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bodies with the earth, in respect of the distance, is more dull: the latter, because the body hath in part attained its nature when it is in some depth in the earth. For as for the moving to a point or place, which was the opinion of the ancients, it is a mere vanity.

Experiment solitary touching the contraction of bodies in bulk, by the mixture of the more liquid body with the more solid.

34. It is strange how the ancients took up experiments upon credit, and yet did build great matters upon them. The observation of some of the best of them, delivered confidently, is, that a vessel filled with ashes will receive the like quantity of water that it would have done if it had been empty. But this is utterly untrue, for the water will not go in by a fifth part. And I suppose, that that fifth part is the difference of the lying close, or open, of the ashes; as we see that ashes alone, if they be hard pressed, will lie in less room and so the ashes with air between, lie looser; and with water closer. For I have not yet found certainly, that the water itself, by mixture of ashes or dust, will shrink or draw into less room.

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the medicine, or by the quantity. The qualities are three; extreme bitter, as in aloes, coloquintida, &c. loathsome and of horrible taste, as in agaric, black hellebore, &c. and of secret malignity, and disagreement towards man's body, many times not appearing much in the taste, as in scammony, mechoachan, antimony, &c. And note well, that if there be any medicine that purgeth, and hath neither of the first two manifest qualities, it is to be held suspected as a kind of poison; for that it worketh either by corrosion, or by a secret malignity, and enmity to nature; and therefore such medicines are warily to be prepared and used. The quantity of that which is taken doth also cause purging; as we see in a great quantity of new milk from the cow; yea and a great quantity of meat; for surfeits many times turn to purges, both upwards and downwards. Therefore we see generally, that the working of purging medicines cometh two or three hours after the medicines taken: for that the stomach first maketh a proof whether it can concoct them. And the like happeneth after surfeits, or milk in too great quantity.

37. A second cause is mordication of the orifices of the parts; especially of the mesentery veins; as it is seen, that salt, or any such thing that is Experiment solitary touching the making vines sharp and biting, put in the fundament, doth pro

more fruitful.

35. It is reported of credit, that if you lay good store of kernels of grapes about the root of a vine, it will make the vine come earlier and prosper better. It may be tried with other kernels laid about the root of a plant of the same kind; as figs, kernels of apples, &c. The cause may be, for that the kernels draw out of the earth juice fit to nourish the tree, as those that would be trees of themselves, though there were no root; but the root being of greater strength robbeth and devoureth the nourishment, when they have drawn it: as great fishes devour little.

voke the part to expel; and mustard provoketh sneezing: and any sharp thing to the eyes provoketh tears. And therefore we see that almost all purgers have a kind of twitching and vellication, besides the griping which cometh of wind. And if this mordication be in an over-high degree, it is little better than the corrosion of poison; and it cometh to pass sometimes in antimony, especially if it be given to bodies not replete with huinours; for where humours abound, the humours save the parts.

38. The third cause is attraction: for I do not deny, but that purging medicines have in them a direct force of attraction: as drawing plaisters Experiments in consort touching purging medi- have in surgery: and we see sage or betony

cines.

bruised, sneezing powder, and other powders, or liquors, which the physicians call "errhines," put into the nose, draw phlegm and water from the head; and so it is in apophlegmatisms and gargarisms, that draw the rheum down by the palate. And by this virtue, no doubt, some pur

36. The operation of purging medicines and the causes thereof, have been thought to be a great secret; and so according to the slothful manner of men, it is referred to a hidden propriety, a specifical virtue, and a fourth quality, and the like shifts of ignorance. The causes of purg-gers draw more one humour, and some another, ing are divers: all plain and perspicuous, and thoroughly maintained by experience. The first is, that whatsoever cannot be overcome and digested by the stomach, is by the stomach either put up by vomit, or put down to the guts; and by that motion of expulsion in the stomach and guts, other parts of the body, as the orifices of the veins, and the like, are moved to expel by consent. For nothing is more frequent than motion of consent in the body of man. This surcharge of the stomach is caused either by the quality of

according to the opinion received: as rhubarb draweth choler; sena melancholy; agaric phlegm, &c. but yet, more or less, they draw promiscuously. And note also, that besides sympathy between the purger and the humour, there is also another cause why some medicines draw some humour more than another. And it is, for that some medicines work quicker than others: and they that draw quick, draw only the lighter and more fluid humours; and they that draw slow, work upon the more tough and viscous humours. B

And therefore men must beware how they take rhubarb, and the like, alone familiarly; for it taketh only the lightest part of the humour away, and leaveth the mass of humours more obstinate. And the like may be said of wormwood, which is so much magnified.

