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On the 1st of March, 640, the Welsh, under command of their king Cadwallo, obtained a complete victory over the Saxons. The battle happened where some leeks were growing, and the Welsh soldiers put each a bit of leek in his cap. Fluellen, apologizing to Henry the Fifth for the ordinary commemoration of St David's Day, says, "If your Majesties is remembered of it, the Welshmen did goot service in a garden where leeks did grow, wearing leeks in their Monmouth caps; which your Majesty knows to this hour is an honourable padge of the service: and I do believe your Majesty takes no scorn to wear the leek upon St. Tavy's day." Drummond says, the plant we now call 'leek' is a native of Switzerland, and was not introduced into this country, according to the Hortus Kewensis, till about the year 1562. A hundred thousand men, according to Herodotus, were employed in building the pyramids, who consumed, in garlic and onions alone, the sum of one thousand six hundred talents.

God shield ye, heralds of the spring,
Ye faithful swallows, fleet of wing,

Houps, cuckoos, nightingales,

Turtles, and every wilder bird,

That make your hundred chirpings heard
Through the green woods and dales.

God speed ye, Easter daisies all,
Fair roses, buds and blossoms small;
And ye, whom erst the gore
Of Ajax and Narciss did print,
Ye wild thyme, anise, balm, and mint,

I welcome ye once more.

God shield ye, bright embroider'd train
Of butterflies, that on the plain

Of each sweet herblet sip;

And ye new swarm of bees that go
Where the pink flowers and yellow grow

To kiss them with your lip.

A hundred thousand times I call

A hearty welcome on ye all:

This season how I love!

This merry din on every shore,

For winds and storms, whose sullen roar

Forbade my steps to rove.





Paris quadrifolia. herb Paris. woods, Groby. MK.
Stoneywell near Ulverscroft. FTM. Gracedieu. PCF.
Cloud wood. CT. Holywell wood. PCH. Garendon.
WFP. Oakley wood. BG. Hollinghall and Buddon
woods. Dr. P. Twycross: Gopsal. AB. Overseal. JM.

Trilliacea, from tres, tria, three.

This order receives its name from the threefold arrangement of the leaves, calyx, petals, and styles of the pistil, in Trillium, a poisonous plant. Paris quadrifolia has a fourfold arrangement, and obtains its name from 'par,' equal; it is also poisonous.





XXII. V. Tamus communis. black bryony. hedges, common.

Tamaceæ, from Tamus, a name given by Columella to a plant resembling a vine, supposed to be the Uva Taminia of Pliny.

The roots of black bryony, like those of B. dioica, are large, fleshy, and white, with smaller, tuberous, black, acrid, scaly ones adhering. They are sold in Covent Garden market for application to fresh bruises, and are so pungent as to raise blisters, if continued too long in contact with the skin. This plant has the elegant trivial name of 'lady's seal.' T. communis is diœcious, has six segments in the corolla, and no calyx. Yams, which in hot countries are substitutes for the potatoe; and the curious root, resembling a tortoise in its shell, eaten by the Hottentots, and known as 'Hottentots' bread,' Testudinaria elephantipes, are of this order.




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Colchicum autumnale. colchicum. rare: meadows between Thurnby and Quenby. Mrs. Paget. Recently in Leicester Abbey meadow. CT. meadow at Sheepy Magna. AB. near Cavendish bridge. CL.

Tofieldia palustris. Scottish asphodel. near Moira towards the Wolds, 1828, JM. Mr. Moore has kindly favored us with the sight of his specimen.

Melanthacea, from melas, black, anthos, Greek, a flower. Not only the root, but the leaves, stem, and flower of the colchicum autumnale are used in medicinal preparations. Colchicum is said to be named from Colchis, where it abounds. Crocus vernus, order Nidacea, which was inserted in our unpublished list, is now omitted for want of evidence. Saffron is the aromatic stigma of Crocus sativus, an immense number of flowers being required to furnish an ounce. The chief saffron gardens were at Saffron Walden, in Essex; English saffron is more in request than imported. Saffron grounds in France are liable to the ravages of an underground fungus, which they call 'Mort du Saffran,' and Nees has named 'Deathmould.' It can only be extirpated by paring and burning the ground, and has not been seen in England.

Tofieldia is named after Mr. Tofield, an English botanist.




XXII. VII. Hydrocharis morsus-ranæ. frog-bit. rare: introduced

by Mr. Hollings into the river Soar near Aylestone. ditches communicating with the Soar. Dr. P. Anacharis alsinastrum. (Bab.) a new British genus found by Miss Kirby (Lubbenham) in Foxton Reservoirs, near Market Harborough. In the non-navigable part of the Soar near the Newarke. MK. in the canal, Abbey meadow: and several places between Leicester and Aylestone. CT. Introduced by Mr. Bloxam into a pond at Gopsal and thriving well. Subsequently to this plant being forwarded to Mr. Babington, the same, or allied species, have been found in an ornamental pond at Leigh park, Hants, by Messrs. Scott, Collins, and Borrer; in ditto, near Dublin, by Mr. Mackay; near Nottingham, in rivers Lean and Trent, abundantly, by Dr. Mitchell; in Duddingston lock, near Edinburgh, by Professor Balfour: in reservoirs, Watford locks, by Mr. Kirk; near Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, by Edwin Brown, Esq.; and in the Whitadder, and ponds Dunse Castle, Berwickshire, by Dr. Johnstone, some years ago, but not publicly noticed as a British plant until its discovery by Miss Kirby in Leicestershire.

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