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very little saffron. The more full handling of alimentation we reserve to the due place.

that the spirits do less spend the nourishment in sleep, than when living creatures are awake, and We have hitherto handled the particulars which because, that which is to the present purpose, it yield best, and easiest, and plentifullest nourish-helpeth to thrust out the nourishment into the ment; and now we will speak of the best means parts. Therefore in aged men, and weak bodies, of conveying and converting the nourishment. and such as abound not with choler, a short sleep

what of easy digestion, as milk from the cow, nourishing broth, or the like, doth further nourishment: but this would be done sitting upright, that the milk or broth may pass the more speedily to the bottom of the stomach.

55. The first means is to procure that the nourish-after dinner doth help to nourish; for in such ment may not be robbed and drawn away; where- bodies there is no fear of an over-hasty digestion, in that which we have already said is very mate- which is the inconvenience of postmeridian sleeps. rial; to provide that the reins draw not too strong-Sleep also in the morning, after the taking of somely an over great part of the blood into urine. To this add that precept of Aristotle, that wine be forborne in all consumptions; for that the spirits of the wine do prey upon the roscid juice of the body, and inter-common with the spirits of the body, and so deceive and rob them of their nourish- 58. The fourth means is, to provide that the ment. And therefore, if the consumption, grow- parts themselves may draw to them the nourishing from the weakness of the stomach, do force ment strongly. There is an excellent observation you to use wine, let it always be burnt, that the of Aristotle; that a great reason, why plants, quicker spirits may evaporate; or, at the least, some of them, are of greater age than living creaquenched with two little wedges of gold, six or tures, is, for that they yearly put forth new leaves seven times repeated. Add also this provision, and boughs: whereas living creatures put forth that there be not too much expense of the nourish-after their period of growth, nothing that is young, ment, by exhaling and sweating; and therefore if but hair and nails, which are excrements, and no the patient be apt to sweat, it must be gently re-parts. And it is most certain, that whatsoever is strained. But chiefly Hippocrates's rule is to be young, doth draw nourishment better than that followed, who adviseth quite contrary to that which is old; and then, that which is the mystewhich is in use: namely, that the linen or gar-ry of that observation, young boughs, and leaves, ment next the flesh be, in winter, dry and oft changed; and in summer seldom changed, and smeared over with oil; for certain it is, that any substance that is fat, doth a little fill the pores of the body, and stay sweat in some degree: but the more cleanly way is, to have the linen smeared lightly over with oil of sweet almonds; and not to forbear shifting as oft as is fit.

calling the sap up to them, the same nourisheth the body in the passage. And this we see notably proved also, in that the oft cutting, or polling of hedges, trees, and herbs, doth conduce much to their lasting. Transfer therefore this observation to the helping of nourishment in living creatures: the noblest and principal use whereof is, for the prolongation of life; restoration of some degree of youth, and inteneration of the parts; for certain it is, that there are in living creatures parts that nourish and repair easily, and parts that nourish and repair hardly; and you must refresh and renew those that are easy to nourish, that the other may

56. The second means is, to send forth the nourishment into the parts more strongly; for which the working must be by strengthening of the stomach; and in this, because the stomach is chiefly comforted by wine and hot things, which otherwise hurt, it is good to resort to outward ap-be refreshed, and as it were, drink in nourishment plications to the stomach: Wherein it hath been tried, that the quilts of roses, spices, mastic, wormwood, mint, &c. are nothing so helpful, as to take a cake of new bread, and to bedew it with a little sack, or Alicant, and to dry it, and after it be dried a little before the fire, to put it within a clean napkin, and to lay it to the stomach; for it is certain, that all flour hath a potent virtue of astriction; in so much as it hardeneth a piece of flesh, or a flower, that is laid in it: and therefore a bag quilted with bran is likewise very good; but it drieth somewhat too much, and therefore it must not lie long.

57. The third means, which may be a branch of the former, is to send forth the nourishment the better by sleep. For we see, that bears, and other creatures that sleep in the winter, wax exceeding fat: and certain it is, as it is commonly believed, that sleep doth nourish much, both for

in the passage. Now we see that draught oxen,
put into good pasture, recover the flesh of young
beef; and men after long emaciating diets wax
plump and fat, and almost new: so that you may
surely conclude, that the frequent and wise use
of those emaciating diets, and of purgings, and
perhaps of some kind of bleeding, is a principal
means of prolongation of life, and restoring some
degree of youth; for as we have often said, death
cometh upon living creatures like the torment of

Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis
Componens manibusque manus, atque oribus ora.
En. viii. 485.

