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leaves excite sneezing. Rouge and carmine, one from the dried safflower, carthanus tinctoria,* the other from the corolla of the Dahlia,-with the edible cardoon, artichoke, endive, &c.-are products of this order.

* "Menander in the comedy brings in a man turning his wife from his house, because she stained her hair yellow, which was then the beauty. A wise woman should not paint. Indeed, the outward ornament is fit to take fools, but they are not worth the taking; but she that hath a wise husband, must entice him to an eternal dearness by the veil of modesty and the grave robes of chastity, the ornament of meekness and the jewels of faith and charity; she must have no fucus but blushings, her brightness must be purity, and she must shine round about with sweetness and friendship, and she shall be pleasant while she lives, and desired when she dies."-JEREMY TAYLOR.

"Art thou beautiful?-Live then in accordance with the curious make and frame of thy creation; and let the beauty of thy person teach thee to beautify thy mind with holiness, the ornament of the beloved of God."-WILLIAM PENN.







I. Campanula rotundifolia. hair-bell. common.

C. patula. spreading bell-flower. Buddon wood, and lane adjoining. MK.

C. latifolia. giant bell-flower. near Market Bosworth: Willesley: Osbaston lodge. NPS. Cloud hill. PCH. Sheethedges. MK. Breedon Cloud wood, and hedges near Breedon and Tong. WHC. Gracedieu wood: white variety between Wymeswold and Six hills. AB. C. rapunculoides. creeping bell-flower. Mr. W. H. Ellis believes to be growing at Beaumont Leys, on the right hand side of a lane behind Mr. Marshall's stackyard. C.glomerata. clustered bell-flower. Croxton park. AB. Croxton and Saltby. Dr. P. *Stathern hill side. Specularia hybrida. corn bell-flower. among the corn on the eastern side of the county. Dr. P. *Woolsthorpe sparingly.

Jasione montana. sheep's bit, or sheep's scabious.


Campanulacea, from campana, a bell.

The bell-flowers have two great centres of habitation, one at the Cape, where not fewer than sixty-three kinds are found; the Alps, Italy, Greece, the Caucasus and Altai Mountains form the second, and in whatever direction we forsake these limits the species decrease. It is worthy of notice that, with one exception, all the genera opening the capsule laterally are found in the northern, those opening it at the apex, in the southern hemisphere. The roots of many are eatable. White campanulas become blue in drying. C. patula was discovered in Buddon Wood by Dr. Pulteney in 1742. Lobelias are of this order.




Erica tetralix. cross-leaved heath. forest lanes: Brad-
gate park common. MK. Moira reservoir near Whit-
wick. WHC.

E. cinerea. fine-leaved heath. Roe Cliff and Sharpley.
PCF. Charnwood forest, but not common. AB. Near
Moira reservoir by the lane to Boothorpe. WHC.
Calluna vulgaris. ling. common.
Vaccinium myrtillus. bilberry or whortleberry. woods,
Swithland: Groby: Gracedieu: Whitwick: Lough-
borough: Buddon: Ben's Cliff: Nailstone Wiggs, &c.

Ericaceæ, from erico, to break: supposed medicinal qualities. Most of the heaths, so beautiful to the eye, are scentless. It is said the Picts prepared an invigorating drink from E. cinerea, the secret of which perished with them. Calluna vulgaris is employed by dyers and tanners, its flowers are particularly grateful to bees. Common brooms are made of its branches, yielding no inconsiderable revenue on the barren heaths of Scotland, where it grows in immense quantities. Its fibres are almost indestructible. Cattle do not readily feed on it. Oil of wintergreen is extracted from a dwarf American species. The bilberry is excellent in tarts and confections. Some of the Vaccinia yield resin; in China, V. formosum is esteemed sacred, and its flowers are placed as new-year offerings in their temples.

Azalea and Rhododendron ponticum, yielding the poisonous honey which is recorded as so destructive to Xenophon's retreating army, and the strawberry arbutus, are of this order. The arbutus is said to be named from "ar," austere, Celtic, and "boise," bush, and according to Pliny unedo, from unum edo, I eat one, implying, that one is so harsh I refuse to eat more.




IV. III. Ilex aquifolium. holly. common.

Ilicacea, from ilex, an old name for the holm. The holly is known as hulver in Norfolk, and as hulme and holm, in other parts of England. The true holm is also the evergreen oak.

Maté, the tea of Paraguay, is prepared from Ilex Paraguensis, and like Chinese tea has three varieties:-the unopened buds; the substance of the full-grown leaves stripped from the ribs and roasted; and thirdly, the perfect leaf dried whole. The leaves of I. aquifolium and others have been substituted for tea, and with the bark, formerly enjoyed a reputation as tonics in intermittent fever. Birdlime is obtained from the inner bark, and the wood which is hard, white, and durable, is stained black and used for knife and teapot handles, or wherever any imitation of ebony is desired. It is also sought for inlaying. Don enumerates twentyone ornamental varieties of holly. In Germany it is the woodthistle, stick-palm, Christ-thorn, &c. Evelyn's celebrated hedge at Sayes Court, of which not a plant remains, was exceeded by those at Morton, near Edinburgh, where Selby tells us, were 2,952 yards of holly hedges, well kept, 127 years old, and from 10 to 25 feet high. In the submarine, semifossil, forests of this country, viz. in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, &c. holly is commonly found. In a layer of compressed leaves several inches deep, on Lincolnshire moor, birch, fir, oak, and those of Ilex aquifolium were readily distinguishable.





II. I.

Ligustrum vulgare. privet. hedges, common.
Fraxinus excelsior. common ash. woods and hedges.

Jasminacea, from ia, a violet, and asme, smell. LINN.

Ligustrum has been said to derive its name, from the use of its twigs, as gardeners' ligatures. Its berries are innoxious, birds feed on them, and the larva of the privet hawk moth, sphinx ligustri, on its leaves. It is hardy, and will bear the knife, and thrive in smoky places. In the south of Europe, Fraxinus excelsior yields tears, which, as well as those of F. ornus, pass for manna, its leaves like those of the lilac are extensively used in fevers. The people of Berri, (department Brenne,) employ no other remedy than syringa vulgaris for the intermittent which ravages their marshy and insalubrious locality. In France and Spain the blister-beetle, cantharis vesicatoria, feeds upon the foliage of the ash which it devastates like the locust. The effluvium from the living, and powdery ashes of the dead insects, are so pungent, as to blister the faces of those who pass by.

Evelyn says the green keys of the ash were pickled as "delicate salading." By a cruel superstition, shrew mice were for

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