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These examples confirmed me much in a resolution, whereunto I was otherwise inclined, to spend my time wholly in writing; and to put forth that poor talent, or half talent, or what it is, that God hath given me, not, as heretofore, to particular exchanges, but to banks, or mounts of perpetuity, which will not break. Therefore, having not long since set forth a part of my Instauration; which is the work that, in mine own judgment, "si nunquam fallit imago," I do most esteem: I think to proceed in some new parts thereof; and although I have received from many parts beyond the seas, testimonies touching that work, such as beyond which I could not expect at the first in so abstruse an argument; yet, nevertheless, I have just cause to doubt, that it flies too high over men's heads: I have a purpose, therefore, though I break the order of time, to draw it down to the sense, by some patterns of a natural story and inquisition. And, again, for that my book of Advancement of Learning may be some preparative, or key, for the better opening of the Instauration; because it exhibits a mixture of new conceits and old; whereas the Instauration gives the new unmixed, otherwise than with some little aspersion of the old for taste's sake; I have thought good to procure a translation of that book into the general language, not without great and ample additions, and enrichment thereof, especially in the second book, which handleth the partition of sciences; in such sort, as I hold it may serve in lieu of the first part of the Instauration, and acquit my promise in that part. Again, because I cannot altogether desert the civil person that I have borne; which, if I should forget, enough would remember; I have also entered into a work touching laws, propounding a character of justice in a middle term, between the speculative and reverend discourses of philosophers, and the writings of lawyers, which are tied and obnoxious to their particular laws. And although it be true, that I had a purpose to make a particular digest, or recompilement of the laws of mine own nation; yet, because it is a work of assistance, and that which I cannot master by mine own forces and pen, I have laid it aside. Now, having in the work of mine Instauration had in contemplation the general good of men in their very being, and the dowries of nature; and in my work of laws, the general good of men likewise in society, and the dowries of government; I thought in duty I owed somewhat unto my own country, which I ever loved: insomuch as, although my place hath been far above my desert, yet my thoughts and cares concerning the good thereof were beyond, and over, and above my place: so now being, as I am, no more able to do my country service, it remained unto me to do it honour ; which I have endeavoured to do it in my work of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh. As for my Essays, and some other particulars of that nature, I count them but as the recreations of my other studies, and in that sort purpose to continue them: though I am not ignorant that those kind of writings would, with less pains and embracement, perhaps, yield more lustre and reputation to my name than those other which I have in hand. But I account the use that a man should seek of the publishing of his own writings before his death, to be but an untimely anticipation of that which is proper to follow a man, and not to go along with him.

But, revolving with myself my writings, as well those which I have published, as those which I had in hand, methought they went all into the city, and none into the temple: where, because I have found so great consolation, I desire likewise to make some poor oblation. Therefore I have chosen an argument mixed of religious and civil considerations; and likewise mixed between contemplative and active. For who can tell whether there may not be an "exoriere aliquis?" Great matters, especially if they be religious, have many times small beginnings: and the platform may draw on the building. This work, because I was ever an enemy to flattering dedications, I have dedicated to your lordship, in respect of our ancient and private acquaintance; and because amongst the men of our times I hold you in special reverence.

Your lordship's loving friend, FR. ST. ALBAN.

THE PERSONS THAT SPEAK:

EUSEBIUS, GAMALIEL, ZEBEDÆUS, MARTIUS, EUPOLIS, POLLIO.

THERE met at Paris, in the house of Eupolis,* | were set in conference, Pollio came in to them Eusebius, Zebedæus, Gamaliel, Martius, all per- from court, and as soon as he saw them, after his sons of eminent quality, but of several dispositions. witty and pleasant manner, he said, Eupolis himself was also present; and while they

* Characters of the persons. Eusebius beareth the cha racter of a moderate divine; Gamaliel of a Protestant zealot;

Zebedæus of a Roman Catholic zealot; Martius of a military man; Eupolis of a politic; Pollio of a courtier.

