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ment with roots as well as with grains: as for example, take a turnip, and steep it a while, and then dry it, and see whether it will sprout.

648. Malt in the drenching will swell; and that in such a manner, as after the putting forth in sprouts, and the drying upon the kiln, there will be gained at least a bushel in eight, and yet the sprouts are rubbed off, and there will be a bushel of dust besides the malt, which I suppose to be, not only by the loose and open lying of the parts, but by some addition of substance drawn from the water in which it was steeped.

649. Malt gathereth a sweetness to the taste, which appeareth yet more in the wort. The dulcoration of things is worthy to be tried to the full for that dulcoration importeth a degree to nourishment and the making of things inalimental to become alimental, may be an experiment of great profit for making new victual.

650. Most seeds in the growing leave their husk or rind about the root; but the onion will carry it up, that it will be like a cap upon the top of the young onion. The cause may be, for that the skin or husk is not easy to break; as we see by the pilling of onions, what a holding substance the skin is.

651. Plants, that have curled leaves, do all abound with moisture; which cometh so fast on, as they cannot spread themselves plain, but must needs gather together. The weakest kind of curling is roughness, as in clary and burr. The second is curling on the sides; is in lettuce, and young cabbage: and the third is folding into a head; as in cabbage full grown, and cabbage-let

There be herbs also

less the heat of the sun.
that have the same difference; as the herb they
call morsus diaboli; which putteth forth the root
down so low as you cannot pull it up without
breaking; which gave occasion to the name and
fable; for that it was said, it was so wholesome
a root, that the devil, when it was gathered, bit
it for envy: and some of the ancients do report,
that there was a goodly fir, which they desired to
remove the whole, that had a root under ground
eight cubits deep; and so the root came up broken.
654. It hath been observed, that a branch of a
tree, being unbarked some space at the bottom,
and so set into the ground, hath grown; even of
such trees, as if the branch were set with the
bark on, they would not grow; yet contrariwise
we see, that a tree pared round in the body above
ground will die. The cause may be, for that the
unbarked part draweth the nourishment best, but
the bark continueth it only.

655. Grapes will continue fresh and moist all winter long, if you hang them cluster by cluster in the roof of a warm room; especially if when you gather the cluster you take off with the cluster some of the stock.

656. The reed or cane is a watery plant, and groweth not but in the water: it hath these properties: that it is hollow, that it is knuckled both stalk and root, that being dry, it is more hard and fragile than other wood, that it putteth forth no boughs, though many stalks come out of one root. It differeth much in greatness, the smallest being fit for thatching of houses, and stopping the chinks of ships better than glue or pitch. The second bigness is used for angle-rods and 652. It is reported that fir and pine, especially | staves; and in China for beating of offenders if they be old and putrefied, though they shine not upon the thighs. The differing kinds of them as some rotten woods do, yet in the sudden break- are, the common reed, the cassia fistula, and the ing they will sparkle like hard sugar. sugar-reed. Of all plants it boweth the easiest, and riseth again. It seemeth, that amongst plants which are nourished with mixture of earth and water, it draweth most nourishment from water; which maketh it the smoothest of all others in bark, and the hollowest in body.


653. The roots of trees do some of them put downwards deep into the ground; as the oak, pine, fir, &c. Some spread more toward the surface of the earth; as the ash, cypress-tree, olive, &c. The cause of this latter may be, for that such trees as love the sun do not willingly descend far into the earth, and therefore they are, commonly, trees that shoot up much; for in their body their desire of approach to the sun maketh them spread the less. And the same reason under ground, to avoid recess from the sun, maketh them spread the more. And we see it cometh to pass in some trees which have been planted too deep in the ground, that for love of approach to the sun, they forsake their first root, and put out another more towards the top of the earth. And we see also, that the olive is full of oily juice; and ash maketh the best fire, and cypress is a hot tree. As for the oak, which is of the former sort, it loveth the earth, and therefore groweth slowly. And for the pine and fir likewise, they have so much heat in themselves as they need |

657. The sap of trees when they are let blood, is of differing natures. Some more watery and clear, as that of vines, of beeches, of pears: some thick, as apples: some gummy, as cherries: some frothy, as elms: some milky, as figs. In mulberries the sap seemeth to be almost towards the bark only, for if you cut the tree a little into the bark with a stone, it will come forth; if you pierce it deeper with a tool, it will be dry. The trees which have the moistest juices in their fruit, have commonly the moistest sap in their body, for the vines and pears are very moist; apples somewhat more spungy; the milk of the fig hath the quality of the rennet, to gather cheese; and so have certain sour herbs wherewith they make cheese in Lent.

