across the ocean. The prudent shipmaster would no more think of sailing for India without his Bowditch's Practical Navigator than he would without his compass; and this Navigator contains tables drawn from the highest walks of astronomical science. Every first mate of a vessel, who works a lunar observation to ascertain the ship's longitude, employs tables in which the most wonderful discoveries and calculations of La Place, and Newton, and Bowditch, are interwoven.

I mention this as but one of the cases in which astronomical science promotes the service and convenience of common life; and perhaps, when we consider the degree to which the modern extension of navigation connects itself with industry in all its branches, this may be thought sufficient. I will only add, that the cheap convenience of an almanac, which enters into the comforts of every fireside in the country, could not be enjoyed but for the labours and studies of the profoundest philosophers. Not that great learning or talent is now required to execute the astronomical calculations of an almanac, although no inconsiderable share of each is needed for this purpose; but because even to perform these calculations requires the aid of tables which have been gradually formed on the basis of the profoundest investigations of the long line of philosophers, who have devoted themselves to this branch of science. For, as we observed on the mechanical side of the illustration it was not one trade alone which was required to furnish the philosopher with is instrument, but a great variety; so, on the other hand, it is not the philosopher one department who creates a science out of nothing. The observing astronomer furnishes materials to the calculating astronomer, and the calculator derives methods from the pure mathematician: and a long succession of each for ages must unite their labours in a great result. Without the geometry of the Greeks, and the algebra of the Arabs, the infinitesimal analyses of Newton and Leibnitz would never have been invented.

Examples and illustrations equally instructive might be found in every other branch of industry. The man who will go into a cotton-mill, and contemplate it from the great water-wheel that gives the first movement (and still more from the steam-engine, should that be the moving power), who will observe the parts of the machinery, and the various processes of the fabric, till he reaches the hydraulic press with which it is made into a bale, and the canal or railroad by which it is sent to market, may find every branch of trade, and every department of science. literally crossed, intertwined, interwoven, with every other, like the woof and the warp of the article manufactured. Not a little of the spinning machinery is costructed on principles drawn from the demonstrations of transcendental mathematics; and the processes of bleaching and dyeing now practised are the results of the most profound researches of modern chemistry. And, if this does not satisfy the inquirer, let him trace the cotton to the plantation where it grew, in Georgia or Alabama; the indigo to Bengal; the oil to the olive-gardens of Italy, or the fishinggrounds of the Pacific Ocean; let him consider the cotton-gin, the carding-machine, the power-loom, and the spinning apparatus, and all the arts, trades, and sciences directly or indirectly connected with these, and I believe he will soon agree that one might start from a yard of coarse printed cotton, which costs ten cents, and prove out of it, as out of a text, that every art and science under heaven had been concerned in its fabric.

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[DR. WILLIAM BATES was one of the most eminent of the divines whose conscientious scruples removed them from the Church of England in 1662, under the Act of Uniformity. He had previously been one of the king's chaplains; had been offered the deanery of Lichfield and Coventry; and at the time of his ejectment was vicar of St. Dunstan's in the West. There is something exceedingly touching in a passage in his farewell sermon to his parishioners: "It is neither fancy, faction, nor humour, that makes me not comply: but merely the fear of offending God. And if, after the best means used for my illumination (as prayer to God, discourse, and study) I am not able to be satisfied as to the lawfulness of what is required; if it be my unhappiness to be in error; surely men will have no reason to be angry with me in this world, and I hope God will pardon me in the next." After his secession from the established Church, Dr. Bates became the minister of a congregation of Protestant Dissenters at Hackney, at which place he died in 1699, in his seventy-fourth year. His works were collected in 1700, in a folio volume, which has been several times reprinted.]

The gospel proposes the most animating examples of perfection.

