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whereby it is less apt to move. And therefore | Experiments in consort touching the goodness and
we see that naturals do generally stut: and we see, that in those that stut, if they drink wine moderately they stut less, because it heateth, and so we see that they that stut do stut more in the first offer to speak than in continuance; because the tongue is by motion somewhat heated. In some also, it may be, though rarely, the dryness of the tongue, which likewise maketh it less apt to move as well as cold: for it is an affect that cometh to some wise and great men; as it did unto Moses, who was "linguæ præpeditæ ;" and many stutters, we find, are very choleric men: choler inducing a dryness in the tongue.
Experiments in consort touching smells.
387. Smells and other odours are sweeter in the air at some distance, than near the nose; as hath been partly touched heretofore. The cause is double: first, the finer mixture or incorporation of the smell for we see that in sounds likewise, they are sweetest when we cannot hear every part by itself. The other reason is, for that all sweet smells have joined with them some earthly or crude odours; and at some distance the sweet, which is the more spiritual, is perceived, and the earthy reaches not so far.
388. Sweet smells are most forcible in dry substances when they are broken; and so likewise in oranges or lemons, the nipping of their rind giveth out their smell more: and generally when bodies are moved or stirred, though not broken, they smell more, as a sweet-bag waved. The cause is double: the one, for that there is a ' greater emission of the spirit when way is made; and this holdeth in the breaking, nipping, or crushing; it holdeth also, in some degree, in the moving; but in this last there is a concurrence of the second cause, which is the impulsion of the air that bringeth the scent faster upon us.
389. The daintiest smells of flowers are out of those plants whose leaves smell not; as violets, roses, wallflowers, gillyflowers, pinks, woodbines, vine-flowers, apple-blooms, limetreeblooms, bean-blooms, &c. The cause is, for that where there is heat and strength enough in the plant to make the leaves odorate, there the smell of the flower is rather evanid and weaker than that of the leaves; as it is in rosemary flowers, lavender flowers, and sweet-briar roses. But where there is less heat, there the spirit of the plant is digested and refined, and severed from the grosser juice, in the efflorescence, and not before. 390. Most odours smell best broken or crushed, as hath been said: but flowers pressed or beaten do lose the freshness and sweetness of their odour. The cause is, for that when they are crushed, the grosser and more earthy spirit cometh out with the finer, and troubleth it; whereas in stronger odours there are no such degrees of the issue of the smell.
choice of water.
391. It is a thing of very good use to discover the goodness of waters. The taste, to those that drink water only, doth somewhat: but other experiments are more sure. First, try waters by weight, wherein you may find some difference, though not much; and the lighter you may account the better.
392. Secondly try them by boiling upon an equal fire; and that which consumeth away fastest, you may account the best.
393. Thirdly, try them in several bottles or open vessels, matches in every thing else, and see which of them last longest without stench or corruption. And that which holdeth unputrefied longest, you may likewise account the best.
394. Fourthly, try them by making drinks stronger or smaller, with the same quantity of malt; and you may conclude, that that water which maketh the stronger drink is the more concocted and nourishing; though perhaps it be not so good for medicinal use. And such water, commonly, is the water of large and navigable rivers; and likewise in large and clean ponds of standing water; for upon both them the sun hath more power than upon fountains or small rivers. And I conceive that chalk water is next them the best for going furthest in drink: for that also helpeth concoction; so it be out of a deep well, for then it cureth the rawness of the water; but chalky water, towards the top of the earth, is too fretting; as it appeareth in laundry of clothes, which wear out apace if you use such waters.
395. Fifthly, the housewives do find a difference in waters, for the bearing or not bearing of soap; and it is likely that the more fat water will bear soap best; for the hungry water doth kill the unctuous nature of the soap.
396. Sixthly, you may make a judgment of waters according to the place whence they spring or come: the rain-water is, by the physicians, esteemed the finest and the best; but yet it is said to putrefy soonest, which is likely, because of the fineness of the spirit: and in conservatories of rain-water, such as they have in Venice, &c., they are found not so choice waters; the worse, perhaps, because they are covered aloft and kept from the sun. Snow-water is held unwholesome; insomuch as the people that dwell at the foot of the snow mountains, or otherwise upon the ascent, especially the women, by drinking of snow-water, have great bags hanging under their throats. Well-water, except it be upon chalk, or a very plentiful spring, maketh meat red; which is an ill sign. Springs on the tops of high hills are the best: for both they seem to have a lightness and appetite of mounting; and besides, they are most pure and unmingled; and again, are more percolated through a great space of earth. For
waters in valleys join in effect under ground with | are well watered: and the region above Cape all waters of the same level; whereas springs on the tops of hills pass through a great deal of pure earth with less mixture of other waters.