658. The timber and wood are in some trees

if showers follow. It seemeth they call forth the moisture too fast. The west winds are the best. It hath been observed also, that green and open winters do hurt trees, insomuch as if two or three such winters come together, almond-trees and some other trees will die. The cause is the same with the former, because the lust of the earth over-spendeth itself: howsoever some other of the ancients have commended warm winters.

more clean, in some more knotty, and it is a good | nevertheless south winds are also found to do hurt, trial to try it by speaking at one end, and laying especially in the blossoming time, and the more the ear at the other: for if it be knotty, the voice will not pass well. Some have the veins more varied and chambletted, as oak, whereof wainscot is made; maple, whereof trenchers are made: some more smooth, as fir and walnut: some do more easily breed worms and spiders, some more hardly, as it is said of Irish trees: besides there be a number of differences that concern their use; as oak, cedar, and chestnut are the best builders; some are best for plough-timber, as ash; some for piers, that are sometimes wet and sometimes dry, as elm; some for planchers, as deal; some for tables, cupboards, and desks, as walnut; some for ship timber, as oaks that grow in moist grounds, for that maketh the timber tough, and not apt to rift with ordnance; wherein English and Irish timber are thought to excel: some for masts of ships, as fir and pine, because of their length, straightness, and lightness: some for pale, as oak; some for fuel, as ash, and so of the


659. The coming of trees and plants in certain regions, and not in others, is sometimes casual: for many have been translated, and have prospered well; as damask-roses, that have not been known in England above a hundred years, and now are so common. But the liking of plants in certain soils more than in others is merely natural, as the fir and pine love the mountains; the poplar, willow, sallow, and alder, love rivers and moist places; the ash loveth coppices, but is best in standards alone; juniper loveth chalk, and so do most fruit trees; samphire groweth but upon rocks; reeds and osiers grow where they are washed with water; the vine loveth sides of hills, turning upon the south-east sun, &c.

660. The putting forth of certain herbs discovereth of what nature the ground where they put forth is, as wild thyme showeth good feedingground for cattle; betony and strawberries show grounds fit for wood; camomile showeth mellow grounds fit for wheat. Mustard-seed growing after the plough, showeth a good strong ground also for wheat burnet showeth good meadow, and the like.

661. There are found in divers countries, some other plants that grow out of trees and plants, besides misseltoe as in Syria there is an herb called cassytas, that groweth out of tall trees, and windeth itself about the same tree where it groweth, and sometimes about thorns. There is a kind of polypode that groweth out of trees, though it windeth not. So likewise an herb called faunos, upon the wild olive. And an herb called hippophaston upon the fuller's thorns: which, they say, is good for the falling sickness. 662. It hath been observed by some of the ancients, that howsoever cold and easterly winds are thought to be great enemies to fruit, yet

663. Snows lying long cause a fruitful year; for first they keep in the strength of the earth; secondly, they water the earth better than rain: for, in snow, the earth doth, as it were, suck the water as out of the teat: thirdly, the moisture of snow is the finest moisture, for it is the froth of the cloudy waters.

664. Showers, if they come a little before the ripening of fruits, do good to all succulent and moist fruits; as vines, olives, pomegranates; yet it is rather for plenty than for goodness; for the best wines are in the driest vintages: small showers are likewise good for corn, so as parching heats come not upon them. Generally night showers are better than day showers, for that the sun followeth not so fast upon them; and we see even in watering by the hand, it is best in summer time to water in the evening.

665. The differences of earths, and the trial of them, are worthy to be diligently inquired. The earth, that with showers doth easiliest soften, is commended; and yet some earth of that kind will be very dry and hard before the showers. The earth that casteth up from the plough a great clod, is not so good as that which casteth up a smaller clod. The earth that putteth forth moss easily, and may be called mouldy, is not good. The earth that smelleth well upon the digging, or ploughing, is commended, as containing the juice of vegetables almost already prepared. It is thought by some, that the ends of low rainbows fall more upon one kind of earth than upon another, as it may well be; for that that earth is most roseid: and therefore it is commended for a sign of good earth. The poorness of the herbs, it is plain, show the poorness of the earth; and especially if they be in colour more dark: but if the herbs show withered or blasted at the top, it showeth the earth to be very cold; and so doth the mossiness of trees. The earth, whereof the grass is soon parched with the sun, and toasted, is commonly forced earth, and barren in its own nature. The tender chessome, and mellow earth is the best, being mere mould, between the two extremes of clay and sand, especially if it be not loamy and binding. The earth, that after rain will scarce be ploughed, is commonly fruitful: for it is cleaving and full of juice.