39. The fourth cause is flatuosity; for wind stirred moveth to expel: and we find that in effect all purgers have in them a raw spirit or wind; which is the principal cause of tortion in the stomach and belly. And therefore purgers lose, most of them, the virtue by decoction upon the fire; and for that cause are given chiefly in infusion, juice, or powder.

40. The fifth cause is compression or crushing; as when water is crushed out of a sponge: so we see that taking cold moveth looseness by contraction of the skin and outward parts; and so doth cold likewise cause rheums, and defluxions from the head; and some astringent plaisters crush out purulent matter. This kind of operation is not found in many medicines; myrobolanes have it; and it may be the barks of peaches; for this virtue requireth an astriction; but such an astriction as is not grateful to the body; for a pleasing astriction doth rather bind in the humours than expel them: and therefore, such astriction is found in things of a harsh taste.

are well digested of the stomach, and well received also of the mesentery veins; so they come as far as the liver, which sendeth urine to the bladder, as the whey of blood: and those medicines being opening and piercing do fortify the operation of the liver, in sending down the wheyey part of the blood to the reins. For medicines urinative do not work by rejection and indigestion, as solutive do.

44. There be divers medicines, which in greater quantity move stool, and in smaller urine: and so contrariwise, some that in greater quantity move urine, and in smaller stool. Of the former sort is rhubarb, and some others. The cause is, for that rhubarb is a medicine which the stomach in a small quantity doth digest and overcome, being not flatuous nor loathsome, and so sendeth it to the mesentery veins; and so being opening, it helpeth down urine: but in a greater quantity, the stomach cannot overcome it, and so it goeth to the guts. Pepper by some of the ancients is noted to be of the second sort; which being in small quantity, moveth wind in the stomach and guts, and so expelleth by stool; but being in greater quantity, dissipateth the wind; and itself getteth to the mesentery veins, and so to the liver and reins; where, by heating and opening, it sendeth down urine more plentifully.

Experiments in consort touching meats and drinks that are most nourishing.

41. The sixth cause is lubrefaction and relaxation. As we see in medicines emollient; such as are milk, honey, mallows, lettuce, mercurial, pellitory of the wall, and others. There is also 45. We have spoken of evacuating of the body; a secret virtue of relaxation in cold: for the heat we will now speak something of the filling of it, of the body bindeth the parts and humours to- by restoratives in consumptions and emaciating gether, which cold relaxeth: as it is seen in urine, diseases. In vegetables, there is one part that is blood, pottage, or the like; which, if they be more nourishing than another; as grains and roots cold, break and dissolve. And by this kind of nourish more than the leaves; insomuch as the relaxation, fear looseneth the belly: because the order of the Foliatanes was put down by the pope, heat retiring inwards towards the heart, the guts, as finding leaves unable to nourish man's body. and other parts are relaxed; in the same manner Whether there be that difference in the flesh of as fear also causeth trembling in the sinews. living creatures is not well inquired, as whether And of this kind of purgers are some medicines | livers, and other entrails be not more nourishing made of mercury.

42. The seventh cause is abstersion; which is plainly a scouring off, or incision of the more viscous humours, and making the humours more fluid; and cutting between them and the part; as is found in nitrous water, which scoureth linen cloth speedily from the foulness. But this incision must be by a sharpness, without astriction: which we find in salt, wormwood, oxymel, and the like. 43. There be medicines that move stools, and not urine; some other, urine, and not stools. Those that purge by stool are such as enter not at all, or little, into the mesentery vein: but either at the first are not digestible by the stomach, and therefore move immediately downwards to the guts; or else are afterwards rejected by the mesentery veins, and so turn likewise downwards to the guts; and of these two kinds are most purgers. But those that move urine are such as

than the outward flesh. We find that amongst the Romans, a goose's liver was a great delicacy; insomuch as they had artificial means to make it fair and great; but whether it were more nourishing appeareth not. It is certain, that marrow is more nourishing than fat. And I conceive that some decoction of bones and sinews, stamped and well strained, would be a very nourishing broth: we find also that Scotch skinck, which is a pottage of strong nourishment, is made with the knees and sinews of beef, but long boiled: jelly also, which they use for a restorative, is chiefly made of knuckles of veal. The pulp that is within the crawfish or crab, which they spice and butter, is more nourishing than the flesh of the crab or crawfish. The yolks of eggs are clearly more nourishing than the whites. So that it should seem, that the parts of living creatures that lie more inwards, nourish more than the outward

flesh; except it be the brain: which the spirits prey too much upon, to leave it any great virtue of nourishing. It seemeth for the nourishing of aged men, or men in consumptions, some such thing should be devised, as should be half chylus, before it be put into the stomach.

