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or striking of the bottom of a vessel, filled either | ferior to that of silver or brass, but rather better: with milk or with oil; which, though they be yet we see that a piece of money of gold soundeth more light, yet are they more unequal bodies than far more flat than a piece of money of silver. air.

Of the natures of the mediums we have now spoken; as for the disposition of the said mediums, it doth consist in the penning, or not penning of the air; of which we have spoken before in the title of delation of sounds: it consisteth also in the figure of the concave through which it passeth; of which we will speak next.

Experiments in consort, what the figures of the pipes, or concaves, or the bodies deferent, conduce to the sounds.

223. The harp hath the concave not along the strings, but across the strings; and no instrument hath the sound so melting and prolonged as the Irish harp. So as I suppose, that if a virginal were made with a double concave, the one all the length, as the virginal hath, the other at the end of the strings, as the harp hath; it must needs make the sound perfecter, and not so shallow and jarring. You may try it without any sound-board along, but only harp-wise at one end of the strings; or lastly, with a double concave, at each end of the strings one.

Experiments in consort touching the mixture of


224. There is an apparent diversity between the species visible and audible in this, that the visible doth not mingle in the medium, but the

How the figures of pipes, or concaves, through which sounds pass, or of other bodies deferent, conduce to the variety and alteration of the sounds; either in respect of the greater quantity, or less quantity of air which the concaves receive, or in respect of the carrying of sounds longer and shorter way; or in respect of many other circum-audible doth. For if we look abroad, we see stances; they have been touched, as falling into other titles. But those figures which we are now to speak of, we intend to be, as they concern the lines through which the sound passeth; as straight, crooked, angular, circular, &c.

heaven, a number of stars, trees, hills, men, beasts, at once. And the species of the one doth not confound the other. But if so many sounds came from several parts, one of them would utterly confound the other. So we see, that voices or con

221. The figure of a bell partaketh of the pyra-sorts of music do make a harmony by mixture, mis, but yet coming off and dilating more sud- which colours do not. It is true nevertheless that denly. The figure of a hunter's horn and cornet a great light drowneth a smaller, that it cannot be is oblique; yet they have likewise straight horns; seen; as the sun that of a glow-worm; as well as if they be of the same bore with the oblique, differ a great sound drowneth a lesser. And I suppose little in sound, save that the straight require some-likewise, that if there were two lanterns of glass, what a stronger blast. The figures of recorders, the one a crimson, and the other an azure, and a and flutes, and pipes are straight; but the recorder candle within either of them, those coloured lights hath a less bore and a greater, above and be- would mingle, and cast upon a white paper a purlow. The trumpet hath the figure of the letter S: ple colour. And even in colours, they yield a which maketh that purling sound, &c. Gene- faint and weak mixture: for white walls make rally the straight line hath the cleanest and round-rooms more lightsome than black, &c. but the est sound, and the crooked the more hoarse and cause of the confusion in sounds, and the inconjarring. fusion in species visible, is, for that the sight worketh in right lines, and maketh several cones; and so there can be no coincidence in the eye or visual point: but sounds, that move in oblique and arcuate lines, must needs encounter and disturb the one the other.

222. Of a sinuous pipe that may have some four flexions, trial would be made. Likewise of a pipe made like a cross, open in the midst. And so likewise of an angular pipe; and see what will be the effects of these several sounds. And so again of a circular pipe; as if you take a pipe perfect round, and make a hole whereinto you shall blow, and another hole not far from that; but with a traverse or stop between them: so that your breath may go the round of the circle, and come forth at the second hole. You may try likewise percussions of solid bodies of several figures; as globes, flats, cubes, crosses, triangles, &c., and their combinations, as flat against flat, and convex against convex, and convex against flat, &c., and mark well the diversities of the sounds. Try also the difference in sound of several crassitudes of hard bodies percussed; and take knowledge of the diversities of the sounds. I myself have tried, that a bell of gold yieldeth an excellent sound, not in

225. The sweetest and best harmony is, when every part or instrument is not heard by itself, but a conflation of them all; which requireth to stand some distance off, even as it is in the mixture of perfumes; or the taking of the smells of several flowers in the air.

226. The disposition of the air in other qualities, except it be joined with sound, hath no great operation upon sounds: for whether the air be lightsome or dark, hot or cold, quiet or stirring, except it be with noise, sweet smelling, or stinking, or the like; it importeth not much; some pretty alteration or difference it may make.