For the parts in man's body easily reparable, as
spirits, blood, and flesh, die in the embracement
of the parts hardly reparable, as bones, nerves, and
membranes; and likewise some entrails, which
they reckon amongst the spermatical parts, are

hard to repair: though that division of spermati- | hath been said.
cal and menstrual parts be but a conceit. And the plague are
this same observation also may be drawn to the
present purpose of nourishing emaciated bodies:
and therefore gentle frication draweth forth the
nourishment, by making the parts a little hungry,
and heating them; whereby they call forth nou-
rishment the better. This frication I wish to be
done in the morning. It is also best done by the
hand, or a piece of scarlet wool, wet a little
with the oil of almonds, mingled with a small
quantity of bay-salt, or saffron: we see that the
very currying of horses doth make them fat, and
in good liking.

59. The fifth means is, to further the very act
of assimilation of nourishment; which is done by
some outward emolliments, that make the parts
more apt to assimilate. For which I have com-
pounded an ointment of excellent odour, which I
call Roman ointment; vide the receipt. The use
of it would be between sleeps; for in the latter
sleep the parts assimilate chiefly.
Experiment solitary touching" Filum medicinale."

Ordinary keepers of the sick of seldom infected. Enduring of tortures, by custom, hath been made more easy: the brooking of enormous quantity of meats, and so of wine or strong drink, hath been, by custom, made to be without surfeit or drunkenness. And generally, diseases that are chronical, as coughs, phthisics, some kinds of palsies, lunacies, &c. are most dangerous at the first: therefore a wise physician will consider whether a disease be incurable; or whether the just cure of it be not full of peril; and if he find it to be such, let him resort to palliation; and alleviate the symptom, without busying himself too much with the perfect cure and many times, if the patient be indeed patient, that course will exceed all expectation. Likewise the patient himself may strive, by little and little, to overcome the symptom in the acerbation, and so, by time, turn suffering into nature.

Experiment solitary touching cure by excess.

62. Divers diseases, especially chronical, such as quartan agues, are sometimes cured by surfeit and excesses: as excess of meat, excess of drink, extraordinary stirring or lassitude, and the like. The cause is, for that diseases of continuance get an adventitious strength from custom, besides their material cause from the humours; so that the breaking of the custom doth leave them only to their first cause; which if it be any thing weak will fall off. Besides, such excesses do excite and spur nature, which thereupon rises more forcibly against the disease.

Experiment solitary touching cure by motion of


63. There is in the body of man a great consent in the motion of the several parts. We see, it is children's sport, to prove whether they can rub upon their breast with one hand, and pat upon their forehead with another; and straightways they shall sometimes rub with both hands, or pat with both hands. We see, that when the spirits that come to the nostrils expel a bad scent, the

60. There be many medicines, which by themselves would do no cure, but perhaps hurt; but being applied in a certain order, one after another, do great cures. I have tried, myself, a remedy for the gout, which hath seldom failed, but driven it away in twenty-four hours space: it is first to apply a poultis, of which vide the receipt, and then a bath, or fomentation, of which vide the receipt; and then a plaister, vide the receipt. The poultis relaxeth the pores, and maketh the humour apt to exhale. The fomentation calleth forth the humour by vapours; but yet in regard of the way made by the poultis, draweth gently; and therefore draweth the humour out, and doth not draw more to it; for it is a gentle fomentation, and hath withal a mixture, though very little, of some stupefactive. The plaister is a moderate astringent plaister, which repelleth new humour from falling. The poultis alone would make the part more soft and weak, and apter to take the defluxion and impression of the humour. The fomen-stomach is ready to expel by vornit. We find tation alone, if it were too weak, without way made by the poultis, would draw forth little; if too strong, it would draw to the part, as well as draw from it. The plaister alone would pen the humour already contained in the part, and so exasperate it, as well as forbid new humour. Therefore they must be all taken in order, as is said. The poultis is to be laid to for two or three hours: the fomentation for a quarter of an hour, or somewhat better, being used hot, and seven or eight times repeated: the plaister to continue on still, till the part be well confirmed.

Experiment solitary touching cure by custom. 61. There is a secret way of cure, unpractised, by assuetude of that which in itself hurteth. Poisons have been made, by some, familiar, as VOL. II.-3

that in consumptions of the lungs, when nature cannot expel by cough, men fall into fluxes of the belly, and then they die. So in pestilent diseases, if they cannot be expelled by sweat, they fall likewise into looseness; and that is commonly mortal. Therefore physicians should ingeniously contrive, how, by emotions that are in their power, they may excite inward motions that are not in their power: as by the stench of feathers, or the like, they cure the rising of the mother. Experiment solitary touching cure of diseases which

are contrary to predisposition.

