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favours of the time; save only that it was put into the queen's head that it was dangerous to permit him to go beyond the sea, because he had a great wit of action, and had served in so principal a place; which nevertheless after, with Cardinal Pool, he was suffered to do.

Page" eadem" he saith, Sir Nicholas Bacon, that was lord keeper, was a man of exceedingly crafty wit; which showeth that this fellow in his slanders is no good marksman, but throweth out his words of defaming without all level. For all the world noted Sir Nicholas Bacon to be a man plain, direct, and constant, without all finesse and doubleness; and one that was of the mind that a man in his private proceedings and estate, and in the proceedings of state, should rest upon the soundness and strength of his own courses, and not upon practice to circumvent others; according to the sentence of Solomon, "Vir prudens advertit ad gressus suos, stultus autem divertit ad dolos :" insomuch that the Bishop of Ross, a subtle and observing man, said of him, that he could fasten no words upon him, and that it was impossible to come within him, because he offered no play: and the queen-mother of France, a very politic princess, said of him, that he should have been of the council of Spain, because he despised the occurrents, and rested upon the first plot: so that if he were crafty, it is hard to say who is wise.

Page 10, he saith, That the Lord Burleigh, in the establishment of religion, in the beginning of the queen's time, prescribed a composition of his own invention; whereas the same form, not fully six years before, had been received in this realm in King Edward's time: so as his lordship being a Christian politic counsellor, thought it better to follow a precedent, than to innovate; and chose the precedent rather at home than abroad.

Page 41, he saith, That Catholics never at tempted to murder any principal person of her majesty's court, as did Burchew, whom he calleth a puritan, in wounding of a gentleman instead of Sir Christopher Hatton; but by their great virtue, modesty, and patience, do manifest in themselves a far different spirit from the other sort. For Burchew, it is certain he was mad; as appeareth not only by his mad mistaking, but by the violence that he offered afterwards to his keeper, and most evidently by his behaviour at his execution: but of Catholics, I mean the traitorous sort of them, a man may say as Cato said sometimes of Cæsar, "eum ad evertendam rempublicam sobrium accessisse:" they came sober and well advised to their treasons and conspiracies; and commonly they look not so low as the counsellors. but have bent their murderous attempts immediately against her majesty's sacred person, which God have in his precious custody! as may appear by the conspiracy of Sommerville, Parry, Savage, the six, and others; nay, they have defended it "in thesi," to be a lawful act.

Page 43, he saith, That his lordship, whom he calleth the arch-politic, hath fraudulently provided, that when any priest is arraigned, the indictment is enforced with many odious matters: wherein he showeth great ignorance, if it be not malice; for the law permitteth not the ancient forms of indictments to be altered; like as, in an action of trespass, although a man take away another's goods in the peaceablest manner in the world, yet the writ hath “quare vi et armis;" and if a man enter upon another's ground, and do no more, the plaintiff mentioneth "quod herbam suam, ibidem crescentem, cum equis, bobus, porcis, et bidentibus, depastus sit, conculcavit et consumpsit." Neither is this any absurdity, for in the practice of all law, the formularies have been few and certain; and not varied according to every particular case. And in indictments also of treason, it is not so far fetched as in that of trespass; for the law ever presumeth in treason, an intention of subverting the state, and impeaching the majesty royal.

Page 45, and in other places, speaking of the persecuting of the Catholics, he still mentioneth bowellings and consuming men's entrails by fire; as if this were a torture newly devised: wherein he doth cautelously and maliciously suppress, that the law and custom of this land from all antiquity hath ordained, that punishment in case of treason, and permitteth no other. And a punishment surely it is, though of great terror, yet by reason of the quick despatching, of less torment far than either the wheel or forcipation, yea, than simple burning.

Page 48, he saith, England is confederate with the great Turk: wherein, if he mean it because the merchants have an agent in Constantinople, how will he answer for all the kings of France, since Francis the First, which were good Catholics? For the emperor? For the King of Spain himself? For the senate of Venice, and other states, that have had long time ambassadors liegers in that court? If he mean it because the Turk hath done some special honour to our ambassador, if he be so to be termed, we are beholden to the King of Spain for that: for that the honour, we have won upon him by opposition, hath given us reputation through the world: if he mean it because the Turk seemeth to affect us for the abolishing of images; let him consider then what a scandal the matter of images hath been in the church, as having been one of the principal branches whereby Mahometism entered.

