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Before which time, also, there had been by good | him about the certainty of his reward. Andrada diligence intercepted other letters, whereby the having received those instructions, and being fursaid Andrada advertised Mendoza, that he had nished with money, by Lopez's procurement, won Dr. Lopez to the king's service: but Lopez from Don Antonio, about whose service his. having understanding thereof, and finding means employment was believed to be, went over to to have secret conference with Andrada before his Calais, where he remained to be near unto Engexamination, persuaded with him to take the land and Flanders, having a boy that ordinarily matter upon himself, as if he had invented that passed to and fro between him and Lopez: by advertisement touching Lopez, only to procure whom he did also, the better to colour his employ-. himself credit with Mendoza; and to make him ment, write to Lopez intelligence, as it was conceive well of his industry and service. And agreed he should between him and Lopez; who to move him hereunto, Lopez set before Andrada, bade him send such news as he should take up in that if he did excuse him, he should have credit the streets. From Calais he writeth to Count de to work his delivery: whereas, if he did impeach Fuentes of Lopez's promise and demands. Upon him, he was not like to find any other means of the receipt of which letters, after some time taken favour. By which subtle persuasion Andrada, to advertise this proposition into Spain, and to when he came to be examined, answered accord- receive direction thereupon, the Count de Fuentes ing to the direction and lessoning which Lopez associated with Stephano Ibarra, secretary of the had given him. And having thus acquitted him-council of the wars in the Low Countries, calleth self of this suspicion, became suitor for Andrada's delivery, craftily suggesting, that he was to do some notable service to Don Antonio; in which his suit he accordingly prevailed. When Lopez had thus got Andrada out of prison, he was suffered to go out of the realm into Spain; in pretence, as was said, to do some service to Don Antonio; but, in truth, to continue Lopez's negotiation and intelligences with the King of Spain, which he handled so well, as at his return hither, for the comforting of the said Lopez, he brought to him from the king, besides thanks and words of encouragement, and an abrazo, which is the compliment of favour, a very good jewel, garnished with sundry stones of good value. This jewel, when Lopez had accepted, he cunningly cast with himself, that if he should offer it to her majesty first, he was assured she would not take it: next, that thereby he should lay her asleep, and make her secure of him for greater matters, according to the saying, “Fraus sibi fidem in parvis præstruit ut in magnis opprimat;" which accordingly he did, with protestations of his fidelity and her majesty, as a princess of magnanimity, not apt to fear or suspicion, returned it to him with gracious words.

After Lopez had thus abused her majesty, and had these trials of the fidelity of Andrada, they fell in conference, the matter being first moved by Andrada, as he that came freshly out of Spain, touching the empoisoning of the queen: which Lopez, who saw that matter of intelligence, without some such particular service, would draw no great reward from the King of Spain; such as a man that was not needy, but wealthy as he was, could find any taste in, assented unto. And to that purpose procured again this Andrada to be sent over, as well to advertise and assure this matter to the King of Spain and his ministers, namely, to the Count de Fuentes, assistant to the general of the King of Spain's forces in the Low Countries, as also to capitulate and contract with

to him one Manuel Louis Tinoco, a Portuguese, who had also followed King Antonio, and of whose good devotion he had had experience, in that he had conveyed unto him two severalpackets, wherewith he was trusted by the King Antonio for France. Of this Louis the firstreceived a corporal oath, with solemn ceremony, taking his hands between their hands, that he should keep secret that which should be imparted to him, and never reveal the same, though he should be apprehended and questioned here. This done, they acquaint him with the letters of Andrada, with whom they charge him to confer at Calais in his way, and to pass to Lopez into England, addressing him farther to Stephano Ferrera de Gama, and signifying unto the said Lopez withal, as from the king, that he gave no great credence to Andrada, as a person too slight to be used in a cause of so great weight: and therefore marvelled much that he heard nothing from Ferrera of this matter, from whom he had in former time been advertised in generality of Lopez's good affection to do him service. This Ferrera had been sometimes a man of great livelihood and wealth in Portugal, which he did forego in adhering to Don Antonio, and appeareth to be a man of capacity and practice; but hath some years since been secretly won to the service of the King of Spain, not travelling, nevertheless, to and fro, but residing as his lieger in England.

