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of the ancients, that dust helpeth the fruitfulness | times they are forced to resow summer corn of trees, and of vines by name; insomuch as where they sowed winter corn. Another ill acthey cast dust upon them of purpose. It should cident is bitter frosts continued without snow, seem, that that powdering, when a shower com- especially in the beginning of the winter, after eth, maketh a kind of soiling to the tree, being the seed is new sown. Another disease is worms, earth and water finely laid on. And they note, which sometimes breed in the root, and happen that countries where the fields and ways are upon hot suns and showers immediately after the dusty bear the best vines. sowing; and another worm breedeth in the ear 667. It is commended by the ancients for an itself, especially when hot suns break often out of excellent help to trees, to lay the stalks and leaves clouds. Another disease is weeds, and they are' of lupins about the roots, or to plough them into such as either choke and over-shadow the corn, the ground where you will sow corn. The burn- and bear it down, or starve the corn, and deceive ing also of the cuttings of vines, and casting them it of nourishment. Another disease is over-rankupon land, doth much good. And it was gener-ness of the corn; which they use to remedy by ally received of old, that dunging of grounds when the west wind bloweth, and in the decrease of the moon, doth greatly help; the earth, as it seemeth, being then more thirsty and open to receive the dung.

668. The grafting of vines upon vines, as I take it, is not now in use: the ancients had it, and that three ways; the first was incision, which is the ordinary manner of grafting: the second was terebration through the middle of the stock, and putting in the cions there: and the third was pairing of two vines that grow together to the marrow, and binding them close.

mowing it after it is come up, or putting sheep into it. Another ill accident is laying of corn with great rains, near or in harvest. Another ill accident is, if the seed happen to have touched oil, or any thing that is fat; for those substances have an antipathy with nourishment of water.

670. The remedies of the diseases of corn have been observed as followeth. The steeping of the grain, before sowing, a little time in wine, is thought a preservative: the mingling of seed corn with ashes is thought to be good: the sowing at the wane of the moon is thought to make the corn sound: it hath not been practised, but it is thought to be of use to make some miscellane in corn, as if you sow a few beans with wheat, your wheat will be the better. It hath been observed that the sowing of corn with housleek doth good. Though grain that toucheth oil or fat receiveth hurt, yet the steeping of it in the dregs of oil, when it beginneth to putrefy, which they call amurca, is thought to assure it against worms. It is reported also, that if corn be mowed, it will make the grain longer, but emptier, and having more of the husk.

669. The disease and ill accidents of corn are worthy to be inquired; and would be more worthy to be inquired, if it were in men's power to help them, whereas many of them are not to be remedied. The mildew is one of the greatest, which, out of question, cometh by closeness of air; and therefore in hills, or large champaign grounds, it seldom cometh; such as is with us York's woald. This cannot be remedied, otherwise than that in countries of small enclosure the ground be turned into larger fields: which I have known to do good in some farms. Another disease is the 671. It hath been noted, that seed of a year putting forth of wild oats, whereinto corn often- old is the best, and of two or three years is times, especially barley, doth degenerate. It worse, and that which is more old is quite barren; happeneth chiefly from the weakness of the grain though, no doubt, some seeds and grains last that is sown; for if it be either too old or mouldy, better than others. The corn which in the vanning it will bring forth wild oats. Another disease is lieth lowest is the best; and the corn which the satiety of the ground; for if you sow one broken or bitten retaineth a little yellowness, is ground still with the same corn, I mean not the better than that which is very white. same corn that grew upon the same ground, but the same kind of grain, as wheat, barley, &c. it will prosper but poorly: therefore besides the resting of the ground, you must vary the seed. Another ill accident is from the winds, which hurt at two times; at the flowering, by shaking off the flowers, and at the full ripening, by shaking out the corn. Another ill accident is drought, at the spindling of the corn, which with us is rare, but in hotter countries common; insomuch as the word calamitas was first derived from calamus, when the corn could not get out of the stalk. Another ill accident is over-wet at sowing time, which with us breedeth much dearth, insomuch as the corn never cometh up; and many 674. It is strange that is generally received,

672. It hath been observed, that of all roots of herbs, the root of sorrel goeth the farthest into the earth; insomuch that it hath been known to go three cubits deep and that it is the root that continueth fit longest to be set again, of any root that groweth. It is a cold and acid herb, that, as it seemeth loveth the earth, and is not much drawn by the sun.