Page 65, he saith, Cardinal Allen was of late very near to have been elected pope. Whereby he would put the Catholics here in some hope, that once within five or six years, for a pope commonly sitteth no longer, he may obtain that which he missed narrowly. This is a direct abuse, for it is certain in all the conclaves since Sixtus Quintus, who gave him his hat, he was

never in possibility; nay, the King of Spain, that hath patronised the church of Rome so long, as he is become a right patron of it, in that he seeketh to present to that see whom he liketh, yet never durst strain his credit to so desperate a point as once to make a canvass for him: no, he never nominated him in his inclusive narration. And those that know any thing of the respects of conclaves, know that he is not papable: first, because he is an ultramontane, of which sort there hath been none these fifty years. Next, because he is a cardinal of alms of Spain, and wholly at the devotion of that king. Thirdly, because he is like to employ the treasure and favours of the popedom upon the enterprizes of England, and the relief and advancement of English fugitives, his necessitous countrymen. So as he presumed much upon the simplicity of the reader in this point, as in many more.

Page 55, and again p. 70, he saith, His lordship, meaning the Lord Burleigh, intendeth to match his grandchild, Mr. William Cecil, with the Lady Arabella. Which being a mere imagination, without any circumstance at all to induce it, more than that they are both unmarried, and that their years agree well, needeth no answer. It is true that his lordship, being no stoical unnatural man, but loving towards his children, for "charitas reipublicæ incipit a familia," hath been glad to match them into honourable and good blood and yet not so, but that a private gentleman of Northamptonshire, that lived altogether in the country, was able to bestow his daughters higher than his lordship hath done. But yet it is not seen by any thing past, that his lordship ever thought, or affected to match his children in the blood royal. His lordship's wisdom, which hath been so long of gathering, teacheth him to leave to his posterity, rather surety than danger. And I marvel where be the combinations which have been with great men; and the popular and plausible courses, which ever accompany such designs as the libeller speaketh of: and therefore this match is but like unto that which the same fellow concluded between the same Lady Arabella and the Earl of Leicester's son, when he was but a twelvemonth old.

Page 70, he saith, He laboureth incessantly with the queen, to make his eldest son deputy of Ireland; as if that were such a catch, considering all the deputies since her majesty's time, except the Earl of Sussex and the Lord Grey, have been persons of meaner degree than Sir Thomas Cecil is; and the most that is gotten by that place, is but the saving and putting up of a man's own revenues, during those years that he serveth there; and this, perhaps, to be saved with some displeasure, at his return.

Page "eadem" he saith, He hath brought in his second son, Sir Robert Cecil, to be of the

council, who hath neither wit nor experience; which speech is as notorious an untruth, as is in all the libel: for it is confessed by all men that know the gentleman, that he hath one of the rarest and most excellent wits of England, with a singular delivery and application of the same; whether it be to use a continued speech, or to negotiate, or to couch in writing, or to make report, or discreetly to consider of the circumstances, and aptly to draw things to a point; and all this joined with a very good nature and a great respect to all men, as is daily more and more revealed. And for his experience, it is easy to think that his training and helps hath made it already such, as many, that have served long prentishood for it, have not attained the like: so as if that be true, "qui beneficium digno dat, omnes obligat," not his father only but the state is bound unto her majesty, for the choice and employment of so sufficient and worthy a gentleman.

There be many other follies and absurdities in the book; which, if an eloquent scholar had it in hand, he would take advantage thereof, and justly make the author not only odious, but ridiculous and contemptible to the world: but I pass them over, and even this which hath been said hath been vouchsafed to the value and worth of the matter, and not the worth of the writer, who hath handled a theme above his compass.

VIII. Of the height of impudency that these men are grown unto in publishing and avouching untruths, with a particular recital of some of them for an assay. These men are grown to a singular spirit and faculty in lying and abusing the world: such as, it seemeth, although they are to purchase a particular dispensation for all other sins, yet they have a dispensation dormant to lie for the Catholic cause; which moveth me to give the reader a taste of their untruths, such as are written, and are not merely gross and palpable; desiring him out of their own writings, when any shall fall into his hands, to increase the roll at least in his own memory.

We retain in our calendars no other holydays but such as have their memorials in the Scriptures; and therefore in the honour of the blessed Virgin, we only receive the feast of the annunciation and the purification; omitting the other of the conception and the nativity; which nativity was used to be celebrated upon the eighth of September, the vigil whereof happened to be the nativity of our queen: which though we keep not holy, yet we use therein certain civil customs of joy and gratulation, as ringing of bells, bonfires, and such like: and likewise make a memorial of the same day in our calendar: whereupon they have published, that we have expunged the nativity of the blessed Virgin, and put instead there

of the nativity of our queen: and, farther, that we | pion of the heretics in his very last words cried sing certain hymns unto her, used to be sung unto he was confounded. our Lady.