Manuel Louis, despatched with these instructions, and with all affectionate commendations from the count to Lopez, and with letters to Ferrera, took his journey first to Calais, where he conferred with Andrada; of whom receiving more ample information, together with a short ticket of credence to Lopez, that he was a person whom he might trust without scruple, came over into England, and first repaired to Ferrera, and acquainted him with the state of the business, who had before that time given some light unto Lopez, that he was not a stranger unto the prac

sions as he could devise, if any of these matters should come to light. And first he took his time to cast forth some general words afar off to her

tice between him and Andrada, wherewith, indeed, | touched before, as many starting holes and evaAndrada had in a sort acquainted him. And now, upon this new despatch and knowledge given to Lopez of the choice of Ferrera to continue that which Andrada had begun; he, to conform him-majesty, as asking her the question, Whether a self the better to the satisfaction of the King of Spain, and his ministers abroad, was content more fully to communicate with Ferrera, with whom, from that time forward, he meant singly and apertly to deal; and therefore cunningly forbore to speak with Manuel Louis himself; but concluded that Ferrera should be his only trunk, and all his dealings should pass through his hand, thinking thereby to have gone invisible.

Whereupon, he cast with himself, that it was not safe to use the mediation of Manuel Louis, who had been made privy to the matter, as some base carrier of letters; which letters also should be written in a cipher, not of alphabet, but of words; such as might, if they were opened, import no vehement suspicion. And, therefore, Manuel Louis was sent back with a short answer, and Lopez purveyed himself of a base fellow, a Portuguese called Gomez d'Avila, dwelling hard by Lopez's house, to convey his letters. After this messenger provided, it was agreed between Lopez and Ferrera, that letters should be sent to the Count de Fuentes, and Secretary Juarra, written and signed by Ferrera, for Lopez cautelously did forbear to write himself, but directed and indeed dictated word by word by Lopez himself. The contents thereof were, that Lopez was ready to execute that service to the king, which before had been treated, but required for his recompense the sum of 50,000 crowns, and assurance for the same.

These letters were written obscurely, as was touched, in terms of merchandise; to which obscurity when Ferrera excepted, Lopez answered, they knew his meaning by that which had passed before. Ferrera wrote also to Manuel Louis, but charged this Gomez to deliver the same letters unto him in the presence of Juarra; as also the letter to Juarra in the presence of Manuel Louis. And these letters were delivered to Gomez d'Avila to be carried to Brussels, and a passport procured, and his charges defrayed by Lopez. And Ferrera, the more to approve his industry, writ letters two several times, the one conveyed by Emanuel Pallacios, with the privity of Lopez, to Christophero Moro, a principal counsellor of the King of Spain, in Spain; signifying that Lopez was won to the King of Spain, and that he was ready to receive his commandment; and received a letter from the same Christophero Moro, in answer to one of these, which he showed unto Lopez. In the mean time Lopez, though a man, in semblance, of a heavy wit, yet indeed subtle of himself, as one trained in practice, and besides as wily as fear and covetousness could make him, thought to provide for himself, as was partly

deceiver might not be deceived? Whereof, her majesty not imagining these words tended to such end, as to warrant him colourably in this wretched conspiracy, but otherwise, of her own natural disposition bent to integrity and sincerity, uttered dislike and disallowance. Next, he thought he had wrought a great mystery in demanding the precise sum of 50,000 crowns, agreeing just with the sum of assignation or donation from Don Antonio; idly, and in that grossly imagining, that, if afterwards he should accept the same sum, he might excuse it, as made good by the King of Spain, in regard he desisted to follow and favour Don Antonio; whereupon the King of Spain was in honour tied not to see him a loser. Thirdly, in his conferences with Ferrera, when he was apposed upon the particular manner how he would poison her majesty, he purposely named unto him a syrup, knowing that her majesty never useth syrup; and therefore thinking that would prove a high point for his justification, if things should come in any question.

But all this while desirous after his prey, which he had in hope devoured, he did instantly importune Ferrera for the answering of his last despatch, finding the delay strange, and reiterating the protestations of his readiness to do the service, if he were assured of his money.