397. Seventhly, judgment may be made of waters by the soil whereupon the water runneth; as pebble is the cleanest and best tasted; and next to that clay-water; and thirdly, water upon chalk; fourthly, that upon sand; and worst of all upon mud. Neither may you trust waters that taste sweet, for they are commonly found in rising grounds of great cities, which must needs take in a great deal of filth.
Experiment solitary touching the temperate heat under the equinoctial.
Verde is likewise moist, insomuch as it is pestilent through moisture: but the countries of the Abyssenes, and Barbary, and Peru, where they are tawny, and olivaster, and pale, are generally more sandy and dry. As for the Ethiopes, as they are plump and fleshy, so, it may be, they are sanguine and ruddy coloured, if their black skin would suffer it to be seen.
Experiment solitary touching motion after the instant of death.
400. Some creatures do move a good while after their head is off, as birds; some a very little time, as men and all beasts; some move,
that the immediate cause of death is the resoworms, flies, &c. First, therefore, it is certain, lution or extinguishment of the spirits; and that the destruction or corruption of the organs is but the mediate cause. But some organs are so peremptorily necessary, that the extinguishment of the spirits doth speedily follow; but yet so as there is an interim of a small time. It is reported by one of the ancients of credit, that a
398. In Peru, and divers parts of the West In-though cut in several pieces, as snakes, eels, dies, though under the line, the heats are not so intolerable as they be in Barbary, and the skirts of the torrid zone. The causes are, first the great breezes which the motion of the air in great circles, such as are under the girdle of the world, produceth, which do refrigerate; and therefore in those parts noon is nothing so hot, when the breezes are great, as about nine or ten of the clock in the forenoon. Another cause is, for that the length of the night, and the dews thereof, do compensate the heat of the day. A third cause is, the stay of the sun; not in respect of day and night, for that we spake of before, but in respect of the season; for under the line the sun crosseth the line, and maketh two summers and two winters, but in the skirts of the torrid zone it doubleth and goeth back again, and so maketh one long summer.
sacrificed beast hath lowed after the heart hath that the head of a pig hath been opened, and the been severed; and it is a report also of credit, brain put into the palm of a man's hand, trembling, without breaking any part of it, or severing which time the pig hath been, in all appearance, it from the marrow of the back-bone, during stark dead, and without motion; and after a small time the brain hath been replaced, and the skull of the pig closed, and the pig hath a little after Experiment solitary touching the coloration of black gone about. And certain it is, that an eye, upon
and tawny Moors.
revenge, hath been thrust forth, so as it hanged a pretty distance by the visual nerve; and during that time the eye hath been without any power of sight; and yet after being replaced recovered sight. Now the spirits are chiefly in the head and cells of the brain, which in men and beasts are large; and therefore, when the head is off, they move little or nothing. But birds have small
399. The heat of the sun maketh men black in some countries, as in Æthiopia and Guiney, &c. Fire doth it not, as we see in glass-men, that are continually about the fire. The reason may be, because fire doth lick up the spirits and blood of the body, so as they exhale, so that it ever maketh men look pale and sallow; but the sun, which is a gentler heat, doth but draw the blood to the out-heads, and therefore the spirits are a little more ward parts, and rather concocteth it than soaketh it; and therefore we see that all Ethiopes are fleshy and plump, and have great lips, all which betoken moisture retained, and not drawn out. We see also, that the Negroes are bred in countries that have plenty of water, by rivers and otherwise; for Meroe, which was the metropolis of Ethiopia, was upon a great lake; and Congo, where the Negroes are, is full of rivers. And the confines of the river Niger, where the Negroes also are,
dispersed in the sinews, whereby motion remaineth in them a little longer; insomuch as it is extant in story, that an emperor of Rome, to show the certainty of his hand, did shoot a great forked arrow at an ostrich, as she ran swiftly upon the stage, and struck off her head, and yet she continued the race a little way with her head off. As for worms, and flies, and eels, the spirits are diffused almost all over, and therefore they move in their several pieces.