POLLIO. Here be four of you, I think, were able to make a good world; for you are as differing as the four elements, and yet you are friends. As for Eupolis, because he is temperate, and without passion, he may be the fifth essence.

EUPOLIS. If we five, Pollio, make the great world, you alone make the little; because you profess, and practise both, to refer all things to yourself. POLLIO. And what do they that practise it, and profess it not? EUPOLIS. They are the less hardy, and the more dangerous. But come and sit down with us, for we were speaking of the affairs of Christendom at this day; wherein we would be glad also to have your opinion. POLLIO. My lords, I have journeyed this morning, and it is now the heat of the day; therefore your lordships' discourses had need content my ears very well, to make them entreat mine eyes to keep open. But yet if you will give me leave to awake you, when I think your discourses do but sleep, I will keep watch the best I can. EUPOLIS. You cannot do us a greater favour. Only I fear you will think all our discourses to be but the better sort of dreams; for good wishes, without power to effect, are not much more. But, sir, when you came in, Martius had both raised our attentions, and affected us with some speech he had begun; and it falleth out well, to shake off your drowsiness; for it seemed to be the trumpet of a war. And, therefore, Martius, if it please you, to begin again; for the speech was such, as deserveth to be heard twice; and I assure you, your auditory is not a little amended by the presence of Pollio. MARTIUS. When you came in, Pollio, I was saying freely to these lords, that I had observed how, by the space now of half a century of years, there had been, if I may speak it, a kind of meanness in the designs and enterprises of Christendom. Wars with subjects, like an angry suit for a man's own, that might be better ended by accord. Some petty acquests of a town, or a spot of territory; like a farmer's purchase of a close or nook of ground, that lay fit for him. And although the wars had been for a Naples, or a Milan, or a Portugal, or a Bohemia, yet these wars were but as the wars of heathens, of Athens, or Sparta, or Rome, for secular interest, or ambition, not worthy of the warfare of Christians. The church, indeed, maketh her missions into the extreme parts of the nations and isles, and it is well: but this is "Ecce unus gladius hic." The Christian princes and potentates are they that are wanting to the propagation of the faith by their arms. Yet our Lord, that said on earth, to the disciples, "Ite et prædicate," said from heaven to Constantine, "In hoc signo vince." What Christian soldier is there that will not be touched with a religious emulation to see an order of Jesus, or of St. Francis, or of St. Augustine, do such service, for enlarging the Christian borders; and an order of St. Jago, or St. Michael, or St. George, only to robe, and feast, and perform rites and observances? Surely the merchants themselves shall rise in judgment against the princes and nobles of Europe: for they have made a great path in the seas, unto the ends of the world; and set forth