Now before the return of Gomez d'Avila into England, this Stephen Ferrera was discovered to have intelligence with the enemy; but so as the particular of his traffic and overtures appeared not, only it seemed there was great account made of that he managed: and thereupon he was committed to prison. Soon after arrived Gomez d'Avila, and brought letters only from Manuel Louis, by the name of Francisco de Thores; because, as it seemeth, the great persons on the other side had a contrary disposition to Lopez, and liked not to write by so base a messenger, but continued their course to trust and employ Manuel Louis himself, who in likelihood was retained till they might receive a full conclusion from Spain; which was not till about two months after. This Gomez was apprehended at his landing, and about him were found the letters aforesaid, written in jargon, or verbal cipher, but yet somewhat suspicious, in these words: "This bearer will tell you the price in which your pearls are esteemed, and in what resolution we rest about a little musk and amber, which I am determined to buy." Which words the said Manuel Louis afterward voluntarily confessed to be deciphered in this sort; That by the allowance of the pearls he meant, that the Count de Fuentes, and the secretary, did gladly accept the offer of Lopez to poison the queen, signified

by Ferrera's letter: and for the provision of amber confessions appear expressed in their own natural and musk, it was meant that the count looked shortly for a resolution from the King of Spain concerning a matter of importance, which was for burning of the Queen's ships; and another point tending to the satisfaction of their vindictive humour.

But while the sense of this former letter rested ambiguous, and that no direct particular was confessed by Ferrera, nor sufficient light given to ground any rigorous examination of him, cometh over Manuel Louis with the resolution from Spain; who first understanding of Ferrera's restraint, and therefore doubting how far things were discovered, to shadow the matter, like a cunning companion, gave advertisement of an intent he had to do service, and hereupon obtained a passport: but after his coming in, he made no haste to reveal any thing, but thought to dally and abuse in some other sort. And while the light was thus in the clouds, there was also intercepted a little ticket which Ferrera in prison had found means to write, in care to conceal Lopez, and to keep him out of danger, to give a caveat of staying all farther answers and advertisements in these causes. Whereupon, Lopez was first called in question.

But, in conclusion, this matter being with all assiduity and policy more and more pierced and mined into, first, there was won from Manuel Louis his letters from the Count de Fuentes and Secretary Juarra to Ferrera, in both which mention is made of the queen's death; in that of the count's, under the term of a commission; and in that of the secretary's, under the term of the great service, whereof should arise a universal benefit to the whole world. Also, the letters of credit written by Gonsalo Gomez, one to Pedro de Carrera, and the other to Juan Pallacio, to take up a sum of money by Manuel Louis, by the foresaid false name of Fr. de Thores; letters so large, and in a manner without limitation, as any sum by virtue thereof might be taken up: which letters were delivered to Louis by the Count de Fuentes's own hands, with directions to show them to Lopez for his assurance; a matter of God's secret working in staying the same, for thereupon rested only the execution of the fact of Lopez. Upon so narrow a point consisted the safety of her majesty's life, already sold by avarice to malice and ambition, but extraordinarily preserved by that watchman which never slumbereth. This same Manuel Louis, and Stephen Ferrera also, whereof the one managed the matter abroad, and the other resided here to give correspondence, never meeting after Manuel had returned, severally examined without torture or threatening, did in the end voluntarily and clearly confess the matters abovementioned, and in their confessions fully consent and concur, not only in substance, but in all points, particularities, and circumstances; which

language, testified and subscribed with their own hands; and in open assembly, at the arraignment of Lopez in the Guildhall, were by them confirmed and avouched to Lopez his face; and therewithal are extant, undefaced, the original letters from Count de Fuentes, Secretary Juarra, and the rest.

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And Lopez himself, at his first apprehension and examination, did indeed deny, and deny with deep and terrible oaths and execrations, the very conferences and treaties with Ferrera, or Andrada, about the empoisonment. And being demanded, if they were proved against him what he would say? he answered, That he would yield himself guilty of the fact intended. Nevertheless, being afterwards confronted by Ferrera, who constantly maintained to him all that he had said, reducing him to the times and places of the said conferences, he confessed the matter, as by his confession in writing, signed with his own hand, appeareth. But then he fell to that slender evasion, as his last refuge, that he meant only to cozen the King of Spain of the money: and in that he continued at his arraignment, when, notwithstanding, at the first he did retract his own confession: and yet being asked, whether he was drawn, either by means of torture, or promise of life, to make the same confession? he did openly testify that no such means were used towards him.

But the falsehood of this excuse, being an allegation that any traitor may use and provide for himself, is convicted by three notable proofs. The first, that he never opened this matter, neither unto her majesty, unto whom he had ordinary access, nor to any counsellor of state, to have permission to toll on, and inveigle these parties with whom he did treat, if it had been thought so convenient; wherein, percase, he had opportunity to have done some good service, for the farther discovery of their secret machinations against her majesty's life. The second, that he came too late to this shift; having first bewrayed his guilty conscience, in denying those treaties and conferences till they were evidently and manifestly proved to his face. The third, that in conferring with Ferrera about the manner of his assurance, he thought it better to have the money in the hands of such merchants as he should name in Antwerp, than to have it brought into England; declaring his purpose to be, after the fact done, speedily to fly to Antwerp, and there to tarry some time, and so to convey himself to Constantinople; where it is affirmed, that Don Salomon, a Jew in good credit, is Lopez his near kinsman, and that he is greatly favoured by the said Don Salomon: whereby it is evident that Lopez had cast his reckonings upon the supposition of the fact done.