We will now inquire of plants or vegetables, and we shall do it with diligence. They are the principal part of the third day's work. They are the first "producat," which is the word of animation: for the other words are but the words of essence. And they are of excellent and general use for food, medicine, and a number of mechanical arts. 401. There were sown in a bed, turnip-seed, radish-seed, wheat, cucumber-seed, and peas. The bed we call a hot-bed, and the manner of it is this there was taken horse-dung, old and well rotted; this was laid upon a bank half a foot high, and supported round about with planks; and upon the top was cast sifted earth, some two fingers' deep, and then the seed sprinkled upon it, having been steeped all night in water mixed with | cow-dung. The turnip-seed and the wheat came up half an inch above ground within two days after, without any watering. The rest, the third day. The experiment was made in October; and, it may be in the spring, the accelerating would have been the speedier. This is a noble experiment; for without this help they would have been four times as long in coming up. But there doth not occur to me, at this present, any use thereof for profit, except it should be for sowing of peas, which have their prices very much increased by the early coming. It may be tried also with cherries, strawberries, and other fruit, which are dearest when they come early.
402. There was wheat steeped in water mixed with cow-dung; other in water mixed with horsedung; other in water mixed with pigeon-dung; other in urine of man, other in water mixed with chalk powdered, other in water mixed with soot, other in water mixed with ashes, other in water mixed with bay-salt, other in claret wine, other in malmsey, other in spirit of wine. The proportion of the mixture was a fourth part of the ingredients to the water; save that there was not of the salt above an eighth part. The urine, and the wines, and the spirit of wine, were simple without mixture of water. The time of the steeping was twelve hours. The time of the year October. There was also other wheat sown unsteeped, but watered twice a day with warm water. There was also other wheat sown simple, to compare it with the rest. The event was, that those that were in the mixture of dung, and urine, and soot, chalk, ashes and salt, came up within six days: and those that afterwards proved the highest, thickest and most lusty, were first the urine, and then the dungs, next the chalk, next the soot, next the ashes, next the salt, next the wheat simple of itself unsteeped and unwatered, next
the watered twice a day with warm water, next the claret wine. So that these three last were slower than the ordinary wheat of itself, and this culture did rather retard than advance. As for those that were steeped in malmsey, and spirit of wine, they came not up at all. This is a rich experiment for profit; for the most of the steepings are cheap things, and the goodness of the crop is a great matter of gain, if the goodness of the crop answer the earliness of the coming up, as it is like it will, both being from the vigour of the seed, which also partly appeared in the former experiments, as hath been said. This experiment would be tried in other grains, seeds, and kernels: for it may be some steeping will agree best with some seeds. It would be tried also with roots steeped as before, but for longer time. It would be tried also in several seasons of the year, especially in the spring.
403. Strawberries watered now and then, as once in three days, with water wherein hath been steeped sheeps-dung or pigeons-dung, will prevent and come early. And it is like the same effect would follow in other berries, herbs, flowers, grains, or trees. And therefore it is an experiment, though vulgar in strawberries, yet not brought into use generally: for it is usual to help the ground with muck, and likewise to recomfort it sometimes with muck put to the roots; but to water it with muck-water, which is like to be more forcible, is not practised.
404. Dung, or chalk, or blood, applied in substance, seasonably, to the roots of trees, doth set them forwards. But to do it unto herbs, without mixture of water or earth, it may be these helps are too hot.
405. The former means of helping germination are either by the goodness and strength of the nourishment, or by the comforting and exciting the spirits in the plant, to draw the nourishment better. And of this latter kind, concerning the comforting of the spirits of the plant, are also the experiments that follow; though they be not applications to the root or seed. The planting of trees warm upon a wall against the south, or southeast sun, doth hasten their coming on and ripening; and the south-east is found to be better than the south-west, though the south-west be the hotter coast. But the cause is chiefly, for that the heat of the morning succeedeth the cold of the night: and partly, because many times the southwest sun is too parching. So likewise the planting of them upon the back of a chimney where a fire is kept, doth hasten their coming on and ripening; nay more, the drawing of the boughs into the inside of a room where a fire is continually kept, worketh the same effect, which hath been
tried with grapes, insomuch as they will come a &c. come in a month, that in other grounds will month earlier than the grapes abroad. not come in two, and so make double returns. 410. Wheat also was put into the water, and came not forth at all; so as it seemeth there must be some strength and bulk in the body put into the water, as it is in roots, for grains, or seeds, the cold of the water will mortify. But casually some wheat lay under the pan, which was somewhat moistened by the suing of the pan; which in six weeks, as aforesaid, looked mouldy to the eye, but it was sprouted forth half a finger's length.