666. It is strange, which is observed by some

of the ancients, that dust helpeth the fruitfulness of trees, and of vines by name; insomuch as they cast dust upon them of purpose. It should seem, that that powdering, when a shower cometh, maketh a kind of soiling to the tree, being earth and water finely laid on. And they note, that countries where the fields and ways are dusty bear the best vines.

times they are forced to resow summer corn where they sowed winter corn. Another ill accident is bitter frosts continued without snow, especially in the beginning of the winter, after the seed is new sown. Another disease is worms, which sometimes breed in the root, and happen upon hot suns and showers immediately after the sowing; and another worm breedeth in the ear itself, especially when hot suns break often out of clouds. Another disease is weeds, and they are such as either choke and over-shadow the corn, and bear it down, or starve the corn, and deceive it of nourishment. Another disease is over-rank

667. It is commended by the ancients for an excellent help to trees, to lay the stalks and leaves of lupins about the roots, or to plough them into the ground where you will sow corn. The burning also of the cuttings of vines, and casting them upon land, doth much good. And it was gener-ness of the corn; which they use to remedy by ally received of old, that dunging of grounds when the west wind bloweth, and in the decrease of the moon, doth greatly help; the earth, as it seemeth, being then more thirsty and open to receive the dung.

668. The grafting of vines upon vines, as I take it, is not now in use: the ancients had it, and that three ways; the first was incision, which is the ordinary manner of grafting: the second was terebration through the middle of the stock, and putting in the cions there: and the third was pairing of two vines that grow together to the marrow, and binding them close.

mowing it after it is come up, or putting sheep into it. Another ill accident is laying of corn with great rains, near or in harvest. Another ill accident is, if the seed happen to have touched oil, or any thing that is fat; for those substances have an antipathy with nourishment of water.

670. The remedies of the diseases of corn have been observed as followeth. The steeping of the grain, before sowing, a little time in wine, is thought a preservative: the mingling of seed corn with ashes is thought to be good: the sowing at the wane of the moon is thought to make the corn sound: it hath not been practised, but it is thought to be of use to make some miscellane in corn, as if you sow a few beans with wheat, your wheat will be the better. It hath been observed that the sowing of corn with housleek doth good. Though grain that toucheth oil or fat receiveth hurt, yet the steeping of it in the dregs of oil, when it beginneth to putrefy, which they call amurca, is thought to assure it against worms. It is reported also, that if corn be mowed, it will make the grain longer, but emptier, and having more of the husk.

669. The disease and ill accidents of corn are worthy to be inquired; and would be more worthy to be inquired, if it were in men's power to help them, whereas many of them are not to be remedied. The mildew is one of the greatest, which, out of question, cometh by closeness of air; and therefore in hills, or large champaign grounds, it seldom cometh; such as is with us York's woald. This cannot be remedied, otherwise than that in countries of small enclosure the ground be turned into larger fields: which I have known to do good in some farms. Another disease is the 671. It hath been noted, that seed of a year putting forth of wild oats, whereinto corn often- old is the best, and of two or three years is times, especially barley, doth degenerate. It worse, and that which is more old is quite barren; happeneth chiefly from the weakness of the grain though, no doubt, some seeds and grains last that is sown; for if it be either too old or mouldy, better than others. The corn which in the vanning it will bring forth wild oats. Another disease is lieth lowest is the best; and the corn which the satiety of the ground; for if you sow one broken or bitten retaineth a little yellowness, is ground still with the same corn, I mean not the better than that which is very white. same corn that grew upon the same ground, but the same kind of grain, as wheat, barley, &c. it will prosper but poorly: therefore besides the resting of the ground, you must vary the seed. Another ill accident is from the winds, which hurt at two times; at the flowering, by shaking off the flowers, and at the full ripening, by shaking out the corn. Another ill accident is drought, at the spindling of the corn, which with us is rare, but in hotter countries common; insomuch as the word calamitas was first derived from calamus, when the corn could not get out of the stalk. Another ill accident is over-wet at sowing time, which with us breedeth much dearth, insomuch as the corn never cometh up; and many

672. It hath been observed, that of all roots of herbs, the root of sorrel goeth the farthest into the earth; insomuch that it hath been known to go three cubits deep: and that it is the root that continueth fit longest to be set again, of any root that groweth. It is a cold and acid herb, that, as it seemeth loveth the earth, and is not much drawn by the sun.