Thus may appear, both how justly this Lopez* * Lopez was executed 7th June, 1591.

is condemned for the highest treason that can be imagined; and, how, by God's marvellous goodness, her majesty hath been preserved. And, surely, if a man do truly consider, it is hard to say, whether God hath done greater things by her majesty or for her: if you observe on the one side, how God hath ordained her government to break and cross the unjust ambition of the two mighty potentates, the King of Spain and the Bishop of Rome, never so straitly between themselves combined: and, on the other side, how mightily God hath protected her, both against foreign invasion and inward troubles, and singularly against the many secret conspiracies that have been made against her life; thereby declaring to the world

that he will indeed preserve that instrument which he hath magnified. But the corruptions of these times are wonderful, when that wars, which are the highest trials of right between princes, that acknowledge no superior jurisdiction, and ought to be prosecuted with all honour, shall be stained and infamed with such foul and inhuman practices. Wherein if so great a king hath been named, the rule of the civil law, which is a rule of common reason, must be remembered; " Frustra legis auxilium implorat, qui in legem committit." He that hath sought to violate the majesty royal, in the highest degree, cannot claim the pre-eminence thereof to be exempted from just imputation.

T2

TRACTS RELATING TO ENGLAND.

OF THE

TRUE GREATNESS

OF THE

KINGDOM OF BRITAIN.

TO KING JAMES.

-Fortunatos nimium sua si bona norint.

than they are, but rather, as by an instrument of art, helping the sense to take a true magnitude and dimension: therefore, I will use no hidden order, which is fitter for insinuations than sound proofs, but a clear and open order. First, by confuting the errors, or rather correcting the excesses of certain immoderate opinions, which ascribe too much to some points of greatness, which are not so essential, and by reducing those points to a true value and estimation: then by

greatness which are more solid and principal, though in popular discourse less observed: and incidently by making a brief application, in both these parts, of the general principles and positions of policy unto the state and condition of these your kingdoms. Of these the former part will branch itself into these articles.

THE greatness of kingdoms and dominions in bulk and territory doth fall under measure and demonstration that cannot err: but the just measure and estimate of the forces and power of an estate is a matter, than the which there is nothing among civil affairs more subject to error, nor that error more subject to perilous consequence. For hence may proceed many inconsiderate attempts, and insolent provocations in states that have too high an imagination of their own forces: and hence may proceed, on the other propounding and confirming those other points of side, a toleration of many fair grievances and indignities, and a loss of many opportunities, in states that are not sensible enough of their own strength. Therefore, that it may the better appear what greatness your majesty hath obtained of God, and what greatness this island hath obtained by you, and what greatness it is, that by the gracious pleasure of Almighty God you shall leave and transmit to your children and generations as the first founder; I have thought good, as far as I can comprehend, to make a true survey and representation of the greatness of this your kingdom of Britain; being for mine own part persuaded, that the supposed prediction, "Video solem orientem in occidente," may be no less a true vision applied to Britain, than to any other kingdom of Europe; and being out of doubt that none of the great monarchies, which in the memory of times have risen in the habitable world, had so fair seeds and beginnings as hath this your estate and kingdom, whatsoever the event shall be, which must depend upon the dispensation of God's will and providence, and his blessing upon your descendants. And because I have no purpose vainly or assentatorily to represent this greatness, as in water, which shows things bigger

First, That in the measuring or balancing of
greatness, there is commonly too much
ascribed to largeness of territory.
Secondly, That there is too much ascribed to
treasure or riches.

Thirdly, That there is too much ascribed to the
fruitfulness of the soil, or affluence of com-
modities.

And, fourthly, That there is too much ascribed to the strength and fortification of towns or holds. The latter will fall into this distribution: First, That true greatness doth require a fit situation of the place or region.

Secondly, That true greatness consisteth essen

tially in population and breed of men. Thirdly, That it consisteth also in the valour and military disposition of the people it breedeth and in this, that they make profession of arms.

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