227. But sounds do disturb and alter the one the other: sometimes the one drowning the other

and making it not heard; sometimes the one jarring and discording with the other, and making a confusion; sometimes the one mingling and compounding with the other, and making a harmony.

228. Two voices of like loudness will not be heard twice as far as one of them alone: and two candles of like light will not make things seen twice as far off as one. The cause is profound; but it seemeth that the impressions from the objects of the senses do mingle respectively, every one with his kind: but not in proportion, as is before demonstrated: and the reason may be, because the first impression, which is from privative to active, as from silence to noise, or from darkness to light, is a greater degree than from less noise to more noise, or from less light to more light. And the reason of that again may be, for that the air, after it hath received a charge, doth not receive a surcharge, or greater charge, with like appetite as it doth the first charge. As for the increase of virtue, generally, what proportion it beareth to the increase of the matter, it is a large field, and to be handled by itself.

Experiments in consort touching melioration of


229. All reflections concurrent do make sounds greater; but if the body that createth either the original sound, or the reflection, be clean and smooth, it maketh them sweeter. Trial may be made of a lute or viol, with the belly of polished brass instead of wood. We see that even in the open air, the wire-string is sweeter than the string of guts. And we see that for reflection water excelleth; as in music near the water, or in echoes.

trial may be made of a lute or viol with a double belly, making another belly with a knot over the strings; yet so as there be room enough for the strings, and room enough to play below that belly. Trial may be made also of an Irish harp, with a concave on both sides, whereas it useth to have it but on one side. The doubt may be, lest it should make too much resounding, whereby one note would overtake another.

233. If you sing into the hole of a drum, it maketh the singing more sweet. And so I conceive it would, if it were a song in parts sung into several drums; and for handsomeness and strangeness' sake, it would not be amiss to have a curtain between the place where the drums are, and the hearers.

234. When a sound is created in a wind instrument between the breath and the air, yet if the sound be communicated with a more equal body of the pipe, it meliorateth the sound. For, no doubt, there would be a differing sound in a trumpet or pipe of wood: and again in a trumpet or pipe of brass. It were good to try recorders and hunters' horns of brass, what the sound would be.

235. Sounds are meliorated by the intension of the sense, where the common sense is collected most to the particular sense of hearing, and the sight suspended: and therefore sounds are sweeter, as well as greater, in the night than in the day; and I suppose they are sweeter to blind men than to others: and it is manifest, that between sleeping and waking, when all the senses are bound and suspended, music is far sweeter than when one is fully waking.

Experiments in consort touching the imitation of


236. It is a thing strange in nature when it is attentively considered, how children, and some birds, learn to imitate speech. They take no mark at all of the motion of the mouth of him that speaketh, for birds are as well taught in the dark as by light. The sounds of speech are very curious and exquisite: so one would think it were a lesson hard to learn. It is true that it is done with time, and by little and little, and with

230. It hath been tried, that a pipe a little moistened on the inside, but yet so as there be no drops left, maketh a more solemn sound than if the pipe were dry: but yet with a sweet degree of sibilation or purling; as we touched it before in the title of "equality." The cause is, for that all things porous being superficially wet, and, as it were, between dry and wet, became a little more even and smooth; but the purling, which must needs proceed of inequality, I take to be bred between the smoothness of the inward sur-many essays and proffers: but all this dischargeth face of the pipe, which is wet, and the rest of the wood of the pipe unto which the wet cometh not, but it remaineth dry.

231. In frosty weather, music within doors soundeth better. Which may be by reason not of the disposition of the air, but of the wood or string of the instrument, which is made more crisp, and so more porous and hollow and we see that old lutes sound better than new, for the same reason. And so do lute-strings that have been kept long.

232. Sound is likewise meliorated by the mingling of open air with pent air; therefore

not the wonder. It would make a man think, though this which we shall say may seem exceed ing strange, that there is some transmission of spirits; and that the spirits of the teacher, put in motion, should work with the spirits of the learner a predisposition to offer to imitate; and so to perfect the imitation by degrees. But touching operations by transmissions of spirits, which is one of the highest secrets in nature, we shall speak in due place, chiefly when we come to inquire of imagination. But as for imitation, it is certain that there is in men and other creatures a predisposition to imitate. We see how ready


apes and monkeys are to imitate all motions of | Experiments in consort touching the reflection of man; and in the catching of dottrels, we see how the foolish bird playeth the ape in gestures: and no man, in effect, doth accompany with others, but he learneth, ere he is aware, some gesture, or voice, or fashion of the other.

