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parts of the world. Androsæmum, 'man's blood,' is so called from the claret colour of its expressed juices, which stain linen black. Our native species have chiefly yellow blossoms, but there are red and also white varieties. Don enumerates 172. H. perforatum, the 'fuga demonium' of old Herbals, is still esteemed in Wales and Scotland a defence against witchcraft: it is the true St. John's wort; a love-charm on the continent, gathered at dead of night, and destined to foretel at daybreak, by its surviving or having withered, the good or ill fortune of the ensuing year. It is also a protection against lightning, not more inefficient than the skinned ass's head' of the famous Etruscan charm for the same purpose. "The festival of St. John was kept in London by bringing green boughs to adorn the houses from 'Bishop's Wood,' on Midsummer eve.-LEWIS'S LIFE OF PECOCK. The writer has twice suffered vertigo from the powerful odour of hypericum in the lanes near Kenilworth, Warwickshire. Gamboge and the mangosteen are foreign products of allied genera.





VIII. I. Acer campestre. common maple. common.

A. pseudoplatanus. sycamore. common.

Aceracea; acer, Latin, hard or sharp, from ac, Celtic, a point, because the extremely light and hard wood was formerly used for pikes and lances. Acer campestre furnishes wood for gun stocks and musical instruments; the knotty parts are used for inlaying. A. pseudoplatanus, is so called from its resemblance to the oriental

plane tree; it will also bear the sea air, and its sap yields a large proportion of sugar. Maple wood is very durable. The unbelieving Lady Anne Grimstone was wont to say, "if the Bible were true, seven ash trees would grow out of her tomb," and there are now to be seen seven maples so growing in Tewin churchyard.— HERT'S FLORA. The maple tree is also connected with one of the most frightful superstitions, cherished not long since in North Wales, Herefordshire, and remote parts of the kingdom, that of 'sin-eating' at funerals. A person receiving a small coin, partaking of refreshment, and drinking a draught of beer or milk from a bowl of maple wood, kept for the purpose, called a 'mazar-bowl,' walked away from the company, and was supposed to bear with him the sins of the deceased.-KENNETT'S PAROCHIAL ANTIQUITIES. The allied foreign genera contain the horse chesnut, the Souari nut, mahogany trees, and the ampelideæ, climbing shrubs, including the vine and Levant currant, or corinth of the shops.

The lopped tree in time may grow again,

Most naked plants renew both fruit and flower;
The sorriest wight may find release of pain,
The driest soil suck in some moistening shower.
Times go by turns, and chances change by course,
From foul to fair, from better hap to worse.
Not always fall of leaf, nor ever spring;

No endless night, nor yet eternal day;

The saddest birds a season find to sing;
The roughest storm a calm may soon allay:
Thus with succeeding turns God tempereth all,
That man may hope to rise, yet fear to fall.

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Erodium moschatum. musky stork's-bill. rare: Mose-
ley. SK. dungheap near Twycross. AB. * Vale of
Belvoir, but rare.

E. cicutarium. hemlock stork's-bill. common.
Geranium phæum. dusky crane's-bill. rare: ruins
Kirby Muxloe. MK.

G. sylvaticum. wood crane's-bill. plantations at West

Cotes. CT.

G. pratense. meadow crane's-bill. common.

G. pusillum. small-flowered crane's-bill. common.
G. molle. common dove's-foot crane's-bill. common.
G. dissectum. jagged-leaved crane's-bill. common.
G. lucidum. shining crane's-bill. walls, Ulverscroft :
Buddon: Humberstone. MK. Tur-Langton. SK.
Long Clawson. TB.

G. robertianum. herb robert. common: white variety
near Cadeby. Dr. E.

G. striatum. (a doubtful native.) Leicester Abbey, and hedges between Frisby on the Wreake and Kirby Bellars. MK.

Geraniaceæ, from geranos, a crane, the seed-vessels resembling the beak of that bird. Geraniums possess astringent and aromatic properties and smell, and a slightly acid flavour. G. robertianum is still used medicinally in North Wales. G. maculatum is called 'alum root' from its astringency. The tubers of G. parviflorum, Van Diemen's Land, are eaten by the natives under the name of 'native carrot.' (BACKHOUSE.) One pelargonium at the Cape

has large tuberous roots that are commonly eaten; another fleshy stemmed variety, monsonia spinosa,* burns like a candle, with a most agreeable odour. The sands on the coast of Africa near Ichaboe are so filled with the lumps of gum-resin, into which this plant melts on decaying, that it has become an article of import. It is now removed to the cactus order. Pelargonium odoratissimum yields an essential oil as fragrant as the attar of roses. Cultivation has produced an infinite variety of the velvet-petals of this tribe.

"Mais la nature se joue du pinceau des hommes; lorsqu' on croit qu'elle a atteint sa plus grande beauté, elle sourit et s'embellit encore."-CHATEAUBRIAND.





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Oxalis acetosella. wood sorrel. woods: a variety with lilac flowers near Groby. JM.

Oxalidacea, from oxys, acid.

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So lately as April, 1849, an attempt has been made to substitute the roots of oxalis for potatoes. The tubers of O. crenata yield as large a proportion of flour, and cannot be distinguished from them, in bread. They have long been staple food in South America where this plant is native. Baron de Suarcé cultivates it largely in Southern France. All the tribe furnish oxalic acid, which, mixed with cream of tartar, is sold under the name of salt of lemons, to flavour sauces and remove ironmoulds. Of the foreign species some are as impatient of touch as the mimosa, and one in Columbia, with a culinary root resembling parsnep, abounds in saloop. The allied genera produce gum guaiacum, rue, and quassia.

* Geranium spinosa of Linn.






I. Euonymus europæus. spindle tree. Breedon, Cloud wood: Braunstone. AB. lane near Ratby. NPS. Belton. Dr. P.

Celastraceæ, from celas, the latter season, the fruit remaining on the tree all winter.

E. europæus, no longer in request for the distaff spindle, is employed for skewers, and its tough splinters by watchmakers. M. Planchon has remarked that the arillus is a peculiar expansion of the exostome, and not derived from the placenta. The first flowers are pentandrous, the others tetrandrous. Its seeds are poisonous to cattle, especially to sheep. Linnæus asserted that its wood affords the best charcoal for drawing. Curtisia faginea, the spindle tree of the Cape, is used for assagais by the Hottentots. Celastrus edulis, the Arabian Chât, is a supposed antidote to the plague where it grows. Its seeds produce great watchfulness; the undeveloped leaf-buds, slightly stimulant, are so much in request by the Arabs as to be exported from Yemen in far larger quantities than coffee. The yellow bark of Euonymus tingens is employed by the Nipaulese to paint the sacred sign 'Tika' on the forehead. E. Americanus, from its profusion of blazing scarlet berries is called "the burning bush."

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