At

ships, and forces, of Spanish, English, and Dutch, enough to make China tremble; and all this, for pearl, or stone, or spices: but for the pearl of the kingdom of heaven, or the stones of the heavenly Jerusalem, or the spices of the spouse's garden, not a mast hath been set up: nay, they can make shift to shed Christian blood so far off amongst themselves, and not a drop for the cause of Christ. But let me recall myself; I must acknowledge, that within the space of fifty years, whereof I spake, there have been three noble and memorable actions upon the infidels, wherein the Christian hath been the invader: for where it is upon the defensive, I reckon it a war of nature, and not of piety. The first was, that famous and fortunate war by sea, that ended in the victory of Lepanto; which hath put a hook into the nostrils of the Ottomans to this day; which was the work chiefly of that excellent pope, Pius Quintus, whom I wonder his successors have not declared a saint. The second was, the noble, though unfortunate, expedition of Sebastian, King of Portugal, upon Africa, which was achieved by him alone; so alone, as left somewhat for others to excuse. The last was, the brave incursions of Sigismund the Transylvanian prince, the thread of whose prosperity was cut off by the Christians themselves, contrary to the worthy and paternal monitories of Pope Clement the Eighth. More than these, I do not remember. POLLIO. NO! What say you to the extirpation of the Moors of Valentia? which sudden question, Martius was a little at a stop; and Gamaliel prevented him, and said: GAMALIEL. I think Martius did well in omitting that action, for I, for my part, never approved it; and it seems God was not well pleased with that deed; for you see the king, in whose time it passed, whom you Catholics count a saintlike and immaculate prince, was taken away in the flower of his age; and the author, and great counsellor of that rigour, whose fortunes seemed to be built upon the rock, is ruined: and it is thought by some, that the reckonings of that business are not yet cleared with Spain; for that numbers of those supposed Moors, being tried now by their exile, continue constant in the faith, and true Christians in all points, save in the thirst of revenge. ZEBEDEUS. Make not hasty judgment, Gamaliel, of that great action, which was as Christ's fan in those countries, except you could show some such covenant from the crown of Spain, as Joshua made with the Gibeonites; that that cursed seed should continue in the land. And you see it was done by edict, not tumultuously; the sword was not put into the people's hand. EUPOLIS. I think Martius did omit it, not as making any judgment of it either way, but because it sorted not aptly with action of war, being upon subjects, and without resistance. But let us, if you think good, give Martius leave to proceed in his discourse; for methought he spake like a divine

in armour. MARTIUS. It is true, Eupolis, that amongst reasonable souls: but that whatsoever is the principal object which I have before mine in order to the greatest and most general good of eyes, in that whereof I speak, is piety and religion. people, may justify the actions, be the people more But, nevertheless, if I should speak only as a or less civil. But, Eupolis, I shall not easily natural man, I should persuade the same thing. grant, that the people of Peru or Mexico were For there is no such enterprise, at this day, for such brute savages as you intend; or that there secular greatness, and terrene honour, as a war should be any such difference between them, and upon infidels. Neither do I in this propound a many of the infidels which are now in other parts. novelty, or imagination, but that which is proved | In Peru, though they were unparalleled people, by late examples of the same kind, though per- according to the clime, and had some customs haps of less difficulty. The Castilians, the age very barbarous, yet the government of the Incas before that wherein we live, opened the new had many parts of humanity and civility. They world; and subdued and planted Mexico, Peru, had reduced the nations from the adoration of a Chili, and other parts of the West Indies. We multitude of idols and fancies, to the adoration of see what floods of treasure have flowed into the sun. And, as I remember, the book of wisEurope by that action; so that the cense or rates dom noteth degrees of idolatry; making that of of Christendom are raised since ten times, yea, worshipping petty and vile idols more gross than twenty times told. Of this treasure, it is true, the simply the worshipping of the creature. And gold was accumulated, and store treasure, for the some of the prophets, as I take it, do the like, in most part: but the silver is still growing. Be- the metaphor of more ugly and bestial fornicasides, infinite is the access of territory and empire, tion. The Peruvians also, under the Incas, had by the same enterprise. For there was never a magnificent temples of their superstition; they hand drawn, that did double the rest of the habi- had strict and regular justice; they bare great table world, before this; for so a man may truly faith and obedience to their kings; they proceeded term it, if he shall put to account, as well that in a kind of martial justice with their enemies, that is, as that which may be hereafter, by the offering them their law, as better for their own farther occupation and colonizing of those coun- good, before they draw their sword. And much tries. And yet it cannot be affirmed, if one speak like was the state of Mexico, being an elective ingenuously, that it was the propagation of the monarchy. As for those people of the east, Goa, Christian faith that was the adamant of that dis- Calacute, Malacca, they were a fine and dainty covery, entry, and plantation; but gold and silver, people; frugal and yet elegant, though not miliand temporal profit and glory; so that what was tary. So that, if things be rightly weighed, the first in God's providence, was but the second in empire of the Turks may be truly affirmed to be man's appetite and intention. The like may be more barbarous than any of these. A cruel tyransaid of the famous navigations and conquests of ny, bathed in the blood of their emperors upon Emanuel, King of Portugal, whose arms began to every succession; a heap of vassals and slaves; circle Afric and Asia; and to acquire, not only no nobles; no gentlemen; no freemen; no inheritthe trade of spices, and stones, and musk, and ance of land; no stirp or ancient families; a drugs, but footing, and places, in those extreme people that is without natural affection; and, as parts of the east. For neither in this was religion the Scripture saith, that "regardeth not the desires the principal, but amplification and enlargement of women:" and without piety, or care towards of riches and dominion. And the effect of these their children: a nation without morality, without two enterprises is now such, that both the East letters, arts, or sciences; that can scarce measure and the West Indies being met in the crown of an acre of land, or an hour of the day: base and Spain, it is come to pass, that, as one saith in a sluttish in buildings, diets, and the like; and, in a brave kind of expression, the sun never sets in | word, a very reproach of human society: and yet the Spanish dominions, but ever shines upon one this nation hath made the garden of the world a part or other of them: which, to say truly, is a wilderness; for that, as it is truly said concerning beam of glory, though I cannot say it is so solid the Turks, where Ottoman's horse sets his foot, a body of glory, wherein the crown of Spain people will come up very thin. surpasseth all the former monarchies. So as, to conclude, we may see, that in these actions, upon gentiles or infidels, only or chiefly, both the spiritual and temporal honour and good have been in one pursuit and purchase conjoined. POLLIO. Methinks, with your favour, you should remem-between worshipping a creature and the Creator. ber, Martius, that wild and savage people are like beasts and birds, which are "feræ naturæ," the property of which passeth with the possession, and goeth to the occupant; but of civil people, it is not so. MARTIUS. I know no such difference