There be three kinds of reflections of sounds; a reflection concurrent, a reflection iterant, which we call echo; and a super-reflection, or an echo of an echo; whereof the first hath been handled in the title of "magnitude of sounds;" the latter two we will now speak of.

242. The reflection of species visible by mirrors you may command; because passing in right lines, they may be guided to any point: but the

237. In imitation of sounds, that man should be the teacher is no part of the matter; for birds will learn one of another; and there is no reward by feeding, or the like, given them for the imitation; and besides, you shall have parrots that will not only imitate voices, but laughing, knock-reflection of sounds is hard to master; because ing, squeaking of a door upon the hinges, or of a cart-wheel; and, in effect, any other noise they hear.

238. No beast can imitate the speech of man, but birds only; for the ape itself, that is so ready to imitate otherwise, attaineth not any degree of imitation of speech. It is true, that I have known a dog, that if one howled in his ear, he would fall a howling a great while. What should be the aptness of birds in comparison of beasts, to imitate the speech of man, may be further inquired. We see that beasts have those parts which they count the instruments of speech, as lips, teeth, &c., liker unto man than birds. As for the neck, by which the throat passeth, we see many beasts have it for the length as much as birds. What better gorge or artery birds have may be farther inquired. The birds that are known to be speakers are, parrots, pies, jays, daws, and ravens. Of which parrots have an adunque bill, but the rest not.

239. But I conceive, that the aptness of birds is not so much in the conformity of the organs of speech as in their attention. For speech must come by hearing and learning; and birds give more heed, and mark sounds more than beasts; because naturally they are more delighted with them, and practise them more, as appeareth in their singing. We see also that those that teach birds to sing, do keep them waking to increase their attention. We see also that cock birds, amongst singing birds, are ever the better singers; which may be, because they are more lively and listen more.

240. Labour and intention to imitate voices doth conduce much to imitation: and therefore we see that there be certain "pantomimi," that will represent the voices of players of interludes so to life, as if you see them not you would think they were those players themselves; and so the voices of other men that they hear.

the sound, filling great spaces in arched lines, cannot be so guided: and therefore we see there hath not been practised any means to make artificial echoes. And no echo already known returneth in a very narrow room.

243. The natural echoes are made upon walls, woods, rocks, hills, and banks; as for waters, being near, they make a concurrent echo; but being farther off, as upon a large river, they make an iterant echo: for there is no difference between the concurrent echo and the iterant, but the quickness or slowness of the return. But there is no doubt but water doth help the delation of echo; as well as it helpeth the delation of original sounds.

244. It is certain, as hath been formerly touched, that if you speak through a trunk stopped at the farther end, you shall find a blast return upon your mouth, but no sound at all. The cause is, for that the closeness which preserveth the original, is not able to preserve the reflected sound: besides that echoes are seldom created but by loud sounds. And therefore there is less hope of artificial echoes in air pent in a narrow concave. Nevertheless it hath been tried, that one leaning over a well of twenty-five fathom deep, and speaking, though but softly, yet not so soft as a whisper, the water returned a good audible echo. It would be tried, whether speaking in caves, where there is no issue save where you speak, will not yield echoes as wells do.

245. The echo cometh, as the original sound doth, in a round orb of air: it were good to try the creating of the echo where the body repercussing maketh an angle: as against the return of a wall, &c. Also we see that in mirrors there is the like angle of incidence, from the object to the glass, and from the glass to the eye. And if you strike a ball sidelong, not full upon the surface, the rebound will be as much the contrary way: whether there be any such resilience in echoes, that is, whether a man shall hear better if he stand aside the body repercussing, than if he stand where he speaketh, or anywhere in a right line between, may be tried. Trial likewise would be made, by standing nearer the place of

241. There have been some that could counterfeit the distance of voices, which is a secondary object of hearing, in such sort, as when they stand fast by you, you would think the speech came from afar off, in a fearful manner. How this is done may be further inquired. But I see repercussing than he that speaketh; and again no great use of it but for imposture, in counter-by standing farther off than he that speaketh ; and feiting ghosts or spirits. so knowledge would be taken, whether echoes,

as well as original sounds, be not strongest near | And whereas in echoes of one return, it is much hand. to hear four or five words; in this echo of so many returns upon the matter, you hear above twenty words for three.

