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vessel as for two reasons particularly suited to the experiment, first, that it might sooner bring on the boiling with less heat, lest the bladder, which was to be put above the phial, should be burned and dried up by an intenser heat: secondly, that it might receive a less portion of air in that part which was not to be filled with water: since I was aware that the air itself received extension through fire. I determined, therefore, of making use of but a little air, that that extension might not disturb the ratios of the water. The phial was not straight-necked, without any lip, (for, then, the vapour of the water would distil more rapidly, and the dew would glide down that part of the bladder, which was joined to the neck of the phial,) but with the neck at first straightened a little, and then returned as it were with the lip. This vessel I half filled with water, (supposing that this would hasten the boiling,) and took the weight of the water with the phial itself by sand put in the scale of a balance. Then I took the bladder, which might contain about half a pint, taking care that it should be neither old nor dry, and given to resist more from dryness, but new and rather soft. I, then, tried the soundness of the bladder by blowing, to be certain that there were no holes in it, and then emptied all the air out of it as much as possible. I also first of all applied oil to the outside of the bladder, and made it take the oil by rubbing it in. This I did to make the bladder closer, and to stop up the pores (if there might chance to be any) with the oil. I fastened the bladder securely about the mouth of the phial, the mouth of the phial being received into the mouth of the bladder; this was done with a string waxed a little, that might adhere better and tie more closely. But this is made better by clay made out of meal and the white of an egg, and bound with black paper and well dried, as I myself have found. At last I placed the phial over burning coals on a little hearth. The water soon after began to boil, and by degrees to inflate every part of the bladder, till it seemed as though it would break. I immediately removed the glass from the fire and placed it upon the carpet, lest the glass should be broken by the cold, and instantly I made a little hole at the top of the bladder with a needle, lest, on the vapour being restored to water at the ceasing of the heat, should fall back and confound the ratios. But afterward I took away the bladder itself with the string, and cleared it from the clay, if any had been used, and then weighed the remaining water with the phials again. And I found that about the weight of two pennyweights had been consumed. And I saw that whatever of the body had filled the bladder when it was full of wind, was made and produced from that which had been lost from the water. The matter, therefore, when it was contracted in the body of the water, filled as much space as two pennyweights of the body of water filled:

but the same matter expanded in a body of vapour filled half a pint. I, therefore, set down the ratios according to the dimension expressed in the table: a vapour of water can bear a ratio of eightyfold to a body of water. The bladder filled with wind in the manner I have mentioned, if no breathing-place be given, but it be removed whole from the fire, immediately decreases from the inflation, and subsides and is contracted. The vapour whilst the bladder swells, being emitted from the hole, had another kind of vapour distinct from the common one of water, more thin, clear, and upright, and not so soon mingling itself with the air.


We must not suppose that if there were a greater consumption of water, a greater bladder could be filled in proportion. I tried this and found that it would not answer, but the inflation that follows upon it does not take place gradually, but altogether. This I attribute partly to the inflaming of the bladder, which was made harder and would not yield so easily, and was perhaps more porous; (but this might be corrected by a moist heat as by the balneum Mariæ;) but still more to this, that the vapour being increased through the constant succession, inclines to recover itself and condenses itself. The vapour, therefore, which is received into the bladder is not to be compared to those which are received into stoves, because these latter mutually following and urging each other, thicken, but those expand themselves at will from the soft and yielding nature of the bladder, especially at the beginning, (as I said,) before the copiousness of the vapour brings on its recovery.