673. It hath been observed, that some herbs like best being watered with salt water: as radish, beet, rue, pennyroyal; this trial would be extended to some other herbs; especially such as are strong, as tarragon, mustard-seed, rocket, and the like.

how some poisonous beasts affect odorate and wholesome herbs; as that the snake loveth fennel; that the toad will be much under sage; that frogs will be in cinque-foil. It may be it is rather the shade, or other coverture, that they take liking in than the virtue of the herb.

675. It were a matter of great profit, save that I doubt it is too conjectural to venture upon, if one could discern what corn, herbs, or fruits, are like to be in plenty or scarcity, by some signs and prognostic in the beginning of the year: for as for those that are like to be in plenty, they may be bargained for upon the ground: as the old relation was of Thales, who, to show how easy it was for a philosopher to be rich, when he foresaw a great plenty of olives, made a monoply of them. And for scarcity, men may make profit in keeping better the old store. Long continuance of snow is believed to make a fruitful year of corn; an early winter, or a very late winter, a barren year of corn: an open and serene winter, an ill year of fruit, in these we have partly touched before: but other prognostics of like nature are diligently to be inquired.

cient and modern writers have also laboured; but their causes and axioms are so full of imagination, and so infected with the old received theories, as they are mere inquinations of experience, and concoct it not.

Experiment solitary touching healing of wounds. 677. It hath been observed by some of the ancients, that skins, and especially of rams, newly pulled off, and applied to the wounds of stripes, do keep them from swelling and exulcerating, and likewise heal them and close them up; and that the whites of eggs do the same. The cause is a temperate conglutination, for both bodies are clammy and viscous, and do bridle the deflux of humours to the hurts, without penning them in too much.

Experiment solitary touching fat diffused in flesh. 678. You may turn almost all flesh into a fatty substance, if you take flesh and cut it into pieces, and put the pieces into a glass covered with parchment, and so let the glass stand six or seven hours in boiling water. It may be an experiment of profit for making of fat or grease for many uses; but then it must be of such flesh as is not edible; as horses, dogs, bears, foxes, badgers, &c.

before the time.

679. It is reported by one of the ancients, that new wine put into vessels well stopped, and the vessels let down into the sea, will accelerate very much the making of them ripe and potable. The same would be tried in wort.

Experiment solitary touching pilosity and plumage.

676. There seem to be in some plants singularities, wherein they differ from all other: the olive hath the oily part only on the outside; whereas all other fruits have it in the nut or kernel. The fir hath, in effect, no stone, nut, or kernel, except you will count the little grains Experiment solitary touching ripening of drink kernels. The pomegranate and pine-apple have only amongst fruits grains distinct in several cells. No herbs have curled leaves but cabbage and cabbage-lettuce. None have doubled leaves, one belonging to the stalk, another to the fruit or seed, but the artichoke. No flower hath that kind of spread that the woodbine hath. This may be a large field of contemplation; for it showeth that in the frame of nature, there is, in the producing of some species, a composition of matter, which happeneth oft, and may be much diversified in others, such as happeneth rarely, and admitteth little variety: for so it is likewise in beasts dogs have a resemblance with wolves and foxes; horses with asses, kine with buffles, hares with coneys, &c. And so in birds: kites and kestrels have a resemblance with hawks; common doves with ring-doves and turtles; blackbirds with thrushes and mavises; crows with ravens, daws, and choughs, &c. But elephants and swine amongst beasts; and the bird of paradise and the peacock amongst birds; and some few others, have scarce any other species that have affinity with them.

680. Beasts are more hairy than men, and savage men more than civil, and the plumage of birds exceedeth the pilosity of beasts. The cause of the smoothness in men is not any abundance of heat and moisture, though that indeed causeth pilosity: but there is requisite to pilosity, not so much heat and moisture, as excrementitious heat and moisture; for whatsoever assimilateth, goeth not into the hair, and excrementitious moisture aboundeth most in beasts, and men that are more savage. Much the same reason is there of the plumage of birds, for birds assimilate less, and excern more than beasts, for their excrements are ever liquid, and their flesh generally more dry; besides, they have not instruments for urine; and We leave the description of plants, and their so all the excrementitious moisture goeth into the virtues, to herbals, and other like books of natu- feathers; and therefore it is no marvel though ral history, wherein men's diligence hath been birds be commonly better meat than beasts, begreat, even to curiosity for our experiments are cause their flesh doth assimilate more finely, and only such as do ever ascend a degree to the deriv-secerneth more subtilly. Again, the head of man ing of causes, and extracting of axioms, which hath hair upon the first birth, which no other part we are not ignorant but that some both of the an- of the body hath. The cause may be want of VOL. II.-12

H 2

perspiration; for much of the matter of hair, in the other parts of the body, goeth forth by insensible perspiration; and besides, the skull being of a more solid substance, nourisheth and assimilateth less, and excerneth more, and so likewise doth the chin. We see also, that hair cometh not upon the palms of the hands, nor soles of the feet; which are parts more perspirable. And children likewise are not hairy, for that their skins are more perspirable.