64. Hippocrates's aphorism, “in morbis minus,' is a good profound aphorism. It importeth, that diseases, contrary to the complexion, age, sex, season of the year, diet, &c. are more dangerous than B2

those that are concurrent.

it should be otherwise; for that, when the accident of sickness, and the natural disposition, do second the one the other, the disease should be more forcible and so, no doubt, it is, if you suppose like quantity of matter. But that which maketh good the aphorism is, because such diseases do show a greater collection of matter, by that they are able to overcome those natural inclinations to the contrary. And therefore in diseases of that kind, let the physician apply himself more to purgation than to alteration; because the offence is in the quantity; and the qualities are rectified of themselves.

A man would think | into sharp vinegar, hath made a sudden recess of the spirits, and stanched blood. Thirdly, by the recess of the blood by sympathy. So it hath been tried, that the part that bleedeth, being thrust into the body of a capon or sheep, new ript and bleeding, hath stanched blood, as it seemeth, sucking and drawing up, by similitude of substance, the blood it meeteth with, and so itself going back. Fourthly, by custom and time; so the Prince of Orange, in his first hurt by the Spanish boy, could find no means to stanch the blood either by medicine or ligament: but was fain to have the orifice of the wound stopped by mens' thumbs, succeeding one another, for the space at the least of two days; and at the last the blood by custom only retired. There is a fifth way also in use, to let blood in an adverse part, for a revulsion.

Experiment solitary touching preparations before purging, and settling of the body afterwards.

65. Physicians do wisely prescribe, that there be preparatives used before just purgations; for certain it is, that purgers do many times great hurt, if the body be not accommodated, both before and after the purging. The hurt that they do, for want of preparation before purging, is by the sticking of the humours, and their not coming fair away, which causeth in the body great perturbations and ill accidents during the purging; and also the diminishing and dulling of the working of the medicine itself, that it purgeth not sufficiently therefore the work of preparation is double; to make the humours fluid and mature, and to make the passages more open: for both those help to make the humours pass readily. And for the former of these, syrups are most profitable: and for the latter, apozemes, or preparing broths; clysters also help, lest the medicine stop in the guts, and work gripingly. But it is true, that bodies abounding with humours, and fat bodies, and open weather, are preparatives in themselves; because they make the humours more fluid. But let a physician beware, how he purge after hard frosty weather, and in a lean body, without preparation. For the hurt that they may do after purging, it is caused by the lodging of some humours in ill places: for it is certain, that there be humours, which somewhere placed in the body are quiet, and do little hurt; in other places, especially passages, do much mischief. Therefore it is good, after purging, to use apozemes and broths, not so much opening as those used before purging; but abstersive and mundifying clysters also are good to conclude with, to draw away the relics of the humours, that may have descended to the lower region of the body.

Experiment solitary touching stanching of blood.

66. Blood is stanched divers ways. First, by astringents, and repercussive medicines. Secondly, by drawing of the spirits and blood inwards, which is done by cold, as iron or a stone laid to the neck doth stanch the bleeding of the nose; also it hath been tried, that the testicles being put

Experiment solitary touching change of aliments

and medicines.

67. It helpeth, both in medicine and aliment, to change and not to continue the same medicine and aliment still. The cause is, for that nature, by continual use of any thing, groweth to a satiety and dullness, either of appetite or working. And we see that assuetude of things hurtful doth make them lose their force to hurt; as poison, which with use some have brought themselves to brook. And therefore it is no marvel, though things helpful by custom lose their force to help : I count intermission almost the same thing with change; for that that hath been intermitted is after a sort new.

Experiment solitary touching diets.

68. It is found by experience, that in diets of guaiacum, sarza, and the like, especially if they be strict, the patient is more troubled in the beginning than after continuance; which hath made some of the more delicate sort of patients give them over in the midst; supposing that if those diets trouble them so much at first, they shall not be able to endure them to the end. But the cause is, for that all those diets do dry up humours, rheums, and the like; and they cannot dry up until they have first attenuated; and while the humour is attenuated, it is more fluid than it was before, and troubleth the body a great deal more, until it be dried up and consumed. And therefore patients must expect a due time, and not kick at them at the first.