The expansion of the vapour of water is not to be judged entirely from the appearance of the vapour which flies off into the air; for that vapour being immediately mixed with the air, borrows by far the greatest dimensions of its mixed body from the air, and does not remain in its own size. And so it is amplified to the bulk of the air into which it is received, as a little red wine or any other coloured fluid which imparts a colour to a great quantity of water. The exact ratios in so minute a case cannot be obtained without laborious and unprofitable research, and are very slightly connected with our present design. It is enough that from this experiment it is plain that the ratio of vapour to water is not twofold, nor tenfold, nor fortyfold, nor again a thousandfold, two hundredfold, &c. For the limits, not degrees of natures, are the subjects of our investigation. If, therefore, any one, by any accident or slight variation in the mode of his experiment, whether from the shape of the glass he makes use of, or the hardness or softness of the bladder, or the degree of heat, does not fall upon the ratio of eightyfold, the

consequence is immaterial. For I suppose that | But if the vapour is inflamed in the part verging there are none so ignorant as to imagine that a little obliquely from the mouth of the phial, the pneumatic and volatile vapours, which fly off from heavy bodies, lie hid in the pores of the same bodies, and are not of the same matter with the ponderous body, but are separated from the ponderous part, when the water is, as it were, entirely consumed, and evaporates into nothing. A live coal, if placed in the scale of a balance and left till it becomes a cinder, will be found to be much lighter. Metals themselves are changed in a wonderful degree in weight by the evolutions of their smoke. The same matter, therefore, is tangible and has weight, and is yet pneumatic, and can be divested of weight.


The mode of the process of oil is this. If oil be poured into a common glass phial and placed upon the fire, it will boil much more slowly, and will require a greater heat than water. And at first some drops and small grains appear scattered through the body of the oil, ascending with a creaking sound: the bubbles in the mean time do not play on the surface, as is the case with water, nor does the body rise whole, and in general no steam flies off, but a little afterward the whole body is inflated and dilated in a remarkable proportion, as if rising in a twofold degree. Then, indeed, a very copious and dense steam arises: if a fire be applied to the steam, even a good way above the mouth of the phial, the steam forthwith produces a flame, and descends immediately to the mouth of the phial, and there fixes itself and continues burning. But if the oil is heated to a greater degree, the steam burning to the last, out of the phial, without any flame or ignited body being applied, completely inflames itself, and takes the expansion of the flame.


See that the mouth of the phial is rather narrow, that the phial may confine the fumes, lest by their largely and immediately mixing with the air, they lose their inflammable nature.


The method of process of spirit of wine is this: it is excited by much less heat, and brings itself to expand sooner and more than water. It boils up with great bubbles without froth, and even with the raising of its whole body, but the vapour, whilst it is collected, will on the application of fire produce fire, at a good distance from the mouth of the glass, not so bright (but at least as compact) as oil, but thin and scant of a blue colour, and almost transparent. But being inflamed, it is borne to the mouth of the glass, where is a supply of more copious fuel, as it is also with oil. VOL. II.-72

inflammation becomes pensile in the air, undulating or winding after the appearance of vapour, and would doubtless attend it longer if the vapour remained together and did not confound itself with the air. And the body itself of spirit of wine, if no remarkable vapour goes before, the fire being applied to it and kept to it a little while is changed into the flame, and it expands with so much the greater ease and swiftness, as the spirit is more widely diffused and occupies a less altitude. But if the spirit of wine is put in the hollow of the palm of the hand, and a lighted candle between the fingers is placed near the palm of the hand, (as boys are wont to play with powder of resin,) and the spirit is gently moved forward, and straight forward, not upward; the body itself burns in the air, and when burning sometimes descends in a right direction, sometimes unfolds a little cloud flying in the air, which nevertheless verges itself to descent; sometimes when set on fire it cleaves burning, to the roof or sides, or floor of the room, and gradually becomes extinct.

Vinegar, verjuice, wine, milk, and other simple liquors (I speak of vegetable and animal substances, for of minerals I will treat by themselves) have their modes of expansion, and some remarkable differences attending them, which it would be out of place here to enumerate: but they are in those natures which we have remarked in the processes of water, oil, and spirit of wine; namely, in the degree of heat; and mode of expansion which is threefold, either in the whole body or in froth, or in rather large bubbles; for fat bodies, of unripe juice, as generally ascend in greater bubbles, of dried sap, as vinegar, in less. A collection of spirit moreover differs in its site. For in the boiling of wine, the bubbles begin to collect themselves about the middle, in vinegar about the sides and it is the same in ripe and strong wine, and again in vapid or stale, when they are infused. But all liquors, even oil itself, before they begin to boil, cast up a few and thin half bubbles about the sides of the vessel. And all liquors boil and are consumed quicker in a small than in a great quantity.