406. Besides the two means of accelerating germination formerly described; that is to say, the mending of the nourishment; and comforting of the spirit of the plant: there is a third, which is the making way for the easy coming to the nourishment, and drawing it. And therefore gentle digging and loosening of the earth about the roots of trees: and the removing herbs and flowers into new earth once in two years, which is the same thing, for the new earth is ever looser, doth greatly further the prospering and earliness of plants.
411. It seemeth by these instances of water, that for nourishment the water is almost all in all, and that the earth doth but keep the plant upright, and save it from over-heat and over-cold; and therefore is a comfortable experiment for good drinkers. It proveth also that our former opinion, that drink incorporate with flesh or roots, as in capon-beer, &c., will nourish more easily than meat and drink taken severally.
407. But the most admirable acceleration by facilitating the nourishment is that of water. For a standard of a damask rose with the root on, was set in a chamber where no fire was, upright in an earthen pan, full of fair water, without any mixture, half a foot under the water, the standard being more than two foot high above the water: within the space of ten days the standard did put 412. The housing of plants, I conceive, will forth a fair green leaf, and some other little buds, both accelerate germination, and bring forth which stood at a stay, without any show of decay flowers and plants in the colder seasons: and as or withering, more than seven days. But after-we house hot-country plants, as lemons, oranges, wards that leaf faded, but the young buds did myrtles, to save them; so we may house our own sprout on, which afterward opened into fair leaves country plants, to forward them, and make them in the space of three months, and continued so a come in the cold seasons; in such sort, that you while after, till upon removal we left the trial. may have violets, strawberries, peas, all winter: But note, that the leaves were somewhat paler so that you sow or remove them at fit times. and lighter-coloured than the leaves used to be This experiment is to be referred unto the comfortabroad. Note, that the first buds were in the ending of the spirit of the plant by warmth, as well of October; and it is likely that if it had been in as housing their boughs, &c. So then the means the spring time, it would have put forth with to accelerate germination, are in particular eight, greater strength, and, it may be, to have grown in general three. on to bear flowers. By this means you may have, as it seemeth, roses set in the midst of a pool, being supported with some stay; which is matter of rareness and pleasure, though of small use. This is the more strange, for that the like rosestandard was put at the same time into water mixed with horse-dung, the horse-dung about the fourth part to the water, and in four month's space, while it was observed, put not forth any leaf, though divers buds at the first, as the other.
408. A Dutch flower that had a bulbous root, was likewise put at the same time all under water, some two or three fingers' deep, and within seven days sprouted, and continued long after further growing. There were also put in, a beet-root, a borage root, and a radish-root, which had all their leaves cut almost close to the roots, and within six weeks had fair leaves, and so continued till the end of November.
409. Note, that if roots, or peas, or flowers, may be accelerated in their coming and ripening, there is a double profit; the one in the high price that those things bear when they come early: the other in the swiftness of their returns: for in some grounds which are strong, you shall have a radish,
Experiments in consort touching the putting back or retardation of germination.
413. To make roses, or other flowers come late, it is an experiment of pleasure. For the ancients esteemed much of "rosa sera." And indeed the November rose is the sweetest, having been less exhaled by the sun. The means are these. First, the cutting off their tops immediately after they have done bearing, and then they will come again the same year about November: but they will not come just on the tops where they were cut, but out of those shoots which were, as it were, water boughs. The cause is, for that the sap, which otherwise would have fed the top, though after bearing, will, by the discharge of that, divert unto the side sprouts, and they will come to bear, but later.
414. The second is the pulling off the buds of the rose, when they are newly knotted; for then the side branches will bear. The cause is the same with the former; for cutting off the tops, and pulling off the buds, work the same effect, in retention of the sap for a time, and diversion of it to the sprouts that were not so forward.