673. It hath been observed, that some herbs like best being watered with salt water: as radish, beet, rue, pennyroyal; this trial would be extended to some other herbs; especially such as are strong, as tarragon, mustard-seed, rocket, and the like.

674. It is strange that is generally received,

how some poisonous beasts affect odorate and wholesome herbs; as that the snake loveth fennel; that the toad will be much under sage; that frogs will be in cinque-foil. It may be it is rather the shade, or other coverture, that they take liking in than the virtue of the herb.

675. It were a matter of great profit, save that I doubt it is too conjectural to venture upon, if one could discern what corn, herbs, or fruits, are like to be in plenty or scarcity, by some signs and prognostic in the beginning of the year: for as for those that are like to be in plenty, they may be bargained for upon the ground: as the old relation was of Thales, who, to show how easy it was for a philosopher to be rich, when he foresaw a great plenty of olives, made a monoply of them. And for scarcity, men may make profit in keeping better the old store. Long continuance of snow is believed to make a fruitful year of corn; an early winter, or a very late winter, a barren year of corn: an open and serene winter, an ill year of fruit, in these we have partly touched before but other prognostics of like nature are diligently to be inquired.

cient and modern writers have also laboured; but their causes and axioms are so full of imagination, and so infected with the old received theories, as they are mere inquinations of experience, and concoct it not.

Experiment solitary touching healing of wounds. 677. It hath been observed by some of the ancients, that skins, and especially of rams, newly pulled off, and applied to the wounds of stripes, do keep them from swelling and exulcerating, and likewise heal them and close them up; and that the whites of eggs do the same. The cause is a temperate conglutination, for both bodies are clammy and viscous, and do bridle the deflux of humours to the hurts, without penning them in too much.

Experiment solitary touching fat diffused in flesh. 678. You may turn almost all flesh into a fatty substance, if you take flesh and cut it into pieces, and put the pieces into a glass covered with parchment, and so let the glass stand six or seven hours in boiling water. It may be an experiment of profit for making of fat or grease for many uses; but then it must be of such flesh as is not edible; as horses, dogs, bears, foxes, badgers, &c.

before the time.

679. It is reported by one of the ancients, that new wine put into vessels well stopped, and the vessels let down into the sea, will accelerate very much the making of them ripe and potable. The same would be tried in wort.


676. There seem to be in some plants singularities, wherein they differ from all other: the olive hath the oily part only on the outside; whereas all other fruits have it in the nut or kernel. The fir hath, in effect, no stone, nut, or kernel, except you will count the little grains Experiment solitary touching ripening of drink kernels. The pomegranate and pine-apple have only amongst fruits grains distinct in several cells. No herbs have curled leaves but cabbage and cabbage-lettuce. None have doubled leaves, one belonging to the stalk, another to the fruit or seed, but the artichoke. No flower hath that kind of spread that the woodbine hath. This may be a large field of contemplation; for it Experiment solitary touching pilosity and plushoweth that in the frame of nature, there is, in the producing of some species, a composition of 680. Beasts are more hairy than men, and matter, which happeneth oft, and may be much savage men more than civil, and the plumage diversified in others, such as happeneth rarely, of birds exceedeth the pilosity of beasts. The and admitteth little variety: for so it is likewise cause of the smoothness in men is not any abunin beasts: dogs have a resemblance with wolves dance of heat and moisture, though that indeed and foxes; horses with asses, kine with buffles, causeth pilosity: but there is requisite to pilosity, hares with coneys, &c. And so in birds: kites not so much heat and moisture, as excrementitious and kestrels have a resemblance with hawks; heat and moisture; for whatsoever assimilateth, common doves with ring-doves and turtles; black-goeth not into the hair, and excrementitious birds with thrushes and mavises; crows with moisture aboundeth most in beasts, and men that ravens, daws, and choughs, &c. But elephants and swine amongst beasts; and the bird of paradise and the peacock amongst birds; and some few others, have scarce any other species that have affinity with them.