I consider that compounded liquors are not proper to the history of the expansion and union of matter through the medium of fire, because they disturb and confuse the ratios of simple expansion and coition by their separations and mixtures. I leave them, therefore, for the proper history of the separation and mixture of matter.


Spirit of wine, put in an experiment with that elastic cap, (which I described when speaking of water,) obtains this sort of expansion. I find

3 B 2

clearly see that air itself is expanded and contracted from heat and cold in those bodies of wind which physicians use for attraction. For, these warmed over the fire, and then applied immediately to the body, draw the skin, the air contracting itself and gradually recovering itself. And this it does of itself, although the hemp may not have been put on and heated, which is used to produce a more powerful attraction. Moreover, if a cold sponge be applied outside over the blister, the air contracts itself so much the more by virtue of the cold, and the attraction becomes more determined.

I have put a silver saltcellar of the usual belltower form, in a bath or goblet filled with water, hearing the air depressed with itself to the bottom of the vessel. I then put two or three live coals in the little hollow space in which the salt is placed when applied to its ordinary use, and raised a flame by blowing. Very soon after, the air, rarefied by the heat, and impatient of its former orbit, lifted up the bottom of the saltcellar on one side, and ascended in bubbles. Hero describes an altar so constructed as that, if you laid a holocaust upon it and set it on fire, suddenly water would fall to extinguish the fire. This might be accomplished by air being received under the altar in a hollow space closed up, and with no other way of exit, (when the air was extended by the fire,) but where it might force out the water prepared for this purpose in the channel. There were lately in this country some Hollanders who had invented a musical instrument, which, on being struck by the rays of the sun, gave out a certain harmony. This was very probably owing to the extension of the heated air, which could produce the motion of the instrument, since it is certain that air acted upon by the contact of the very slightest heat, immediately begets expansion.

that a weight of six pennyweights, consumed
and dissolved into vapour, filled and fully inflated
a great bladder which could contain eight pints;
which bladder was greater by sixteen times than
that which I used in the case of water, which re-
ceived only half a pint. But, in the experiment
of the water, there was a consumption of the
weight of only two pennyweights, which is only
the third part of six pennyweights. The ratios
being thus calculated, the expansion of the va-
pour of spirit of wine bears a fivefold ratio and
more, to the expansion of the vapour of water.
And that very great expansion did not keep the
body, on the removal of the vessel from the fire,
from hastening to recover itself, the bladder forth-
with becoming red and remarkably contracted.
And, from this experiment, I began to estimate
the expansion of the body of flame on probable,
though not indisputable conjecture. For, since the
vapour of spirit of wine is so inflammable, and
approaches so near the nature of fire, I considered
that the ratios of spirit of wine, compared with
fire, agreed with the ratios of the vapour of water
compared with air. For, we may suppose that
the ratios of perfect and fixed bodies (as of air
and fire) are in harmony with those of the ele-
ments, or imperfect and moving bodies, (as of
vapours.) And it will follow from this, that fire
exceeds air by five degrees, in the rarity or ex-
pansion of matter. For such is the excess of
their respective vapours, as was before said. For,
the fire itself may bear the ratio of one and a
half to the proper vapour, not the impure, but the
highly prepared vapour; as I have laid it down,
also that air can have the same ratio to the vapour
of water highly prepared. And these experiments
do not disagree materially with what we may fre-
quently observe. For, if you blow out a lighted
wax candle, and mark the dimension of the smoky
thread which ascends, (in the lowest part before
it is dispersed,) and place the candle near the fire,
and again look at that portion of the fire which first
reaches it, you will not imagine that it exceeds
more than double the magnitude of the smoke.
If you mark with accuracy the dimension of gun-
powder, or, for greater certainty, measure it in a
little box, and again take the dimension of its
flame, after it has been lit, you will readily grant
that the flame exceeds the body, as far as it can
be told at first sight, a thousand degrees. And,
from what has been before laid down, there should
be a considerable proportion of fire according to
the nitre. But this I will explain more perfectly
in my observations upon this history. We very inflated.