415. The third is the cutting off some few of ❘ set down, do serve also for acceleration, because the top boughs in the spring time, but suffering both effects proceed from the increase of vigour in the lower boughs to grow on. The cause is, the tree; but yet, to avoid confusion, and because for that the boughs do help to draw up the sap some of the means are more proper for the one more strongly; and we see that in polling of effect, and some for the other, we will handle them trees, many do use to leave a bough or two on apart. the top, to help to draw up the sap. And it is reported also, that if you graft upon the bough of a tree, and cut off some of the old boughs, the new cions will perish.
416. The fourth is by laying the roots bare about Christmas some days. The cause is plain, for that it doth arrest the sap from going upwards for a time; which arrest is afterwards released by the covering of the root again with earth; and then the sap getteth up, but later.
417. The fifth is the removing of the tree some month before it buddeth. The cause is, for that some time will be required after the remove for the re-settling, before it can draw the juice; and that time being lost, the blossom must needs come forth later.
418. The sixth is the grafting of roses in May, which commonly gardeners do not until July; and then they bear not till the next year; but if you graft them in May, they will bear the same year, but late.
419. The seventh is the girding of the body of the tree about with some packthread; for that also in a degree restraineth the sap, and maketh it come up more late and more slowly.
422. It is an assured experience, that a heap of flint or stone, laid about the bottom of a wild tree, as an oak, elm, ash, &c., upon the first planting, doth make it prosper double as much as without it. The cause is, for that it retaineth the moisture which falleth at any time upon the tree, and suffereth it not to be exhaled by the sun. Again, it keepeth the tree warm from cold blasts and frosts, as it were in a house. It may be also, there is somewhat in the keeping of it steady at the first. Query, If laying of straw some height about the body of a tree will not make the tree forwards. For though the root giveth the sap, yet it is the body that draweth it. But you must note, that if you lay stones about a stalk of lettuce, or other plants that are more soft, it will over-moisten the roots, so as the worms will eat them.
423. A tree, at the first setting, should not be shaken, until it hath taken root fully: and therefore some have put two little forks about the bottom of their trees to keep them upright; but after a year's rooting, then shaking doth the tree good, by loosening of the earth, and, perhaps, by exercising, as it were, and stirring the sap of the tree.
420. The eighth is the planting of them in a shade, or in a hedge: the cause is, partly the 424. Generally the cutting away of boughs and keeping out of the sun, which hasteneth the sap suckers at the root and body doth make trees grow to rise; and partly the robbing of them of nourish-high; and contrariwise, the polling and cutting of ment by the stuff in the hedge. These means the top maketh them grow spread and bushy. As may be practised upon other, both trees and flow- we see in pollards, &c. ers, "mutatis mutandis."
425. It is reported, that to make hasty-growing 421. Men have entertained a conceit that show-coppice woods, the way is, to take willow, sallow, eth prettily; namely, that if you graft a late com- poplar, alder, of some seven years' growth; and to ing fruit upon a stock of a fruit tree that cometh set them not upright, but aslope, a reasonable early, the graft will bear fruit early; as a peach depth under the ground; and then, instead of one upon a cherry, and contrariwise, if an early-com-root they will put forth many, and so carry more ing fruit upon a stock of a fruit tree that cometh shoots upon a stem. late, the graft will bear fruit late, as a cherry upon a peach. But these are but imaginations, and untrue. The cause is, for that the cion overruleth the stock quite, and the stock is but passive only, and giveth aliment, but no motion to the graft.
Experiments in consort touching the melioration of fruits, trees, and plants.
426. When you would have many new roots of fruit trees, take a low tree and bow it, and lay all his branches aflat upon the ground, and cast earth upon them, and every twig will take root. And this is a very profitable experiment for costly trees, for the boughs will make stocks without charge; such as are apricots, peaches, almonds, cornelians, mulberries, figs, &c. The like is continually practised with vines, roses,
We will speak now, how to make fruits, flow-musk-roses, &c. ers, and roots larger, in more plenty, and sweeter 427. From May to July you may take off the than they use to be, and how to make the trees bark of any bough, being of the bigness of three themselves more tall, more spread, and more hasty or four inches, and cover the bare place, somewhat and sudden than they use to be. Wherein there above and below, with loam well tempered with is no doubt but the former experiments of accele-horse-dung, binding it fast down. Then cut off ration will serve much to these purposes. And the bough about Allhallontide in the bare place, again, that these experiments, which we shall now and set it in the ground, and it will grow to be a