POLLIO. Yet, in the midst of your invective, Martius, do the Turks this right, as to remember that they are no idolaters: for if, as you say, there be a difference between worshipping a base idol, and the sun, there is a much greater difference

For the Turks do acknowledge God the Father, creator of heaven and earth, being the first person in the Trinity, though they deny the rest. At which speech, when Martius made some pause, Zebedæus replied with a countenance of great

reprehension and severity. ZEBEDEUS. We must take heed, Pollio, that we fall not at unawares into the heresy of Manuel Comnenus, Emperor of Græcia, who affirmed, that Mahomet's God was the true God: which opinion was not only rejected and condemned by the synod, but imputed to the emperor as extreme madness; being reproached to him also by the Bishop of Thessalonica, in those bitter and strange words, as are not to be named. MARTIUs. I confess that it is my opinion, that a war upon the Turk is more worthy than upon any other gentiles, infidels, or savages, that either have been, or now are, both in point of religion, and in point of honour; though facility, and hope of success, might, perhaps, invite some other choice. But before I proceed, both myself would be glad to take some breath; and I shall frankly desire, that some of your lordships would take your turn to speak, that can do it better. But, chiefly, for that I see here some that are excellent interpreters of the divine law, though in several ways; and that I have reason to distrust mine own judgment, both as weak in itself, and as that which may be overborne by my zeal and affection to this cause. I think it were an error to speak farther, till I may see some sound foundation laid of the lawfulness of the action, by them that are better versed in that argument. EUPOLIS. I am glad, Martius, to see in a person of your profession so great moderation, in that you are not transported in an action that warms the blood, and is appearing holy, to blanch or take for admitted the point of lawfulness. And because, methinks, this conference prospers, if your lordships will give me leave, I will make some motion touching the distribution of it into parts. Unto which when they all assented, Eupolis said: EUPOLIS. I think it would not sort amiss, if Zebedæus would be pleased to handle the question, Whether a war for the propagation of the Christian faith, without other cause of hostility, be lawful or no, and in what cases? I confess also I would be glad to go a little farther, and to hear it spoken to concerning the lawfulness, not only permissively, but whether it be not obligatory to Christian princes and states to design it; which part, if it please Gamaliel to undertake, the point of the lawfulness taken simply will be complete. Yet, there resteth the comparative: that is, it being granted, that it is either lawful or binding, yet, whether other things be not be preferred before it; as extirpation of heretics, reconcilements of schisms, pursuits of lawful temporal rights and quarrels, and the like; and how far this enterprise ought either to wait upon these other matters, or to be mingled with them, or to pass by them, and give law to them, as inferior unto itself? And because this is a great part, and Eusebius hath yet said nothing, we will by way of mulct or pain, if your lordships think good, lay it upon him. All this while, I doubt much that Pollio, who hath a sharp