50. Pistachoes, so they be good, and not musty, joined with almonds in almond milk; or made into a milk of themselves, like unto almond milk, but more green, are an excellent nourisher: but you shall do well to add a little ginger, scraped, because they are not without some subtile windiness.

46. Take two large capons; parboil them upon a soft fire, by the space of an hour or more, till in effect all the blood is gone. Add in the decoction the pill of a sweet leinon, or a good part of the pill of a citron, and a little mace. Cut off the shanks, and throw them away. Then with a good strong chopping-knife mince the two capons, bones and all, as small as ordinary minced meat; put them into a large neat boulter; then take a kilderkin sweet and well seasoned, of four gallons of beer, of 8s. strength, new as it cometh from the tunning: make in the kilderkin a great bung-hole of purpose: then thrust into it the boulter, in which the capons are, drawn out in length; let it steep in it three days and three nights, the bung-hole open to work, then close the bung-hole, and so let it continue a day and half; then draw it into bottles, and you may drink it well after three days' bottling; and it will last six weeks: approved. It drinketh fresh, flowereth and mantleth exceedingly; it drinketh not newish at all; it is an excellent drink for a consumption, to be drunk either alone, or carded with some other beer. It quench-cept it be in infants, to whom it is natural. eth thirst, and hath no whit of windiness. Note, that it is not possible, that meat and bread, either in broths, or taken with drink, as is used, should get forth into the veins and outward parts so finely and easily as when it is thus incorporate, and made almost a chylus aforehand.

51. Milk warm from the cow is found to be a great nourisher, and a good remedy in consumptions: but then you must put into it, when you milk the cow, two little bags; the one of powder of mint, the other of powder of red roses; for they keep the milk somewhat from turning or curdling in the stomach; and put in sugar also, for the same cause, and hardly for the taste's sake; but you must drink a good draught, that it may stay less time in the stomach, lest it curdle: and let the cup into which you milk the cow, be set in a greater cup of hot water, that you may take it warm. And cow milk thus prepared, I judge to be better for a consumption than ass milk, which, it is true, turneth not so easily, but it is a little harsh; marry it is more proper for sharpness of urine, and exulceration of the bladder, and all manner of lenifying. Woman's milk likewise is prescribed, when all fail; but I commend it not, as being a little too near the juice of man's body, to be a good nourisher; ex

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47. Trial would be made of the like brew with potatoe roots, or burr roots, or the pith of artichokes, which are nourishing meats: it may be tried also with other flesh; as pheasant, partridge, young pork, pig, venison, especially of young deer, &c.

48. A mortress made with the brawn of capons, stamped and strained, and mingled, after it is made, with like quantity, at the least, of almond butter, is an excellent meat to nourish those that are weak; better than blanckmanger, or jelly: and so is the cullice of cocks, boiled thick with the like mixture of almond butter; for the mortress or cullice, of itself, is more savoury and strong, and not so fit for nourishing of weak bodies; but the almonds, that are not of so high a taste as flesh, do excellently qualify it.

49. Indian maiz hath, of certain, an excellent spirit of nourishment; but it must be throughly boiled, and made into a maiz-cream like a barleycream. I judge the same of rice, made into a cream; for rice is in Turkey, and other countries of the east, most fed upon; but it must be thoroughly boiled in respect of the hardness of it, and also because otherwise it bindeth the body too much.

52. Oil of sweet almonds, newly drawn, with sugar and a little spice, spread upon bread toasted, is an excellent nourisher: but then to keep the oil from frying in the stomach, you must drink a good draught of mild beer after it; and to keep it from relaxing the stomach too much, you must put in a little powder of cinnamon.

53. The yolks of eggs are of themselves so well prepared by nature for nourishment, as, so they be poached, or reare boiled, they need no other preparation or mixture; yet they may be taken also raw, when they are new laid, with Malmsey, or sweet wine: you shall do well to put in some few slices of eryngium roots, and a little ambergrice; for by this means, besides the immediate faculty of nourishment, such drink will strengthen the back, so that it will not draw down the urine too fast; for too much urine doth always hinder nourishment.