are more savage. Much the same reason is there of the plumage of birds, for birds assimilate less, and excern more than beasts, for their excrements are ever liquid, and their flesh generally more dry; besides, they have not instruments for urine; and We leave the description of plants, and their so all the excrementitious moisture goeth into the virtues, to herbals, and other like books of natu- feathers; and therefore it is no marvel though ral history, wherein men's diligence hath been birds be commonly better meat than beasts, begreat, even to curiosity for our experiments are cause their flesh doth assimilate more finely, and only such as do ever ascend a degree to the deriv-secerneth more subtilly. Again, the head of man ing of causes, and extracting of axioms, which hath hair upon the first birth, which no other part we are not ignorant but that some both of the an- of the body hath. The cause may be want of VOL. II.-12 H 2

so as men may put their hand under the vessel and remove it. The cause is, for that the moisture of water as it quencheth coals where it entereth, so it doth allay heat where it toucheth: and

perspiration; for much of the matter of hair, in the other parts of the body, goeth forth by insensible perspiration; and besides, the skull being of a more solid substance, nourisheth and assimilateth less, and excerneth more, and so likewise therefore note well, that moisture, although it doth the chin. We see also, that hair cometh not upon the palms of the hands, nor soles of the feet; which are parts more perspirable. And children likewise are not hairy, for that their skins are more perspirable.

Experiment solitary touching the quickness of motion in birds.

doth not pass through bodies, without communication of some substance, as heat and cold do, yet it worketh manifest effects; not by entrance of the body, but by qualifying of the heat and cold; as we see in this instance: and we see likewise, that the water of things distilled in water, which they call the bath, differeth not much from the water of things distilled by fire. We see also, that pewter dishes with water in them will not melt easily, but without it they will; nay, we see more, that butter, or oil, which

their moisture will do the like.

681. Birds are of swifter motion than beasts; for the flight of many birds is swifter than the race of many beasts. The cause is, for that the spirits in birds are in greater proportion, in com-in themselves are inflammable, yet by virtue of parison of the bulk of their body, than in beasts; for as for the reason that some give, that they are partly carried, whereas beasts go, that is nothing, for by that reason swimming should be swifter than running: and that kind of carriage also is not without labour of the wing.

Experiment solitary touching the different clearness of the sea.

682. The sea is clearer when the north wind bloweth than when the south wind. The cause is, for that salt water hath a little oiliness in the surface thereof, as appeareth in very hot days; and again, for that the southern wind relaxeth the water somewhat; as no water boiling is so clear as cold water.

fire and boiling water.

Experiment solitary touching yawning. 685. It hath been noted by the ancients, that it is dangerous to pick one's ear whilst he yawneth. The cause is, for that in yawning the inner parchment of the ear is extended, by the drawing in of the spirit and breath; for in yawndrawn in, and then strongly expelled. ing and sighing both, the spirit is first strongly

Experiment solitary touching the hiccough.

that sneezing doth cease the hiccough. The 686. It hath been observed by the ancients, cause is, for that the motion of the hiccough is a lifting up of the stomach, which sneezing doth

Experiment solitary touching the different heats of somewhat depress, and divert the motion another way. For first we see that the hiccough cometh 683. Fire burneth wood, making it first lumi-causeth an extension of the stomach: we see of fulness of meat, especially in children, which nous, then black and brittle, and lastly, broken also it is caused by acid meats, or drinks, which and incinerate: scalding water doth none of these. The cause is, for that by fire the spirit motion is ceased either by diversion, or by deis by the pricking of the stomach; and the of the body is first refined, and then emitted; tention of the spirits; diversion, as in sneezing; whereof the refining or attenuation causeth the detention, as we see holding of the breath doth help somewhat to cease the hiccough; and putting a man into an earnest study doth the like, nostrils, or gargarized, doth it also; for that it as is commonly used: and vinegar put to the is astringent, and inhibiteth the motion of the spirits.

light, and the emission, first the fragility, and after the dissolution into ashes; neither doth any other body enter: but in water the spirit of the body is not refined so much; and besides, part of the water entereth, which doth increase the spirit, and in a degree extinguish it: therefore we see that hot water will quench fire. And again we see, that in bodies wherein the water doth not much enter, but only the heat passeth, hot water worketh the effects of fire, as in eggs boiled and roasted, into which the water entereth

not at all, there is scarce difference to be discerned; but in fruit and flesh, whereinto the water entereth in some part, there is much more difference.

Experiment solitary touching the qualification of

heat by moisture.

684. The bottom of a vessel of boiling water, as hath been observed, is not very much heated,

Experiment solitary touching sneezing. sneezing. The cause is, not the heating of the 687. Looking against the sun doth induce nostrils, for then the holding up of the nostrils but the drawing down of the moisture of the against the sun, though one wink, would do it; brain; for it will make the eyes run with water; and the drawing of moisture to the eyes doth draw it to the nostrils by motion of consent; and so followeth sneezing; as contrariwise, the tickling of the nostrils within doth draw the moisture to the nostrils, and to the eyes by con

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