wit of discovery towards what is solid and real, and what is specious and airy, will esteem all this but impossibilities, and eagles in the clouds: and therefore we shall all entreat him to crush this argument with his best forces: that by the light we shall take from him, we may either cast it away if it be found but a bladder, or discharge it of so much as is vain and not sperable. And because I confess I myself am not of that opinion, although it be a hard encounter to deal with Pollio, yet, I shall do my best to prove the enterprise possible; and to show how all impediments may be either removed or overcome. And then it will be fit for Martius, if we do not desert it before, to resume his farther discourse, as well for the persuasive, as for the consult, touching the means, preparations, and all that may conduce unto the enterprise. But this is but my wish, your lordships will put it into better order. They all not only allowed the distribution, but accepted the parts: but because the day was spent, they agreed to defer it till the next morning. Only Pollio said;

POLLIO. You take me right, Eupolis, for I am of opinion, that, except you could bray Christendom in a mortar, and mould it into a new paste, there is no possibility of a holy war. And I was ever of opinion, that the philosopher's stone, and a holy war, were but the rendezvous of cracked brains, that wore their feather in their head instead of their hat. Nevertheless, believe me of courtesy, that if you five shall be of another mind, especially after you have heard what I can say, I shall be ready to certify with Hippocrates, that Athens is mad, and Democritus is only sober. And, lest you shall take me for altogether adverse, I will frankly contribute to the business now at first. Ye, no doubt, will amongst you devise and discourse many solemn matters: but do as I shall tell you. This pope is decrepit, and the bell goeth for him. Take order, that when he is dead, there be chosen a pope of fresh years, between fifty and threescore; and see that he take the name of Urban, because a pope of that name did first institute the croisado, and, as with a holy trumpet, did stir up the voyage for the Holy Land. EUPOLIS. You say well; but be, I pray you, a little more serious in this conference.

The next day the same persons met as they had appointed; and after they were set, and that there had passed some sporting speeches from Pollio, how the war was already begun ; for that, he said, he had dreamt of nothing but Janizaries, and Tartars, and sultans all the night long: Martius said. MARTIUS. The distribution of this conference, which was made by Eupolis yesternight, and was by us approved, seemeth to me perfect, save in one point; and that is, not in the number, but in the placing of the parts. For it is so disposed, that Pollio and Eupolis shall debate the possibility or impossibility of the action, before I