Experiment solitary touching the quickness of motion in birds.

681. Birds are of swifter motion than beasts; for the flight of many birds is swifter than the race of many beasts. The cause is, for that the spirits in birds are in greater proportion, in comparison of the bulk of their body, than in beasts; for as for the reason that some give, that they are partly carried, whereas beasts go, that is nothing, for by that reason swimming should be swifter than running: and that kind of carriage also is not without labour of the wing.

Experiment solitary touching the different clearness of the sea.

682. The sea is clearer when the north wind bloweth than when the south wind. The cause is, for that salt water hath a little oiliness in the surface thereof, as appeareth in very hot days; and again, for that the southern wind relaxeth the water somewhat; as no water boiling is so clear as cold water.

Experiment solitary touching the different heats of

fire and boiling water.

683. Fire burneth wood, making it first luminous, then black and brittle, and lastly, broken and incinerate: scalding water doth none of these. The cause is, for that by fire the spirit of the body is first refined, and then emitted; whereof the refining or attenuation causeth the light, and the emission, first the fragility, and after the dissolution into ashes; neither doth any other body enter: but in water the spirit of the body is not refined so much; and besides, part of the water entereth, which doth increase the spirit, and in a degree extinguish it: therefore we see that hot water will quench fire. And again we see, that in bodies wherein the water doth not much enter, but only the heat passeth, hot water worketh the effects of fire, as in eggs boiled and roasted, into which the water entereth not at all, there is scarce difference to be discerned; but in fruit and flesh, whereinto the water entereth in some part, there is much more

so as men may put their hand under the vessel and remove it. The cause is, for that the moisture of water as it quencheth coals where it entereth, so it doth allay heat where it toucheth: and therefore note well, that moisture, although it doth not pass through bodies, without communication of some substance, as heat and cold do, yet it worketh manifest effects; not by entrance of the body, but by qualifying of the heat and cold; as we see in this instance: and we see likewise, that the water of things distilled in water, which they call the bath, differeth not much from the water of things distilled by fire. We see also, that pewter dishes with water in them will not melt easily, but without it they will; nay, we see more, that butter, or oil, which in themselves are inflammable, yet by virtue of their moisture will do the like.

Experiment solitary touching yawning.

685. It hath been noted by the ancients, that it is dangerous to pick one's ear whilst he yawneth. The cause is, for that in yawning the inner parchment of the ear is extended, by the drawing in of the spirit and breath; for in yawndrawn in, and then strongly expelled. ing and sighing both, the spirit is first strongly

Experiment solitary touching the hiccough.

686. It hath been observed by the ancients, that sneezing doth cease the hiccough. The cause is, for that the motion of the hiccough is a lifting up of the stomach, which sneezing doth somewhat depress, and divert the motion another way. For first we see that the hiccough cometh of fulness of meat, especially in children, which causeth an extension of the stomach: we see also it is caused by acid meats, or drinks, which motion is ceased either by diversion, or by deis by the pricking of the stomach; and the tention of the spirits; diversion, as in sneezing; detention, as we see holding of the breath doth help somewhat to cease the hiccough; and putting a man into an earnest study doth the like, nostrils, or gargarized, doth it also; for that it as is commonly used: and vinegar put to the is astringent, and inhibiteth the motion of the spirits.

Experiment solitary touching sneezing. sneezing. The cause is, not the heating of the 687. Looking against the sun doth inducenostrils, for then the holding up of the nostrils but the drawing down of the moisture of the against the sun, though one wink, would do it; brain; for it will make the eyes run with water; and the drawing of moisture to the eyes doth Experiment solitary touching the qualification of draw it to the nostrils by motion of consent; and

difference.

heat by moisture.