246. There be many places where you shall hear a number of echoes one after another; and it is when there is a variety of hills or woods, some nearer, some farther off: so that the return from the farther, being last created, will be likewise last heard.

247. As the voice goeth round, as well towards the back, as towards the front of him that speaketh; so likewise doth the echo: for you have many back echoes to the place where you stand. 248. To make an echo that will report three, or four, or five words distinctly, it is requisite that the body repercussing be a good distance off: for if it be near, and yet not so near as to make a concurrent echo, it choppeth with you upon the sudden. It is requisite likewise that the air be not much pent: for air at a great distance pent, worketh the same effect with air at large in a small distance. And therefore in the trial of speaking in the well, though the well was deep, the voice came back suddenly, and would bear the report but of two words.

250. The like echo upon echo, but only with two reports, hath been observed to be, if you stand between a house and a hill, and lure towards the hill. For the house will give a back echo; one taking it from the other, and the latter the weaker.

251. There are certain letters that an echo will hardly express; as S for one, especially being principal in a word. I remember well, that when I went to the echo at Pont-Charenton, there was an old Parisian, that took it to be the work of spirits, and of good spirits. For, said he, call "Satan," and the echo will not deliver back the devil's name; but will say, “va t'en;" which is as much in French as "apage" or avoid. And thereby I did hap to find, that an echo would not return S, being but a hissing and an interior sound.

distance: some will report a longer train of words, and some a shorter; some more loud, full as loud as the original, and sometimes more loud, and some weaker and fainter.

253. Where echoes come from several parts at the same distance, they must needs make, as it were, a choir of echoes, and so make the report greater, and even a continued echo; which you shall find in some hills that stand encompassed theatre-like.

254. It doth not yet appear that there is refraction in sounds, as well as in species visible. For I do not think that, if a sound should pass through divers mediums, as air, cloth, wood, it would deliver the sound in a differing place from that unto which it is deferred; which is the proper effect of refraction. But majoration, which is also the work of refraction, appeareth plainly in sounds, as hath been handled at full, but it is not by diversity of mediums.

252. Echoes are some more sudden, and chop again as soon as the voice is delivered; as hath been partly said: others are more deliberate, that 249. For echoes upon echoes, there is a rare is, give more space between the voice and the instance thereof in a place which I will now ex-echo, which is caused by the local nearness or actly describe. It is some three or four miles from Paris, near a town called Pont-Charenton; and some bird-bolt shot or more from the river of Seine. The room is a chapel or small church. The walls all standing, both at the sides and at the ends. Two rows of pillars, after the manner of aisles of churches, also standing; the roof all open, not so much as any embowments near any of the walls left. There was against every pillar a stack of billets above a man's height; which the watermen that bring wood down the Seine in stacks, and not in boats, laid there, as it seemeth, for their ease. Speaking, at the one end, I did hear it return the voice thirteen several times; and I have heard of others, that it would return sixteen times: for I was there about three of the clock in the afternoon: and it is best, as all other echoes are, in the evening. It is manifest that it is not echoes from several places, but a tossing of the voice, as a ball, to and fro, like to reflections in looking-glasses, where if you place one glass before and another behind, you shall see the glass behind with the image, within the glass before; and again, the glass before in that; and divers such super-reflections, till the "species speciei" at last die. For it is every return weaker and more shady. In like manner, the voice in that chapel createth "speciem speciei," and maketh succeeding super-reflections; for it melteth by degrees, and every reflection is weaker than the former: so that if you speak three words, it will, perhaps, some three times report you the whole three words; and then the two latter words for some times; and then the last word alone for some times, still fading and growing weaker. VOL. II.-6

Experiments in consort touching the consent and dissent between visibles and audibles.

We have "obiter," for demonstration's sake, used in divers instances the examples of the sight and things visible, to illustrate the nature of sounds: but we think good now to prosecute that comparison more fully.

Consent of visibles and audibles.

255. Both of them spread themselves in round, and fill a whole floor or orb unto certain limits; and are carried a great way: and do languish and lessen by degrees, according to the distance of the objects from the sensories.