shall deduce the particulars of the means and Secondly, whether, it being made part of the manner by which it is to be achieved. Now I have case, that the countries were once Christian, and often observed in deliberations, that the entering members of the church, and where the golden cannear hand into the manner of performance, and dlesticks did stand, though now they be utterly execution of that which is under deliberation, alienated, and no Christians left; it be not lawful hath quite overturned the opinion formerly con- to make a war to restore them to the church, as ceived, of the possibility or impossibility. So that an ancient patrimony of Christ? Thirdly, if it be things that, at the first show, seemed possible, by made a farther part of the case, that there are yet ripping up the performance of them, have been remaining in the countries multitudes of Chrisconvicted of impossibility; and things that on the tians, whether it be not lawful to make a war to other side have showed impossible, by the decla- free them, and deliver them from the servitude of ration of the means to effect them, as by a back the infidels? Fourthly, whether it be not lawful light, have appeared possible, the way through to make a war for the purging and recovery of them being discerned. This I speak not to alter consecrated places, being now polluted and prothe order, but only to desire Pollio and Eupolis faned: as the holy city and sepulchre, and such not to speak peremptorily, or conclusively, touch- other places of principal adoration and devotion? ing the point of possibility, till they have heard Fifthly, whether it be not lawful to make a war me deduce the means of the execution: and that for the revenge or vindication of blasphemies and done, to reserve themselves at liberty for a reply, reproaches against the Deity and our blessed Saafter they had before them, as it were, a model of viour; or for the effusion of Christian blood, and the enterprise. This grave and solid advertise- cruelties against Christians, though ancient and ment and caution of Martius was much com- long since past; considering that God's visits are mended by them all. Whereupon Eupolis said: without limitation of time; and many times do EUPOLIS. Since Martius hath begun to refine that but expect the fulness of the sin? Sixthly, it is which was yesternight resolved: I may the better to be considered, as Eupolis now last well rememhave leave, especially in the mending of a propo-bered, whether a holy war, which, as in the worsition, which was mine own, to remember an thiness of the quarrel, so in the justness of the omission which is more than a misplacing. For prosecution, ought to exceed all temporal wars, I doubt we ought to have added or inserted into the point of lawfulness, the question, how far a holy war is to be pursued, whether to displanting and extermination of people? And, again, whether to enforce a new belief, and to vindicate or punish infidelity; or only to subject the countries and people; and so by the temporal sword to open a door for the spiritual sword to enter, by persuasion, instruction, and such means as are proper for souls and consciences? But it may be, neither is this necessary to be made a part by itself; for that Zebedæus, in his wisdom, will fall into it as an incident to the point of lawfulness, which cannot be handled without limitations and distinctions. ZEBEDEUS. You encourage me, Eupolis, in that I perceive how, in your judgment, which I do so much esteem, I ought to take that course, which of myself I was purposed to do. For as Martius noted well, that it is but a loose thing to speak of possibilities, without the particular designs; so is it to speak of lawfulness without the particular cases. I will therefore first of all distinguish the cases; though you shall give me leave, in the handling of them, not to sever them with too much preciseness; for both it would cause needless length; and we are not now in arts or methods, but in a conference. It is, therefore first to be put to question in general, as Eupolis propounded it, whether it be lawful for Christian princes or states to make an invasive war, only and simply for the propagation of the faith, without other cause of hostility, or circumstance that may provoke and induce the war?

may be pursued, either to the expulsion of people, or the enforcement of consciences, or the like extremes; or how to be moderated and limited; lest whilst we remember we are Christians, we forget that others are men? But there is a point that precedeth all these points recited; nay, and in a manner dischargeth them, in the particular of a war against the Turk: which point, I think, would not have come into my thought, but that Martius giving us yesterday a representation of the empire of the Turks, with no small vigour of words, which you, Pollio, called an invective, but indeed a true charge, did put me in mind of it: and the more I think upon it, the more I settle in opinion, that a war to suppress that empire, though we set aside the cause of religion, were a just war. After Zebedæus had said this, he made a pause, to see whether any of the rest would say any thing: but when he perceived nothing but silence, and signs of attention to that he would farther say, he proceeded thus:

ZEBEDEUS. Your lordships will not look for a treatise from me, but a speech of consultation; and in that brevity and manner will I speak. First, I shall agree, that as the cause of a war ought to be just, so the justice of that cause ought to be evident; not obscure, not scrupulous. For, by the consent of all laws, in capital causes, the evidence must be full and clear: and if so where one man's life is in question, what say we to a war, which is ever the sentence of death upon many? We must beware therefore how we make a Moloch, or a heathen idol, of our blessed

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