We are commanded to be perfect as our heavenly Father is perfect. There are some attributes of God, which are objects, not of our imitation, but of our highest veneration. Such are his eternity, immensity, omnipotence, immutability. There are other attributes, his moral perfections, which are imitable-holiness, goodness, justice, truth. These are fully declared in his law, and visibly in his providence. This command, as was before explained, is to be understood, not of an equality, but of a resemblance. God is essentially, transcendently, and unchangeably holy, the original of holiness in intelligent creatures. There is a greater disproportion between the holiness of God and that of angels, though it be unspotted, than between the celerity of the sun in the heavens and the slow motion of the shadow upon the dial regulated by it. It should be our utmost aim, our most earnest endeavour, to imitate the divine perfection. Then is the soul godlike, when its principal powers, the understanding and the will, are influenced by God.

The heathen deities were distinguished by their vices-intemperance, impurity, and cruelty; and under such patronage their idolaters sinned boldly. The true God commands us to "be holy, as he is holy; to be followers of Him as dear children." Love produces desires and endeavours of likeness.

set before us for

us; for in him He was "holy. absolute, and His life and

The life of Christ is a globe of precepts, a model of perfection, our imitation. In some respects this is more proportionable to were united the perfections of God with the infirmities of a man. harmless, undefiled, and separate from sinners." His purity was every grace in the most divine degree was expressed in his actions. death were a compound miracle, of obedience to God and love to men. Whatever his Father ordered him to undertake, or undergo, he entirely consented to; he willingly took on him the form of a servant; it was not put upon him by compulsion. In his life, humility towards men, infinite descents below him, self-denial, zeal for the honour of God, ardent desires for the salvation and welfare of men, were as visible as the flame discovers fire. In his sufferings obedience and sacrifice were united. The willingness of his spirit was victorious over the repugnance of the natural will in the garden. "Not my will, but thine be done," was his unalterable choice. His patience was insuperable to all injuries. He was betrayed by a disciple for a vile price, and a murderer was preferred before him. He was scorned as a false prophet, as a feigned king, and as a deceitful saviour. He was spit on, scourged, crowned with thorns, and crucified; and in the height of his sufferings never expressed a spark of anger against his enemies, nor the least degree of impatience. Now consider, it was one principal reason of his obedience to instruct and oblige us to conform to his

pattern, the certain and constant rule of our duty. We may not securely follow the best saints, who sometimes, through ignorance and infirmity, deviate from the narrow way; but our Saviour is "the way, the truth, and the life." What he said, after his washing the disciples' feet (an action wherein there was such an admirable mixture of humility and love, that it is not possible to conceive which excelled, for they were both in the highest perfection), "I have given you an example, that as I have done to you, so do ye," is applicable to all the kinds of virtues and graces exhibited in bis practice. He instructs us to do by his doings, and to suffer by his sufferings "He suffered for us, leaving us an example, that we may follow his steps." He levels the way by going before us. Those duties that are very harsh to sensible nature, he instructs us in by his preaching and by his passion. How can we decline them, when performed by him in whom the glorious Deity was personally united to the tender humanity? His life was a continual lecture of mortification. It is the observation of the natural historian, that the tender providence of nature is admirable, in preparing medicines for us in beautiful fragrant flowers; that we might not refuse the remedy, as more distasteful than our diseases. But how astonishing is the love of God, who sent his Son for our redemption from eternal death; and in his example has sweetened those remedies which are requisite for the cure of our distempered passions! Taking up the cross, and submitting to poverty and persecution, are made tolerable, by considering that in enduring them we follow our Redeemer. Can any motive more engage and encourage our obedience, than the persuasive pattern and commanding example of our Sovereign and Saviour! Can we be averse from our duty, when our lawgiver teaches us obedience by his own practice? Can any invitation be more attractive than to do that from love to him which he did for love to us and our salvation? We are his subjects by the dearest titles, and our own consent; we are dedicated to his honour; and, as the apostle tells the Galatians, "If ye are circumcised, ye are debtors to keep the whole law;" by the same reason, if we are baptized, we are obliged to obey the law of faith, to order our lives according to the doctrine and example of Christ. An unholy Christian is a contradiction so direct and palpable, that one word destroys another: as if one should say, a living carcass, or a cold calenture. We must adorn the gospel of Christ by the sacred splendour of our actions. A life innocent from gross notorious sins is a poor perfection; we must "show forth the virtues of him who hath called us to his kingdom and glory." Men usually observe what is eminently good, or extremely bad. The excellent goodness of Christians recommends the goodness of the gospel, and ought to convince infidels that it came from the Fountain of goodness.