It happened that, upon some bloodshed in the church of Paul's, according to the canon law, yet with us in force, the said church was interdicted, and so the gates shut up for some few days; whereupon they published, that, because the same church is a place where people use to meet to walk and confer, the queen's majesty, after the manner of the ancient tyrants, had forbidden all assemblies and meetings of people together, and for that reason, upon extreme jealousy, did cause Paul's gates to be shut up.

In the act of recognition of "primo," whereby the right of the crown is acknowledged by parliament to be in her majesty, the like whereof was used in Queen Mary's time, the words of limitation are, "in the queen's majesty, and the natural heirs of her body, and her lawful successors." Upon which word, natural, they do maliciously, and indeed villanously gloss, that it was the intention of the parliament, in a cloud to convey the crown to any issue of her majesty's that were illegitimate; whereas the word heir doth with us so necessarily and pregnantly import lawfulness, as it had been indecorum, and uncivil speaking of the issues of a prince, to have expressed it. They set forth in the year a book with tables and pictures of the persecutions against Catholics, wherein they have not only stories of fifty years old to supply their pages, but also taken all the persecutions of the primitive church, under the heathen, and translated them to the practice of England; as that of worrying priests under the skins of bears, by dogs, and the like.

The gate of London called Ludgate, being in decay, was pulled down, and built anew; and on the one side was set up the image of King Lud and his two sons; who, according to the name, was thought to be the first founder of that gate; and on the other side, the image of her majesty, in whose time it was re-edified; whereupon they published that her majesty, after all the images of the saints were long beaten down, had now at last set up her own image upon the principal gate of London, to be adored; and that I conclude, then, that I know not what to make all men were forced to do reverence to it as of this excess in avouching untruths, save this, they passed by, and a watch there placed for that purpose.

Mr. Jewel, the Bishop of Salisbury, who according to his life died most godly and patiently, at the point of death used the versicle of the hymn, “Te Deum, O Lord, in thee have I trusted, let me never be confounded;" whereupon, suppressing the rest, they published, that the principal cham


that they may truly chant in their quires; Linguam nostram magnificabimus, labia nostra nobis sunt:" and that they who have long ago forsaken the truth of God, which is the touchstone, must now hold by the whetstone; and that their ancient pillar of lying wonders being decayed, they must now hold by lying slanders, and make their libels successors to their legend.

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vastest bodies, yet it consisteth of the smallest motes and portions; so, I say, it appeareth unto us in these two examples, that God hath given your majesty a rare sufficiency, both to compass and fathom the greatest matters, and to discern the least. And for matter of praise and commendation, which chiefly belongeth to goodness, we cannot but with great thankfulness profess, that your majesty, within the circle of one year of your reign, "infra orbem anni vertentis," hath endeavoured to unite your church, which was divided; to supply your nobility, which was diminished; and to ease your people in cases where they were burdened and oppressed.

It is well known to your majesty, excellent | Francis Goodwin, and that of the union; whereby, king, that the Emperors of Rome, for their better it seemeth unto us, the one of these being so subtle glory and ornament, did use in their titles the a question of law; and the other so high a cause additions of the countries and nations where they of estate, that, as the Scripture saith of the wisest had obtained victories; as "Germanicus, Britan- king, "that his heart was as the sands of the nicus," and the like. But after all those names, | sea;" which, though it be one of the largest and as in the higher place, followed the name of "pater patriæ," as the greatest name of all human honour, immediately preceding that name of Augustus; whereby they took themselves to express some affinity that they had, in respect of their office, with divine honour. Your majesty might, with good reason, assume to yourself many of those other names; as "Germanicus, Saxonicus, Britannicus, Francicus, Danicus, Gothicus," and others, as appertaining to you not by bloodshed, as they bare them, but by blood; your majesty's royal person being a noble confluence of streams and veins, wherein the royal blood of many kingdoms of Europe are met and united. But no name is more worthy of you, nor may more truly be ascribed unto you, than that name of father of your people, which you bear and express not in the formality of your style, but in the real course of your government. We ought not to say unto you, as was said to Julius Cæsar, "Quæ miremur, habemus; quæ laudemus, expectamus:" that we have already wherefore to admire you, and that now we expect somewhat for which to commend you; for we may, without suspicion of flattery, acknowledge, that we have found in your majesty great cause both of admiration and commendation. For great is the admiration, wherewith you have possessed us since this parliament began, in those two causes wherein we have had access unto you, and heard your voice; that of the return of Sir