But, in order to come at a more accurate knowledge of the expansion of the air let into that elastic bladder, I took an empty glass, (I mean, filled only with air,) and placed upon the bladder, the cap of which I before treated. But when the phial was placed over the fire, the air extended itself more quickly and with less heat than water or spirit of wine, but with not a very ample expansion. For it bore this proportion. If the bladder held less by six ounces than the phial itself, the air completely filled and inflated it; it did not ascend easily on greater expansion; and no visible body proceeded out of it, after making a little hole in the top of the bladder, until it was. A. T. R.





| arbitrarily applied, so as to form a certain likeness of some individual, it is the work of imagination; which, restrained by no law or necessity Division general of Human Learning into Histo- of nature or of matter, can unite things which in ry, Poesy, Philosophy, according to the three nature are most discordant, and divide those Faculties of the Mind, Memory, Imagination, which never exist in separation, so as however Reason; showing that the same Division holds this is still confined to such original parts of the also in Matters Theological; since the Vessel, individuals. For there is no imagination, not namely, Human Intellect, is the same, though the even a dream, of objects which have not in some Matter contained, and the Mode of its Entrance, shape presented themselves to the senses. Again, be different.

if the same sections of objects be joined or divided according to the real evidence of things, and as they actually present themselves in nature, or at least as they are observed to present themselves according to the general apprehension of mankind, this is the office of reason; and all such adjustment is ascribed to reason.

We adopt that division of human learning which is correlative to the three faculties of the intellect. We therefore set down its parts as three, History, Poesy, Philosophy:-history has reference to memory, poesy to imagination, philosophy to reason. By poesy in this place, we mean nothing else but feigned history. History is, properly, the history of individual facts, the impressions of which are the earliest and most ancient guests of the human mind, and as it were the primitive matter of the sciences. To deal with these individuals and that matter forms the mind's habitual employment, and occasionally, its amusement. For all science is the labour and handicraft of the mind; poetry can only be considered its recreation. In philosophy the mind is enslaved to things, in poesy it is let loose from the bondage of things, and breaks forth illimitably, and creates at will. And any one may easily comprehend that this is so, who shall seek the source of things intellectual even on the simplest principles, and with the most crass apprehension. For the images of things individual are admitted into the sense and fixed in the memory. They pass into the memory, as it were, whole, in the same manner as they present themselves. These the mind recals and retraces; and, which is its proper business, puts together and decomposes their parts. Now, individuals severally have something in common one with another, and again something diverse and complex. Composition and division takes place either at the will of the mind itself, or agreeably to what is found in nature. If it is done at the mere volition of the mind, and such parts of things are of poetry.

Whence it clearly appears that from these three sources there arise the three several streams of history, poesy, and philosophy, and that there cannot be other or more branches than these. For under the name of philosophy we comprehend all the arts and sciences, and whatever in short can, from the presentment of the several objects of nature, be by the mind collected and arranged into general notions. Nor do we think that there is occasion, in consideration of the extent of the subject, for any other division of learning than that which we have stated above. For though the responses of a divine oracle and of the senses are different, no doubt, both in the matter and the mode by which it finds access to the mind; yet the spirit of man which receives both is one and the same, just as different liquors passing through differents apertures are received into one and the same vessel. Wherefore we assert that history itself either consists of sacred history, or of divine precepts and doctrines, which are, so to speak, an everyday philosophy. And that part which seems to fall without this division, prophecy, is itself a species of history, with the prerogative of deity stamped upon it of making all times one duration, so that the narrative may anticipate the fact; thus also the mode of promulgating vaticination by vision, or the heavenly doctrines by parables, partakes of the nature

and constrained.


new face of things, or second universe. Wherefore natural history of either the liberty of nature or its errors into bonds. Now, if it be unpleasing