256. Both of them have the whole species in every small portion of the air, or medium, so as the species do pass through small crannies without confusion: as we see ordinarily in levels, as to the eye; and in crannies or chinks, as to the sound.

257. Both of them are of a sudden and easy generation and delation: and likewise perish swiftly and suddenly; as if you remove the light, or touch the bodies that give the sound.

258. Both of them do receive and carry exquisite and accurate differences; as of colours, figures, motions, distances, in visibles; and of articulate voices, tones, songs, and quaverings, in audibles.

259. Both of them, in their virtue and working, do not appear to admit any corporal substance into their mediums, or the orb of their virtue; neither again to rise or stir any evident local motion in their mediums as they pass; but only to carry certain spiritual species; the perfect knowledge of the cause whereof, being hitherto scarcely attained, we shall search and handle in due place. 260. Both of them seem not to generate or produce any other effect in nature, but such as appertaineth to their proper objects and senses, and are otherwise barren.

261. But both of them, in their own proper action, do work three manifest effects. The first, in that the stronger species drowneth the lesser; as the light of the sun, the light of a glow-worm; the report of an ordnance, the voice: The second, in that an object of surcharge or excess destroyeth the sense; as the light of the sun the eye; a violent sound near the ear the hearing: The third, in that both of them will be reverberate; as in mirrors, and in echoes.

262. Neither of them doth destroy or hinder the species of the other, although they encounter in the same medium, as light or colour hinder not sound, nor "e contra.'

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263. Both of them effect the sense in living creatures, and yield objects of pleasure and dislike: yet nevertheless the objects of them do also, if it be well observed, affect and work upon dead things; namely, such as have some conformity with the organs of the two senses, as visibles work upon a looking-glass, which is like the pupil of the eye and audibles upon the places of echo, which resemble in some sort the cavern and structure of the ear.

264. Both of them do diversely work, as they have their medium diversely disposed. So a trembling medium, as smoke, maketh the object seem to tremble, and a rising or falling medium, as winds, maketh the sounds to rise or fall.

265. To both, the medium, which is the most propitious and conducible, is air, for glass or water, &c. are not comparable.

266. In both of them, where the object is fine and accurate, it conduceth much to have the sense

intentive and erect, insomuch as you contract your eye when you would see sharply; and erect your ear when you would hear attentively; which in beasts that have ears movable is most manifest..

267. The beams of light, when they are multiplied and conglomerate, generate heat, which is a different action from the action of sight: and the multiplication and coglomeration of sounds doth generate an extreme rarefaction of the air; which is an action materiate, differing from the action of sound; if it be true, which is anciently reported, that birds with great shouts have fallen down.

Dissents of visibles and audibles.

268. The species of visibles seem to be emissions of beams from the objects seen, almost like odours, save that they are more incorporeal : but the species of audibles seem to participate more with local motion, like percussions, or impressions made upon the air. So that whereas all bodies do seem to work in two manners, either by the communication of their natures or by the im、 pressions and signatures of their motions; the diffusion of species visible seemeth to participate more of the former operation, and the species audible of the latter.

269. The species of audibles seem to be carried more manifestly through the air than the species of visibles: for I conceive that a contrary strong wind will not much hinder the sight of visibles, as it will do the hearing of sounds.

270. There is one difference above all other be tween visibles and audibles, that is the most remarkable, as that whereupon many smaller differences do depend: namely, that visibles, except lights, are carried in right lines, and audibles in arcuate lines. Hence it cometh to pass, that visibles do not intermingle and confound one another, as hath been said before, but sounds do. Hence it cometh, that the solidity of bodies doth not much hinder the sight, so that the bodies be clear, and the pores in a right line, as in glass, crystal, diamonds, water, &c. but a thin scarf or handker chief, though they be bodies nothing so solid, hin der the sight: whereas, contrariwise, these porous bodies do not much hinder the hearing, but solid bodies do almost stop it, or at the least attenuate it. Hence also it cometh, that to the reflection of visibles small glasses suffice; but to the reverberation of audibles are required greater spaces, as hath likewise been said before.

271. Visibles are seen further off than sounds are heard, allowing nevertheless the rate of their bigness, for otherwise a great sound will be heard further off than a small body seen.

272. Visibles require, generally, some distance between the object and the eye, to be better seen; whereas in audibles, the nearer the approach of the sound is to the sense, the better. But in this there may be a double error. The one, because to

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