684. The bottom of a vessel of boiling water, as hath been observed, is not very much heated,

so followeth sneezing; as contrariwise, the tickling of the nostrils within doth draw the moisture to the nostrils, and to the eyes by con

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Experiment solitary touching the tenderness of the

teeth.

sent; for they also will water. But yet it hath | which is hard, they open that which is stopped been observed, that if one be about to sneeze, and shut, and they expel that which is offensive the rubbing of the eyes till they run with water gently, without too much perturbation. Of this will prevent it. Whereof the cause is, for that kind are elder-flowers, which therefore are proper the humour which was descending to the nostrils, for the stone: of this kind is the dwarf-pine, is diverted to the eyes. which is proper for the jaundice: of this kind is hartshorn, which is proper for agues and infections: of this kind is piony, which is proper for stoppings in the head: of this kind is fumitory, which is proper for the spleen: and a number of others. Generally, divers creatures bred of putrefaction, though they be somewhat loathsome to take, are of this kind, as earth-worms, timber-sows, snails, &c. And I conceive that the trochisks of vipers, which are so much magnified, and the flesh of snakes some ways condited and corrected, which of late are grown into some credit, are of the same nature. So the parts of beasts putrefied, as castoreum and musk, which have extreme subtile parts, are to be placed amongst them. We see also, that putrefactions of plants, as agaric and Jews-ear are of greatest virtue. The cause is, for that putrefaction is the subtilest of all, motions in the parts of bodies; and since we cannot take re-down the lives of living creatures, which some of the Paracelsians say, if they could be taken down, would make us immortal; the next is for subtilty of operation, to take bodies putrefied, such as may be safely taken.

688. The teeth are more by cold drink, or the like, affected than the other parts. The cause is double; the one, for that the resistance of bone to cold is greater than of flesh, for that the flesh shrinketh, but the bone resisteth, whereby the cold becometh more eager: the other is, for that the teeth are parts without blood; whereas blood helpeth to qualify the cold: and therefore we see that the sinews are much affected with cold, for that they are parts without blood; so the bones in sharp colds wax brittle and therefore it hath been seen, that all contusions of bones in hard weather are more difficult to cure.

Experiment solitary touching the tongue. 689. It hath been noted, that the tongue ceiveth more easily tokens of diseases than the other parts, as of heats within, which appear inost in the blackness of the tongue. Again, pyed cattle are spotted in their tongues, &c. The cause is, no doubt, the tenderness of the part, which whereby receiveth more easily all alterations, than any other parts of the flesh.

Experiment solitary touching the taste. 690. When the mouth is out of taste, it maketh things taste sometimes salt, chiefly bitter, and sometimes loathsome, but never sweet. The cause is, the corrupting of the moisture about the tongue, which many times turneth bitter, and salt, and loathsome; but sweet never: for the rest are degrees of corruption.

Experiment solitary touching some prognostics of pestilential seasons.

691. It was observed in the great plague of the last year, that there were seen, in divers ditches and low grounds about London, many toads that had tails two or three inches long at the least; whereas toads usually have no tails at all. Which argueth a great disposition to putrefaction in the soil and air. It is reported likewise, that roots, such as carrots and parsnips, are more sweet and luscious in infectious years than in other years.

Experiment solitary touching special simples for

medicines.

692. Wise physicians should with all diligence inquire what simples nature yieldeth that have extreme subtile parts, without any mordication or acrimony: for they undermine that

Experiments in consort touching Venus.

693. It hath been observed by the ancients, that much use of Venus doth dim the sight: and yet eunuchs which are unable to generate, are nevertheless also dim-sighted. The cause of dimness of sight in the former, is the expense of spirits; in the latter, the over-moisture of the brain: for the over-moisture of the brain doth thicken the spirits visual, and obstructeth their passages, as we see by the decay in the sight in age, where also the diminution of the spirits concurreth as another cause we see also that blindness cometh by rheums and cataracts. Now in eunuchs, there are all the notes of moisture, as the swelling of their thighs, the looseness of their belly, the smoothness of their skin, &c.

694. The pleasure of the act of Venus is the greatest of the pleasures of the senses: the matching of it with itch is improper, though that also be pleasing to the touch. But the causes are profound. First, all the organs of the senses qualify the motions of the spirits, and make so many several species of motions, and pleasures or displeasures thereupon, as there be diversities of organs. The instruments of sight, hearing, taste, and smell, are of several frame, and so are the parts for generation. Therefore Scaliger doth well to make the pleasure of generation a sixth sense; and if there were any other differing organs, and qualified perforations for the spirits to pass, there would be more than the five senses;