The primitive Christians endured the fiery trial with insuperable constancy; and the most powerful argument that inspired their courage, despising life and death, was, that Christ was their leader in those terrible conflicts; he was their spectator, when they encountered fierce beasts, and fiercer tyrants, for the defence of his truth, and glory of his name; and while they were suffering for him he was preparing immortal crowns for them. This St. Cyprian, in his pastoral letters to the Christians in Africa, represents with such powerful eloquence, as kindled in their breasts a love to Christ stronger than death.

The angels are propounded to us as a pattern for our imitation. Our Saviour directs our desires, that "the will of God may be done on earth, as it is done in heaven." The will of God is either decretive or preceptive. The decretive extends to all events; nothing falls out at random, nothing by rash chance and casualty; but all things come to pass according to the counsel of his will, by his efficiency or his permission. The preceptive will of God is the rule of our duty. "This is the will of God, even your sanctification." This is intended here; for it is to be per

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formed in conformity to the obedience of the angels. But it is comprehensive of our resigned submission to the will and wisdom of God in the disposals of providence, as well as to our active subjection to his commands. We are equally obliged to acknowledge and honour his dominion in ordering all things, as to yield obedience to his sovereignty declared in his laws. The psalmist addresses himself to the angels, as our pattern; "Bless the Lord, ye his angels, that excel in strength, that do his commandments, hearkening to the voice of his word." They are the eldest offspring of God's power; glorious, heavenly, and immortal spirits. The title of angels signifies their office; their nature we do not fully know. We can tell what they are not; not flesh and blood; but negatives do not afford knowledge. It is not knowledge to declare what things are not, but what they are. Their excellency is discovered in scripture, in that the highest degree of our perfection is expressed by likeness to the angels. The perfection of beauty in Stephen is set forth : They saw his face as the face of an angel." Excellent wisdom in David; "My lord the king is wise as an angel of God." Perfect eloquence; "Though I speak with the tongues of men and angels." And the apostle, in asserting the infinite dignity of the Mediator, proves it by the argument that he is above angels; "To which of the angels did he say, thou art my son?" that is in a high and peculiar manner. Now, if they had not been in the highest order of creatures, the argument had not been conclusive; yet they are infinitely below God. The heavens are not clean in his sight, the stars are not pure before him. The seraphim veil their faces and their feet in his glorious presence, and cry one to another, "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts, the whole earth is full of his glory." His separate and transcendant attributes are the foundation of their humility and subjection. * * * * The matter wherein their obedience is exercised is secret to us, the laws and admirable order in heaven are not fully discovered: but we are assured, that they continually magnify and celebrate the perfections of God. In this lower world, they are "ministering spirits to the heirs of salvation," the adopted children of God. The highest angels are not exempted from this service, nor the lowest saints excluded from the benefit of it.

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The angel told Zacharias, "I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God." It implies his prepared disposition to receive and perform all his commands. It is said, "they hearken to the voice of his word :" the first signification of his will puts them in motion. They entirely obey him; there is no alloy, no mixture of contraries, in their principles, nothing suspends or breaks the entireness of their activity in God's service. They obey him with all their powers, and the utmost efficacy of them. It is said, "He maketh his angels spirits, his ministers a flame of fire," to signify their celerity and vigour in doing God's will. They fly like the wind, to rescue the saints from imminent destructive evils; and, like a flame of fire, are quick and terrible to consume the wicked. They fully perform his commands. The two angels that were sent to preserve Lot from the destruction of Sodom, while he lingered, took him by the hand, and brought him out of the city; and would not destroy it till he was safe. They freely and cheerfully obey God, esteeming his service their glory and felicity. They are styled "thrones and dominions, principalities and powers;" but they are more pleased in the title of his angels; that is, messengers, and in the relation of his servants. They esteem it their highest exaltation and happiness to obey God. They, with as much diligence and delight, watch over the meanest saints, though never so obscure and despicable in the world, as those who are in royal dignity; because they in it obey the orders of God. They are steady and uniform in their duty, above all temptations from hopes or

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