54. Mincing of meat, as in pies, and buttered minced meat, saveth the grinding of the teeth; and therefore, no doubt, it is more nourishing, especially in age, or to them that have weak teeth; but the butter is not so proper for weak bodies; and therefore it were good to moisten it with a little claret wine, pill of lemon or orange, cut small, sugar, and a very little cinnamon or nutmeg. As for chuets, which are likewise minced meat, instead of butter and fat, it were good to moisten them, partly with cream, or almond, or pistacho milk: or barley, or maiz-cream; adding a little coriander seed and caraway seed, and a

very little saffron. The more full handling of that the spirits do less spend the nourishment in alimentation we reserve to the due place.

sleep, than when living creatures are awake, and because, that which is to the present purpose, it helpeth to thrust out the nourishment into the parts. Therefore in aged men, and weak bodies, and such as abound not with choler, a short sleep

bodies there is no fear of an over-hasty digestion, which is the inconvenience of postmeridian sleeps. Sleep also in the morning, after the taking of somewhat of easy digestion, as milk from the cow, nourishing broth, or the like, doth further nourishment: but this would be done sitting upright, that the milk or broth may pass the more speedily to the bottom of the stomach.

We have hitherto handled the particulars which yield best, and easiest, and plentifullest nourishment; and now we will speak of the best means of conveying and converting the nourishment. 55. The first means is to procure that the nourish-after dinner doth help to nourish; for in such ment may not be robbed and drawn away; wherein that which we have already said is very material; to provide that the reins draw not too strongly an over great part of the blood into urine. To this add that precept of Aristotle, that wine be forborne in all consumptions; for that the spirits of the wine do prey upon the roscid juice of the body, and inter-common with the spirits of the body, and so deceive and rob them of their nourish- 58. The fourth means is, to provide that the ment. And therefore, if the consumption, grow- parts themselves may draw to them the nourishing from the weakness of the stomach, do force ment strongly. There is an excellent observation you to use wine, let it always be burnt, that the of Aristotle; that a great reason, why plants, quicker spirits may evaporate; or, at the least, some of them, are of greater age than living creaquenched with two little wedges of gold, six or tures, is, for that they yearly put forth new leaves seven times repeated. Add also this provision, and boughs: whereas living creatures put forth that there be not too much expense of the nourish-after their period of growth, nothing that is young, ment, by exhaling and sweating; and therefore if but hair and nails, which are excrements, and no the patient be apt to sweat, it must be gently re-parts. And it is most certain, that whatsoever is strained. But chiefly Hippocrates's rule is to be young, doth draw nourishment better than that followed, who adviseth quite contrary to that which is old; and then, that which is the mystewhich is in use: namely, that the linen or gar-ry of that observation, young boughs, and leaves, ment next the flesh be, in winter, dry and oft changed; and in summer seldom changed, and smeared over with oil; for certain it is, that any substance that is fat, doth a little fill the pores of the body, and stay sweat in some degree: but the more cleanly way is, to have the linen smeared lightly over with oil of sweet almonds; and not to forbear shifting as oft as is fit.

calling the sap up to them, the same nourisheth the body in the passage. And this we see notably proved also, in that the oft cutting, or polling of hedges, trees, and herbs, doth conduce much to their lasting. Transfer therefore this observation to the helping of nourishment in living creatures: the noblest and principal use whereof is, for the prolongation of life; restoration of some degree 56. The second means is, to send forth the nou- of youth, and inteneration of the parts; for certain rishment into the parts more strongly; for which it is, that there are in living creatures parts that the working must be by strengthening of the nourish and repair easily, and parts that nourish stomach; and in this, because the stomach is and repair hardly; and you must refresh and renew chiefly comforted by wine and hot things, which those that are easy to nourish, that the other may otherwise hurt, it is good to resort to outward ap- be refreshed, and as it were, drink in nourishment plications to the stomach: Wherein it hath been in the passage. Now we see that draught oxen, tried, that the quilts of roses, spices, mastic, worm-put into good pasture, recover the flesh of young wood, mint, &c. are nothing so helpful, as to take a cake of new bread, and to bedew it with a little sack, or Alicant, and to dry it, and after it be dried a little before the fire, to put it within a clean napkin, and to lay it to the stomach; for it is certain, that all flour hath a potent virtue of astriction; in so much as it hardeneth a piece of flesh, or a flower, that is laid in it: and therefore a bag quilted with bran is likewise very good; but it drieth somewhat too much, and therefore it must not lie long.