In the last of these your high merits, that is, the ease and comfort of your people, doth fall out to be comprehended the message which I now bring unto your majesty, concerning the great grievance arising by the manifold abuses of purveyors, differing in some degree from most of the things wherein we deal and consult; for it is true, that the knights, citizens, and burgesses, in parliament assembled, are a representative body of your Commons and third estate; and in many matters, although we apply ourselves to perform the trust of those that chose us, yet it may be, we do speak much out of our own senses and discourses. But in this grievance, being of that nature whereunto the poor people is most exposed, and men of quality less, we shall most humbly desire your

majesty to conceive, that your majesty doth not | name; for instead of takers, they become taxers; hear our opinions or senses, but the very groans instead of taking provision for your majesty's and complaints themselves of your Commons, service, they tax your people "ad redimendam more truly and vively, than by representation. For there is no grievance in your kingdom so general, so continual, so sensible, and so bitter unto the common subject, as this whereof we now speak; wherein it may please your majesty to vouchsafe me leave, first, to set forth unto you the dutiful and respective carriage of our proceeding; next, the substance of our petition; and, thirdly, some reasons and motives which in all humbleness we do offer to your majesty's royal consideration or commiseration; we assuring ourselves that never king reigned that had better notions of head, and motions of heart, for the good and comfort of his loving subjects.

vexationem:" imposing upon them, and extorting from them, divers sums of money, sometimes in gross, sometimes in the nature of stipends annually paid, "ne noceant," to be freed and eased of their oppression. Again, they take trees, which by law they cannot do; timber trees, which are the beauty, countenance, and shelter of men's houses; that men have long spared from their own purse and profit; that men esteem, for their use and delight, above ten times the value; that are a loss which men cannot repair or recover. These do they take, to the defacing and spoiling of your subjects' mansions and dwellings, except they may be compounded with to their own appetites. And if a gentleman be too hard for them while he is at home, they will watch their time when there is but a bailiff or a servant remaining, and put the axe to the root of the tree, ere ever the master can stop it. Again, they use a strange and most unjust exaction, in causing the subjects to pay poundage of their own debts, due from your majesty unto them; so as a

or his poultry, which perchance he was full loath to part with, and had for the provision of his own family, and not to put to sale, taken from him, and that not at a just price, but under the value, and cometh to receive his money, he shall have after the rate of twelve pence in the pound abated for poundage of his due payment, upon so hard conditions. Nay, farther, they are grown to that extremity, as is affirmed, though it be scarce credible, save that in such persons all things are

For the first in the course of remedy which we desire, we pretend not, nor intend not, in any sort, to derogate from your majesty's prerogative, nor to touch, diminish, or question any of your majesty's regalities or rights. For we seek nothing but the reformation of abuses, and the execution of former laws whereunto we are born. And although it be no strange thing in parliament for new abuses to crave new remedies, yet, never-poor man, when he hath had his hay, or his wood, theless, in these abuses, which, if not in nature, yet in extremity and height of them, are most of them new, we content ourselves with the old laws; only we desire a confirmation and quickening of them in their execution; so far are we from any humour of innovation or encroachment. As to the court of the green-cloth, ordained for the provision of your majesty's most honourable household, we hold it ancient, we hold it reverend. Other courts respect your politic person, but that respects your natural person. But yet, notwith-credible, that they will take double poundage, standing, most excellent king, to use that freedom which to subjects that pour out their griefs before so gracious a king, is allowable, we may very well allege unto your majesty a comparison or similitude used by one of the fathers* in another matter, and not unfitly representing our case in this point: and it is of the leaves and roots of nettles; the leaves are venomous and stinging where they touch; the root is not so, but is without venom or malignity; and yet it is that root that bears and supports all the leaves. This needs no farther application.

once when the debenture is made, and again the second time when the money is paid.

For the second point, most gracious sovereign, touching the quantity which they take, far above that which is answered to your majesty's use: they are the only multipliers in the world; they have the art of multiplication. For it is affirmed unto me by divers gentlemen of good report, and experience in these causes, as a matter which I may safely avouch before your majesty, to whom we owe all truth, as well of information as subjection, that there is no pound profit which redoundeth to your majesty in this course, but induceth and begetteth three pound damage upon your subjects, besides the discontentment. And to the end they may make their spoil more securely, what do they? Whereas divers statutes do strictly provide, that whatsoever they take, shall be registered and attested, to the end that, by making a collation of that which is taken from the country, and that which is answered above, their deceits might appear; they, to the end to For the first of these, I am a little to alter their obscure their deceits, utterly omit the observation of this, which the law prescribeth.

To come now to the substance of our petition. It is no other, than by the benefit of your majesty's laws to be relieved of the abuses of purveyors; which abuses do naturally divide themselves into three sorts; the first, they take in kind that they ought not to take; the second, they take in quantity a far greater proportion than cometh to your majesty's use; the third, they take in an unlawful manner; in a manner, I say, directly and expressly prohibited by divers laws.

St. Augustine.

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