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Hyoscyamus niger. henbane. Bradgate ruins: Newton
Harcourt. MK. Gracedieu. PCF. Ansty. JM. Dane
hills, Hinckley road. CT. near Market Bosworth, and
in Rectory garden. NPS.

Solanum nigrum. common nightshade. gardens about
Leicester near Groby. AB. Loughborough. CL.
S. dulcamara. woody nightshade. common.

Atropa belladonna. deadly nightshade. ruins at Grace-
dieu. AB. gathered there by Dr. Pulteney. not un-
common about Hathern. WFP.

Solanaceæ, derivation unknown.

Hyoscyamus niger is a biennial plant, and in the highest perfection for medicinal preparations, immediately before the developement of the seeds, in the second year of its growth. The leaves are smoked to relieve toothache. Swine are said to feed on it with impunity. The roots are long, thick, white, less offensive to the smell than the stem and leaves, and are used to make anodyne necklaces for children. Beads made of the root of the common peony are often substituted for them in shops. Solanum nigrum

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and dulcamara, the 'black' and 'bitter-sweet' nightshades, are alike narcotic and poisonous. S. nigrum is employed for extract. The leaves and berries of S. tuberosum, the common potatoe, are as deadly as any of their tribe. That the potatoe was introduced from America, is well known, but it is so much changed by cultivation that it is difficult to distinguish the parent stock. Humboldt found wild potatoes in Chili, which were bitter, and barely eatable. Decaying potatoes emit a brilliant light; on one occasion, the barracks of Strasburg were thought to be on fire, from the phosphorescence of a cellar-full, in a state of decomposition. The ripe seeds of Solanum potarum, or the clearing nut,' are used in India to purify muddy water. Poured into a vessel previously rubbed with them, the water soon becomes pure and wholesome. Officers, and provident troops, on a march, usually carry a store with them. 'The juice of cursed hebenon,' sent Hamlet's father to his premature account. Hahnemann has said, Belladonna protects from the infection of scarlet fever. Buchanan relates, that the Scots mixed the expressed juice, with the food and drink which by their truce they engaged to supply to Sweno's army, and so effected the destruction of the Danes, falling on, and killing them, while they were intoxicated by it. Vinegar is the antidote to this poison. The true mandrake, atropa mandragora, is of this order;— 'mandra,' an ox-stall, 'agauros,' cruel,-from its fatal effects on cattle; being often gathered in their fodder where it is common, as in Spain, Switzerland, and Italy. The wonderful legends of its shrieking when torn out of the ground; and causing the death of those who pull it up; are well known. "There is a story of some youths of Agrigentum, who, having at a tavern freely partaken of wine mixed, it is supposed, with infusion of henbane, nightshade, cicuta, or mandrakes, became so crazed as to think they were in a ship at sea and now ready to be cast away by reason of a tempest. Whereupon to avoid shipwreck and present drowning, they flung all the goods in the house out at the windows, into the street, or sea, as they then thought. Being brought before the magistrates to account for their conduct, and not yet recovered, they justified themselves by fear of death and imminent peril, and falling on their knees, besought them as 'Tritons,' and 'sea-gods,' to be good

to them, for if ever they came to land again they would build an altar to their service. The magistrates could not sufficiently laugh at this their madness, bid them sleep it out, and so went their ways." The winter cherry, of gardens, eaten as dessert in Spain and Arabia, (a variety of which, Physalis somnifera, Kunth recognized in Egyptian mummies,) with tobacco, capsicums, egg plants, and tomatoes, are of the same family. A single drop of oil of tobacco, is used by the Hottentots to destroy snakes. Death is said to ensue as rapidly as if by lightning.




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Verbascum thapsus. great mullein. Gracedieu lime-
works, occasionally on waste ground. AB. foot of
Bardon hill. JP. Peckleton Common. NPS. Breedon,
farm-house on the Willesley road. WHC. Swithland:
Thurcaston, one specimen. MK. between Humberstone
and Scraptoft. FTM. Foss lane, Abbey lane. CT.
V. nigrum. black mullein. Glenfield. AB. * Stanton.
Veronica arvensis. wall speedwell. common.