Experiments in consort touching the production of


The producing of cold is a thing very worthy the inquisition; both for use and disclosure of causes. For heat and cold are nature's two hands, whereby she chiefly worketh; and heat we have in readiness, in respect of the fire; but for cold we must stay till it cometh, or seek it in deep caves, or high mountains: and when all is done,

we cannot obtain it in any great degree: for furnaces of fire are far hotter than a summer's sun; but vaults or hills are not much colder than a winter's frost.

69. The first means of producing cold, is that which nature presenteth us withal: namely, the expiring of cold out of the inward parts of the earth in winter, when the sun hath no power to overcome it; the earth being, as hath been noted by some, "primum frigidum." This hath been asserted, as well by ancient as by modern philosophers: it was the tenet of Parmenides. It was the opinion of the author of the discourse in Plutarch, for I take it that book was not Plutarch's own, "De primo frigido." It was the opinion of Telesius, who hath renewed the philosophy of Parmenides, and is the best of the novelists.

70. The second cause of cold is the contact of cold bodies; for cold is active and transitive into bodies adjacent, as well as heat: which is seen in those things that are touched with snow or cold water. And therefore, whosoever will be an inquirer into nature, let him resort to a conservatory of snow and ice, such as they use for delicacy to cool wine in summer; which is a poor and contemptible use, in respect of other uses, that may be made of such conservatories.

71. The third cause is the primary nature of all tangible bodies: for it is well to be noted, that all things whatsoever, tangible, are of themselves cold; except they have an accessary heat by fire, life, or motion: for even the spirit of wine, or chemical oils, which are so hot in operation, are to the first touch cold; and air itself compressed, and condensed a little by blowing, is cold.

72. The fourth cause is the density of the body; for all dense bodies are colder than most other bodies, as metals, stone, glass, and they are longer in heating than softer bodies. And it is certain, that earth, dense, tangible, hold all of the nature of cold. The cause is, for that all matters tangible being cold, it must needs follow, that where the matter is most congregate, the cold is the greater.

driving away of spirits such as have some degree of heat: for the banishing of the heat must needs leave any body cold. This we see in the operation of opium and stupefactives upon the spirits of living creatures: and it were not amiss to try opium, by laying it upon the top of a weatherglass, to see whether it will contract the air; but I doubt it will not succeed; for besides that the virtue of opium will hardly penetrate through such a body as glass, I conceive that opium, and the like, make the spirits fly rather by malignity, than by cold.

75. Seventhly, the same effect must follow upon the exhaling or drawing out of the warm spirits, that doth upon the flight of the spirits. There is an opinion that the moon is magnetical of heat, as the sun is of cold and moisture: it were not amiss therefore to try it, with warm waters; the one exposed to the beams of the moon, the other with some screen betwixt the beams of the moon and the water, as we use to the sun for shade: and to see whether the former will cool sooner. And it were also good to inquire, what other means there may be to draw forth the exile heat which is in the air; for that may be a secret of great power to produce cold weather.

Experiments in consort, touching the version and transmutation of air into water.

We have formerly set down the means of turning air into water, in the experiment 27. But because it is "magnale naturæ," and tendeth to the subduing of a very great effect, and is also of manifold use, we will add some instances in consort that give light thereunto.

76. It is reported by some of the ancients, that sailors have used, every night, to hang fleeces of wool on the sides of their ships, the wool towards the water; and that they have crushed fresh water out of them, in the morning for their use. And thus much we have tried, that a quantity of wool tied loose together, being let down into a deep well, and hanging in the middle, some three fathom from the water, for a night, in the winter time; increased in weight, as I now remember, to a fifth part.

73. The fifth cause of cold, or rather of increase and vehemency of cold, is a quick spirit enclosed in a cold body as will appear to any that shall attentively consider of nature in many instances. 77. It is reported by one of the ancients, that We see nitre, which hath a quick spirit, is cold; in Lydia, near Pergamus, there were certain more cold to the tongue than a stone; so water workmen in time of wars fled into caves; and is colder than oil, because it hath a quicker spirit: the mouth of the caves being stopped by the for all oil, though it hath the tangible parts bet-enemies, they were famished. But long time ter digested than water, yet hath it a duller spirit: so snow is colder than water, because it hath more spirit within it: so we see that salt put to ice, as in the producing of artificial ice, increaseth the activity of cold: so some "insecta," which have spirit of life, as snakes and silk-worms, are to the touch cold: so quicksilver is the coldest of metals, because it is fullest of spirit.

74. The sixth cause of cold is the chasing and

after the dead bones were found; and some vessels which they had carried with them; and the vessels full of water; and that water thicker, and more towards ice, than common water: which is a notable instance of condensation and induration by burial under earth, in caves, for long time: and of version also, as it should seem, of air into water; if any of those vessels were empty. Try therefore a small bladder hung in snow, and the

like in nitre, and the like in quicksilver: and if you find the bladders fallen or shrunk, you may be sure the air is condensed by the cold of those bodies, as it would be in a cave under earth.