A partition of History into Natural and Civil, Ec- to any one that the arts should be called the clesiastical, Literary, and Particular, included bonds of nature, since they are rather to be conin Civil History. A division of Natural Histo-sidered its deliverers and champions, since they ry into the History of Generations, Præter-gene- make nature, in some instances, mistress of her rations, and Arts; according to the three states object, by reducing obstacles into her order. We of Nature, namely, Nature in course, varying, regard little such delicacies and elegancies of language. We only mean to signify this, that nature, by means of arts, is placed by compulsion under a necessity of doing that which without arts would not have been done, whether that be denominated force and bonds, or assistance, and consummating skill. We shall therefore divide natural history into the history of generations, the history of preter-generations, and the history of arts, which we are accustomed to call mechanical and experimental history. And we willingly place the history of arts among the species of natural history, because there has obtained a now inveterate mode of speaking and notion, as if art were something different from nature, so that things artificial ought to be discriminated from things natural, as if wholly and generically different; whence arises this evil, that most writers of natural history think they have accomplished their task if they have achieved a history of animals, plants, or minerals, omitting the experiments of mechanics, which are of by far the greatest consequence to philosophy; and there has insinuated itself into mens' minds a still subtler error, namely, this, that art is conceived to be a sort of addition to nature, the proper effect of which is to perfect what nature has begun, or to correct her where she has deviated; but by no means to work radical changes in her, and shake her at the roots, which has been a source of great despondency in the attempts of men. Whereas, on the contrary, that ought to be sunk deep that things artificial do not differ from natural in form or essence but in efficients only; that in reality man has no power over nature, except that of motion, namely, to apply or to remove natural bodies; but nature performs all the rest within herself. Wherefore, when there is granted a proper application or removal of natural bodies, men and art can do all; when not granted, nothing. Again, provided that due admission and removal takes place in order to some effect, it matters not whether it be done by man or by art, or by nature without man. Nor is the one more potent than the other; so, if any one by sprinkling water create the apparition of a rainbow upon a wall, he does not find nature less obedient than when the same takes place in the air on humid clouds. Again, when gold is found pure in veins, where nature has performed exactly the same office to herself, as if pure gold was extracted by means of the smelting pot and ministry of man. Sometimes, too, a ministry of this kind

HISTORY is either natural or civil. In natural history we recount the events and doings of nature; in civil, of men. Things divine no doubt have a conspicuous share in both, but chiefly in human, so as to constitute a branch of their own in history, which we are accustomed to call sacred or ecclesiastical. We shall therefore assign that branch to the province of civil history: and we shall first speak of natural history. There is extant no natural history of things individual. Not that we would lay down the false position that history ought to be engrossed with describing individuals, which are limited in time and place. For in that view it is proper there should be none; since, however, there is a general resemblance of natural objects, so that if you know one you know all, it were superfluous and interminable to speak of individuals. Thus, if in any case that indistinguishable general resemblance be wanting, natural history admits individuals those, that is, of which there is not a number or family. For a history of the sun, the moon, the earth, and the like, which are unique in their species, is most properly written, and no less of those which conspicuously vary from their species and are monstrous; since the description and the knowledge of the species neither sufficiently nor competently supplies the want of it. Wherefore natural history does not exclude these two classes of individuals, but is in by far the largest part of it, as we have already stated, employed about species. But we attempt a partition of natural history, derived from the tendency and condition of nature herself, which is found placed in three several states, and subject as it were, to three modes of government. For nature is either free, spontaneously diffusing and developing itself in its wonted course, that is, when nature depends upon itself, in no way obstructed and subdued, as in the heavens, animals, plants, and all the natural productions; or, again, it is evidently torn down and precipitated from its proper state by the pravity and erratic tendency of obdurate and resisting matter, or by violence of obstacles, as is the case in the care of monsters and unnatural productions; or, finally, it is coerced by the art and industry of man, fashioned, altered, and as it were made anew, as in things artificial. For in things artificial nature seems, as it were, new made, and there is seen a

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