V. serpyllifolia. thyme-leaved speedwell. common.
V. scutellata. marsh speedwell. Groby pool. MK. bogs
about Loughborough Outwoods. Dr. P. between Sutton
Cheney and Cadeby. NPS. near the Groby turnpike,
Leicester. CT.

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Veronica anagallis. water speedwell. brooks, not un-`


V. beccabunga. brook-lime. common.

V. officinalis. speedwell. common.

V. montana. mountain speedwell. moist woods, Charn-
wood forest: Sheethedges, Groby: Ulverscroft. AB.
South wood: Gracedieu wood. WHC. Braunstone. CT.
V. chamædrys. germander speedwell. common.
V. hederifolia. ivy-headed speedwell. common.

V. agrestis. green procumbent speedwell. common.
V. polita. grey procumbent chickweed speedwell.


V. Buxbaumii. Buxbaum's speedwell. cornfields near
Twycross. AB.

Euphrasia officinalis. eyebright. cornfields, common :
rare, near Ashby-de-la-Zouch: Wicket Nook, lane
south of Willesley. WHC.

E. odontites. red Bartsia. common.

Rhinanthus crista-galli. yellow rattle. common.
Melampyrum pratense. yellow cow-wheat. woods,


Pedicularis palustris. marsh red-rattle. meadow near Groby pool: Pocket gate: Wistow: marshy places not rare.

P. sylvatica. dwarf red-rattle. bad pastures, frequent
on the green drives about Garendon park: Beacon
piece: Pocket gate: Market Bosworth cow-pastures
and mill pond.

Scrophularia nodosa. knotted figwort. woods, common.
S. aquatica. water betony. wet ditches, common.
Digitalis purpurea. foxglove. common on Charnwood
forest: Leicester forest: between Desford and the
Hinckley road: near Twycross: Peckleton Common, &c.
with white flowers at the foot of Beacon hill. CL.
Antirrhinum majus. great snap-dragon. walls at



XIV. II. Linaria cymbalaria. ivy-leaved toad flax. walls of Bradgate and Gracedieu ruins. AB. bridges over the brook Mountsorrel, and Cotes. PCH. walls about Mountsorrel. FTM. Newarke, and Leicester Abbey. MK. Frog island. CT. Long Clawson. TB.

L. spuria. rare : * cornfields between Muston and Bottesford. noticed in the Nottinghamshire side of the Vale of Belvoir. TB.

L. elatine. sharp-pointed toad flax. cornfields, Thur-
caston. MK. Syston. JM. Hoton. Dr. M. *Bottesford
and Muston.

L. vulgaris. yellow toad flax. Gracedieu: Twycross.
AB. Wellsborough hill: near Sheepy Parva. NPS.
Loughborough. FTM. between Quorndon and Barrow.

Limosella aquatica. mudwort. pond on the south side of
Bardon hill. AB.

Scrophulariacea, from supposed efficacy in the cure of scrofula. The seeds of verbascum nigrum, and thapsus, are used by poachers to stupify fish; the leaves of thapsus are offensive to rats. The Roman ladies used an infusion of V. lychnites to tinge their hair yellow. V. blattaria is strewed about houses in Italy to destroy cockroaches. Veronica montana is also called mountain madwort. Speedwells abound in the new and old worlds, especially in Siberia, and on the Pyrenees. It is not known from what the name veronica is derived; some saying 'ver,' the spring, others esteeming it to be in remembrance of St. Veronica, a woman, who standing with the multitude when the Saviour passed by to the place of crucifixion, compassionately reached forth her handkerchief to wipe his face, and received it again with a miraculous impression of the divine countenance. Many of these handkerchiefs exist,* they are

* At Rome, Jerusalem, Toledo, &c.

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