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Lemna minor. lesser duckweed. ponds, common.
L. gibba. gibbous duckweed. ditto.

L. polyrhiza. greater duckweed. ponds, near Leicester.
CB. Enderby: Kirkby Mallory. 'AB. Thurlaston :
NPS. ditch near Kegworth railway station. FTM.
L. trisulca. ivy-leaved duckweed. common.
XXI. VII. Arum maculatum. wild arum. common.

VI. I.


Acorus calamus. sweet sedge. ponds at Netherseal : Gopsal gardens, introduced. AB. Kegworth: Normanton. WBG. by the Soar between Loughborough and Zouch hills. CB. common in the Soar, Hathern. WFP. near Leicester Abbey, Frog island. JM.

Sparganium natans. floating bur-reed. ditch running into Groby pool. AB.

S. simplex. unbranched bur-reed. ponds and ditches:
Groby: Rothley: Staunton Harold, &c. near Coleorton
rectory. WHC.

S. ramosum. branched bur-reed. ponds and ditches.
Typha latifolia. great reed-mace. rivers and pools,


T. angustifolia. lesser reed-mace. rare: river Soar near Leicester with T. latifolia. Dr. P. Humberstone. JK. Dog kennel pond, Staunton Harold. WHC. between Congerstone and Shakerstone: ponds adjoining the Lount coal pits. AB.

Araceae, from aron, an arum.

The duckweed of the West Indies resembles bright green lettuce leaves, floating on the surface of the water. (KEW GARDENS.) The roots of arum are manufactured in the Isle of Portland, where they abound, into what is called 'Portland sago;' starch is also made, which is liable to blister the hands of the laundress, although in both cases the roots are exposed to heat to dissipate their acridity. The dumb cane of the West Indies, Dieffenbachia seguinia is an illustration of the deleterious powers of the order. A gardener having incautiously bitten a piece, became incapable of speaking, his tongue swelled to a frightful degree, and he was confined to his house some days in excruciating torments. The beautiful Calla Ethiopica, filling the ditches and watercourses of South Africa, is of this order. It is perversely called 'Pig Lilly' at the Cape. Poi,' the favourite food of the Sandwich Islanders, is a fermented paste made from the roots of Arum esculentum, cultivated for the purpose, in watery patches, like rice. Acorus calamus is consumed in large quantities by perfumers, and hair-dressers, powder is scented with its aromatic rhizoma. In Turkey a confection is made of it, which is eaten as a preventive against epidemics. The floor of Norwich cathedral is strewed with this plant on festival days, when the bruised stems perfume the building. Typha, meaning 'a cat's tail,'-is the 'reed' of painters. Its pollen is as inflammable as that of Lycopodium, and said to be very soporific; the roots are eaten in Germany.




VI. I.

Juncus communis.

a. conglomeratus. common rush. common.

b. effusus. soft rush. common.

J. glaucus. hard rush. common.

J. diffusus. between Hoton and Wymeswold: Six Hills
heath: between Twycross and Snarestone by the side of
Gopsal wood: field adjoining the Ashby canal Conger-
stone. AB. by the Via Devana north of Alton grange:
plentiful near Staunton Harold: green lane from
Lount wood to Heath end: roadside north of Breedon
Cloud wood: a single plant by the lane from Black-
fordby towards Willesley, and another in the Pit field
by the high road at Lount wood. WHC.

J. acutiflorus. sharp-flowered jointed-rush. common.
J. lamprocarpus. shining-fruited jointed rush. common.
J. obtusiflorus. blunt-flowered jointed rush. pond
between Congerstone and Shackerstone: banks of the
Ashby-de-la-Zouch canal: near Congerstone. AB.
J. supinus. (uliginosus.) marshy places: Bradgate park.
CT. not so common as the variety subverticillatus.
J. compressus. round-fruited rush. common.

b. cœnosus. at Tonge near Breedon. WHC.

J. bufonius. toad rush. watery places, common.

J. squarrosus. heath rush. Charnwood forest: near Twycross. AB. waste ground at the west end of Moira village. WHC.


Luzula sylvatica. great hairy wood-rush. woods, common.
L. pilosa. broad-leaved hairy wood-rush.
L. campestris. field wood-rush. common.





Luzula multiflora. near Seal wood. NPS.

b. congesta. Whitwick rocks. AB. Ansty lane. FTM. Groby slate quarries. MK. Bradgate. CT. Ambien wood, Bosworth field, and Sutton Cheney. NPS. copse near Prestop park farm: Blackfordby: South wood: reservoir Ashby Wolds. WHC.

Juncaceæ, from jungo, to join, because the first ropes were made of rushes.

Juncus glaucus and conglomeratus are difficult to eradicate from wet clayey pastures. Dutch gardeners use them to tie up fruit trees. They were used to strew floors before the invention of mats and carpets. In Normandy as in England the floors were commonly strewed with rushes. On the birth of William the Conqueror the nurse predicted he would be a king, because the babe being laid upon the floor firmly grasped its two hands full of them.-WILLIAM OF MALMESBURY. Acutiflorus and maritimus are planted on our own sea coasts, and in Holland, to mat the sand and hold it together by their spreading roots. Juncus acutiflorus, sharp-flowered jointed rush, is very rough and employed to scour copper utensils. The pith of J. effusus is used for wicks and children's toys. Luzula is distinguished from juncus by its flat leaves; its name is said to be altered from lucciola or luzziola, a glowworm; because the heads of the flowers, wet with dew and sparkling in the moonlight, gave the elegant Italians an idea of those brilliant insects.*-SMITH, E. F. Juncus is an instance of a monocotyledon with distinct pith. In some species of this order, the outer membrane of the seeds forms a jelly with water, similar to what is seen on the moistened grains of some composite plants. The palms are allied to this order.

*We have somewhere read that they are really luminous in the dark.





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Rhynchospora alba. white beak-rush. between Beacon hill and the Outwoods on Charley forest. Dr. P. Scirpus lacustris. lake club-rush or bulrush. ponds and rivers, common.

S. setaceus. bristle-stalked club-rush. marshy places,


S. triqueter. pond in Market Bosworth park. NPS.
S. sylvaticus. wood club-rush. woods: Groby: Stoney-
well by the Soar, south of Leicester, common.
S. palustris. sides of ponds, common.

S. multicaulis. many-stalked spike-rush. Garendon.

S. cæspitosus. scaly stalked spike-rush. bogs, Charley
forest. Dr. P.†

S. acicularis. by Groby pool, and Moira reservoir. AB.
S. fluitans. common.

Eriophorum polystachyon. broad-leaved cotton grass.
meadow at the back of Groby pool, with E. angusti-
folium. MK. above Glenfield mill: Timberwood hill.
AB. Outwoods Charley forest: Woodhouse: Buddon
wood. Dr. P. (angustifolium, which is no longer con-
sidered a distinct species,) fields about Hathern. WFP.

+ Mr. Bloxam informs me Scirpus cæspitosus or pauciflorus has been seen by Mr. Churchill Babington growing near Breedon Cloud, most probably the former. MK.

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