neither do we well know whether some beasts | crements are the refuse and putrefaction of nouand birds have not senses that we know not; rishment. Some breed in wood, both growing and the very scent of dogs is almost a sense by and cut down. Query, in what woods most, and itself. Secondly, the pleasures of the touch are at what seasons? We see that the worms with greater and deeper than those of the other senses; many feet, which round themselves into balls, are as we see in warming upon cold; or refrige- bred chiefly under logs of timber, but not in the ration upon heat for as the pains of the touch timber; and they are said to be found also many are greater than the offences of other senses; so times in gardens, where no logs are. But it likewise are the pleasures. It is true that the af- seemeth their generation requireth a coverture, fecting of the spirits immediately, and, as it were, both from sun and rain or dew, as the timber is; without an organ, is of the greatest pleasure, and therefore they are not venemous, but contrawhich is but in two things; sweet smells and │riwise are held by the physicians to clarify the wine, and the like sweet vapours. For smells, blood. It is observed also, that cimices are found we see their great and sudden effect in fetching in the holes of bedsides. Some breed in the men again when they swoon: for drink, it is cer- hair of living creatures, as lice and tikes; which tain that the pleasure of drunkenness is next the are bred by the sweat close kept, and somewhat pleasure of Venus; and great joys likewise make arefied by the hair. The excrements of living the spirits move and touch themselves and the creatures do not only breed insecta when they pleasure of Venus is somewhat of the same kind. are excerned, but also while they are in the body; 695. It hath been always observed that men as in worms, whereto children are most subject, are more inclined to Venus in the winter, and and are chiefly in the guts. And it hath been women in the summer. The cause is, for that lately observed by physicians, that in many pesthe spirits, in a body more hot and dry, as the tilent diseases, there are worms found in the spirits of men are, by the summer are more ex- upper parts of the body, where excrements are haled and dissipated; and in the winter more con- not, but only humours putrefied. Fleas breed densed and kept entire; but in bodies that are principally of straw or mats, where there hath cold and moist as women's are, the summer doth been little moisture; or the chamber and bedcherish the spirits, and calleth them forth; the straw kept close and not aired. It is receive' winter doth dull them. Furthermore, the absti- that they are killed by strewing wormwood in nence, or intermission of the use of Venus in the rooms. moist and well habituate bodies, breedeth a number of diseases: and especially dangerous imposthumations. The reason is evident; for that it is a principal evacuation, especially of the spirits; for of the spirits there is scarce any evacuation, but in Venus and exercise. And therefore the omission of either of them breedeth all diseases of repletion.

And it is truly observed, that bitter things are apt rather to kill, than engender putrefaction; and they be things that are fat or sweet that are aptest to putrefy. There is a worm that breedeth in meal, of the shape of a large white maggot, which is given as a great dainty to nightingales. The moth breedeth upon cloth and other lanifices; especially if they be laid up dankish and

wet. It delighteth to be about the flame of a Experiments in consort touching the insecta. candle. There is a worm called a wevil, bred The nature of vivification is very worthy the in- under ground, and that feedeth upon roots: as quiry and as the nature of things is commonly parsnips, carrots, &c. Some breed in waters, better perceived in small than in great; and in especially shaded, but they must be standing imperfect than in perfect; and in parts than in waters; as the water-spider that hath six legs. whole; so the nature of vivification is best inquired The fly called the gad-fly, breedeth of somewhat in creatures bred of putrefaction. The contem- that swimmeth upon the top of the water, and plation whereof hath many excellent fruits. is most about ponds. There is a worm that breedFirst, in disclosing the original vivification. Se- eth of the dregs of wine decayed; which aftercondly, in disclosing the original of figuration. wards, as is observed by some of the ancients, Thirdly, in disclosing many things in the nature turneth into a gnat. It hath been observed by of perfect creatures, which in them lie more the ancients, that there is a worm that breedeth hidden. And fourthly, in traducing, by way of in old snow, and is of colour reddish, and dull of operation, some observations on the insecta, to motion, and dieth soon after it cometh out of the work effects upon perfect creatures. Note, that snow. Which should show, that snow hath in the word insecta agreeth not with the matter, but it a secret warmth; for else it could hardly vivify. we ever use it for brevity's sake, intending by it creatures bred of putrefaction.

696. The insecta are found to breed out of several matters: some breed of mud or dung; as the earthworms, eels, snakes, &c. For they are both putrefactions for water in mud doth putrefy, as not able to preserve itself; and for dung, all ex

And the reason of the dying of the worm, may be the sudden exhaling of that little spirit, as soon as it cometh out of the cold, which had shut it in. For as butterflies quicken with heat, which were benumbed with cold; so spirits may exhale with heat, which were preserved in cold. It is affirmed both by the ancient and modern

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