78. It is reported of very good credit, that in the East Indies, if you set a tub of water open in a room where cloves are kept, it will be drawn dry in twenty-four hours; though it stand at some distance from the cloves. In the country, they use many times in deceit, when their wool is new shorn, to set some pails of water by in the same room, to increase the weight of the wool. But it may be, that the heat of the wool, remaining from the body of the sheep, or the heat gathered by the lying close of the wool, helpeth to draw the watery vapour: but that is nothing to the version. 79. It is reported also credibly, that wool new shorn, being laid casually upon a vessel of verjuice, after some time, had drunk up a great part of the verjuice, though the vessel were whole without any flaw, and had not the bung-hole open. In this instance, there is upon the by, to be noted, the percolation or suing of the verjuice through the wood; for verjuice of itself would never have passed through the wood: so as, it seemeth, it must be first in a kind of vapour before it pass.

80. It is especially to be noted, that the cause that doth facilitate the version of air into water, when the air is not in gross, but subtilly mingled with tangible bodies, is, as hath been partly touched before, for that tangible bodies have an antipathy with air; and if they find any liquid body that is more dense near them, they will draw it: and after they have drawn it, they will condense it more, and in effect incorporate it; for we see that a sponge, or wool, or sugar, or a woollen cloth, being put but in part in water or wine, will draw the liquor higher, and beyond the place where the water or wine cometh. We see also, that wood, lute strings, and the like, do swell in moist seasons; as appeareth by the breaking of the strings, the hard turning of the pegs, and the hard drawing forth of boxes, and opening of wainscot doors: which is a kind of infusion and is much like to an infusion in water, which will make wood to swell; as we see in the filling of the chops of bowls, by laying them in water. But for that part of these experiments which concerneth attraction, we will reserve it to the proper title of attraction.

81. There is also a version of air into water seen in the sweating of marbles and other stones; and of wainscot before, and in moist weather. This must be, either by some moisture the body yieldeth, or else by the moist air thickened against the hard body. But it is plain, that it is the latter; for that we see wood painted with oilcolour, will sooner gather drops in a moist night, than wood alone, which is caused by the smoothness and closeness, which letteth in no part of

the vapour, and so turneth it back, and thickeneth it into dew. We sce also, that breathing upon a glass, or smooth body, giveth a dew; and in frosty mornings, such as we call rime frosts, you shall find drops of dew upon the inside of glass windows; and the frost itself upon the ground is but a version or condensation of the moist vapours of the night, into a watery substance: dews likewise, and rain, are but the returns of moist vapours condensed; the dew, by the cold only of the sun's departure, which is the gentler cold; rains, by the cold of that which they call the middle region of the air; which is the more violent cold.

82. It is very probable, as hath been touched, that that which will turn water into ice, will likewise turn air some degree nearer unto water. Therefore try the experiment of the artificial turning water into ice, whereof we shall speak in another place, with air in place of water, and the ice about it. And although it be a greater alteration to turn air into water, than water into ice; yet there is this hope, that by continuing the air longer time, the effect will follow: for that artificial conversion of water into ice is the work of a few hours; and this of air may be tried by a month's space or the like.

Experiments in consort touching induration of bodies.


Induration, or lapidification of substances more soft, is likewise another degree of condensation; and is a great alteration in nature. The effecting and accelerating thereof is very worthy to be inquired. It is effected by three means. first is by cold; whose property is to condense and constipate, as hath been said. The second is by heat; which is not proper but by consequence; for the heat doth attenuate; and by attenuation doth send forth the spirit and moister part of a body; and upon that, the more gross of the tangible parts do contract and sear themselves together; both to avoid "vacuum," as they call it, and also to munite themselves against the force of the fire, which they have suffered. And the third is by assimilation; when a hard body assimilateth a soft, being contiguous to it.

The examples of induration, taking them promiscuously, are many as the generation of stones within the earth, which at the first are but rude earth or clay and so of minerals, which come, no doubt, at first of juices concrete, which afterwards indurate: and so of porcelain, which is an artificial cement, buried in the earth a long time; and so the making of brick and tile: also the making of glass of a certain sand and brakeroots, and some other matters; also the exudations of rock-diamonds and crystal, which harden with time; also the induration of bead-amber, which at first is a soft substance; as appeareth by the flies and spiders which are found in it;

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