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are varieties of the arvensis. M. pulegium drives away vermin. M. auriculata has been employed to alleviate deafness; M. citrata yields a sweet-scented oil like bergamot. Essential oil of thyme is used to relieve toothache, and occasionally applied to sprains. Basil, balm, calamint, and marjoram are aromatic, without very active or interesting properties. Teucrium scorodonia communicates the smell of garlic to the milk of cows. In Jersey it is substituted for hops in brewing. Ajuga reptans is an exception to the fragrance of the mints, and is also tasteless. The Chinese are said to prefer sage tea to their own; and at one time the Dutch exchanged it with them at the rate of four pounds for one. Ballota nigra is sometimes called fætida from its rank odour. Leonurus cardiaca passes for a remedy for hydrophobia, in Russia; it is called cardiaca from its reputed efficacy in palpitation and other diseases of the heart. Blind,' ' dumb,' and 'deaf nettles,' as the Lamiums are called, much resemble nettles without their stinging powers, they are eaten as potherbs in Sweden, but are not grateful food to cattle. Galeopsis, glechoma hederacea, and marrubium vulgare, are popular pectoral remedies. G. hederacea was appropriated to St. Dionysius.


"To have more virtues than betony," is an Italian compliment. Stachys and prunella have outlived their vulnerary reputation. Stachys palustris is the only plant of the order with farinaceous and nutritious roots. Withering says, these have been used, in times of scarcity, as bread, and they are so capable of improvement by cultivation, that in 1828 Dr. Houlton* obtained the silver medal for presenting a dish of prepared roots to the Society of Arts, by the name of Panace. Taken up in December and January they are from six to ten inches long, tender and without fibres, having the flavour of asparagus, and requiring but fifteen minutes to boil them. The size might be greatly increased by careful nurture. Nepeta cataria is not attractive to cats unless the leaves or stem be wounded. The old English distich runs :

"If you set it, cats will get it;

If you sow it, cats wont know it."

*I am indebted to Dr. Houlton for the loan of Gerarde's Em., and take this opportunity of acknowledging his courtesy. MK.


Scutellarias feed the wild bees, and cover wild and ragged places with a hardy, healthy, quick, and fragrant growth. Two sections of this order are singularly named-a detachment of 'sages' is known as 'dwarf oaks,' chamædrys;-of 'bugles,' as dwarf pines, or chamapitoys; from the resemblance and resinous odour of their leaves. The Virgin's Tree,' Vitex, agnus castus, and the teak-tree of Hindostan, are found among the Lamiacea.

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V. I.

Myosotis palustris. water scorpion-grass. wet places,


M. repens. ditto.

M. cæspitosa. tufted water scorpion-grass. ditto.
M. sylvatica. variety scorpioides. wood scorpion-grass.
Garendon. WFP.

M. arvensis. field scorpion-grass. common.

M. collina. early field scorpion-grass. near the summerhouse on the summit of Bardon hill; probably elsewhere on the forest. AB. Shenton. NPS.



V. 1. Myosotis versicolor. yellow and blue scorpion-grass.

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dry banks, common.

Lithospermum officinale. common gromwell. Gracedieu: Twycross: Kirby ruins. AB. Near Ansty and Thurnby. CT. Loughborough. CL. * Muston on the road to Grantham.

L. arvense. cornfields, not uncommon.

Symphytum officinale. comfrey. brook near Stonygate,
Leicester, with purple flowers: ditch near Belgrave.
MK. not unfrequent by the Soar. Dr. P. Abbey
meadow, Frog Island. CT. Groby pool: Gracedieu.
PCF. Staunton Harold: Measham. AB. Conger-
stone: Ashby-de-la-Zouch. NPS. *by the Devon at

Borago officinalis. borage. waste ground in a lane near
Scraptoft. CT.

Lycopsis arvensis. field bugloss. Leicester Abbey:
Beaumanor: Gracedieu: Twycross: Swithland slate
quarries: by the Railway near Loughborough, not

Anchusa officinalis. alkanet. Sibson lane near Conger-
stone. WBG. Meadow in the lane from Aylestone to
the Narborough road. MK.

Cynoglossum officinale. hound's tongue. forest woods:
Bradgate ruins. MK. Braunstone lane: Gracedieu.
AB. Market Bosworth, footway to Sutton Cheney.
NPS. Stanford hill by the Soar, Loughborough. FTM.
Pulmonaria officinalis. lungwort. rare: Gracedieu. PCF.
Echium vulgare. viper's bugloss.
works: Wartnaby stone pits. AB.
seal and Stretton. NPS.

Gracedieu limebetween Nether

Boraginaceae, supposed to be a corruption from Cor, the heart, and ago, to affect. "Borage gives Corage."


Roses, violets, alkanets, and borage were formerly called "the four cordial flowers." Myosotis is the "Forget me not." M. versicolor has flowers at first yellow, then of a blueish tinge, becoming quite blue as the corolla shrivels. Lithospermum is named from the porcelain hardness of the seeds. It is also called 'bastard alkanet.' Country girls in Sweden stain their faces with the root on days of festivity. Comfrey roots are sold by herbalists; the young shoots may be blanched and eaten. Borage leaves are said to contain a large proportion of nitre, they burn with a markable degree of crackling, and are used to steep in liquors as a refrigerant. Alkanet yields a delicate red colour used to colour lipsalve, and by dyers. Hound's tongue is said to possess narcotic properties. Lungwort obtains its name from its popular use as a remedy for diseases of the chest. The seed of Viper's bugloss resembles a serpent's head, the plant is reputed not only an antidote to the bite, but it is said that, carried in the hand, it will keep vipers at a distance. It is one of the best examples of affinity for a particular soil, having become naturalized in the United States, it possesses in Virginia a space of more than twenty geographical miles wide of uncultivated ground, wherever limestone exists the whole plain becoming blue with it.-(LYELL.)

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II. I.

Pinguicula vulgaris. butterwort. (used to be found on
the forest) Swannington reservoir. PCF. Pocket gate.
PCH. about Woodhouse and Buddon. Dr. P. *by
the Devon at Knipton sparingly.

Utricularia vulgaris. bladderwort. canal Lubbenham.
SK. Ashby canal near Congerstone and in other places.
AB. bogs in Charley forest. Dr. P.

Pinguiculacea, from pinguis, fat, in allusion to the of the leaves.

greasy surface

P. vulgaris has the property of giving consistence to milk, and preventing its separation into either whey or cream. Linnæus describes the solid milk of the Laplanders as prepared by pouring it fresh from the cow through a strainer filled with newly-gathered leaves of butterwort. It is then left to stand a day or two until it begins to turn sour, when it is without cream, compact, tenacious, and delicious to the taste. Inglis and other travellers who have praised the extraordinary richness of the milk in Norway probably speak of a similar preparation. Once fermented, part of the milk is preserved, as it acts upon fresh like yeast. The leaves are said to rot sheep. The Utricularias are remarkable for small bladders filled with air, which sustain the plant at the surface of the water

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