57. The third means, which may be a branch of the former, is to send forth the nourishment the better by sleep. For we see, that bears, and other creatures that sleep in the winter, wax exceeding fat and certain it is, as it is commonly believed, that sleep doth nourish much, both for

beef; and men after long emaciating diets wax
plump and fat, and almost new: so that you may
surely conclude, that the frequent and wise use
of those emaciating diets, and of purgings, and
perhaps of some kind of bleeding, is a principal
means of prolongation of life, and restoring some
degree of youth; for as we have often said, death
cometh upon living creatures like the torment of
Mezentius:

Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis
Componens manibusque manus, atque oribus ora.
En. viii. 485.

For the parts in man's body easily reparable, as
spirits, blood, and flesh, die in the embracement
of the parts hardly reparable, as bones, nerves, and
membranes; and likewise some entrails, which
they reckon amongst the spermatical parts, are

hard to repair: though that division of spermati- | hath been said. Ordinary keepers of the sick of cal and menstrual parts be but a conceit. And the plague are seldom infected. Enduring of this same observation also may be drawn to the present purpose of nourishing emaciated bodies: and therefore gentle frication draweth forth the nourishment, by making the parts a little hungry, and heating them; whereby they call forth nourishment the better. This frication I wish to be done in the morning. It is also best done by the hand, or a piece of scarlet wool, wet a little with the oil of almonds, mingled with a small quantity of bay-salt, or saffron: we see that the very currying of horses doth make them fat, and in good liking.

59. The fifth means is, to further the very act of assimilation of nourishment; which is done by some outward emolliments, that make the parts more apt to assimilate. For which I have compounded an ointment of excellent odour, which I call Roman ointment; vide the receipt. The use of it would be between sleeps; for in the latter sleep the parts assimilate chiefly. Experiment solitary touching" Filum medicinale."

tortures, by custom, hath been made more easy: the brooking of enormous quantity of meats, and so of wine or strong drink, hath been, by custom, made to be without surfeit or drunkenness. And generally, diseases that are chronical, as coughs, phthisics, some kinds of palsies, lunacies, &c. are most dangerous at the first: therefore a wise physician will consider whether a disease be incurable; or whether the just cure of it be not full of peril; and if he find it to be such, let him resort to palliation; and alleviate the symptom, without busying himself too much with the perfect cure: and many times, if the patient be indeed patient, that course will exceed all expectation. Likewise the patient himself may strive, by little and little, to overcome the symptom in the acerbation, and so, by time, turn suffering into nature.

Experiment solitary touching cure by excess.

62. Divers diseases, especially chronical, such as quartan agues, are sometimes cured by surfeit and excesses: as excess of meat, excess of drink, extraordinary stirring or lassitude, and the like. The cause is, for that diseases of continuance get an adventitious strength from custom, besides their material cause from the humours; so that the breaking of the custom doth leave them only to their first cause; which if it be any thing weak will fall off. Besides, such excesses do excite and spur nature, which thereupon rises more forcibly against the disease.

Experiment solitary touching cure by motion of

consent.

63. There is in the body of man a great consent in the motion of the several parts. We see, it is children's sport, to prove whether they can rub upon their breast with one hand, and pat upon their forehead with another; and straightways they shall sometimes rub with both hands, or pat with both hands. We see, that when the spirits that come to the nostrils expel a bad scent, the

60. There be many medicines, which by themselves would do no cure, but perhaps hurt; but being applied in a certain order, one after another, do great cures. I have tried, myself, a remedy for the gout, which hath seldom failed, but driven it away in twenty-four hours space: it is first to apply a poultis, of which vide the receipt, and then a bath, or fomentation, of which vide the receipt; and then a plaister, vide the receipt. The poultis relaxeth the pores, and maketh the humour apt to exhale. The fomentation calleth forth the humour by vapours; but yet in regard of the way made by the poultis, draweth gently; and therefore draweth the humour out, and doth not draw more to it; for it is a gentle fomentation, and hath withal a mixture, though very little, of some stupefactive. The plaister is a moderate astringent plaister, which repelleth new humour from falling. The poultis alone would make the part more soft and weak, and apter to take the defluxion and impression of the humour. The fomen-stomach is ready to expel by vomit. We find tation alone, if it were too weak, without way made by the poultis, would draw forth little; if too strong, it would draw to the part, as well as draw from it. The plaister alone would pen the humour already contained in the part, and so exasperate it, as well as forbid new humour. Therefore they must be all taken in order, as is said. The poultis is to be laid to for two or three hours: the fomentation for a quarter of an hour, or somewhat better, being used hot, and seven or eight times repeated: the plaister to continue on still, till the part be well confirmed.

Experiment solitary touching cure by custom. 61. There is a secret way of cure, unpractised, by assuetude of that which in itself hurteth. Poisons have been made, by some, familiar, as VOL. II.-3

that in consumptions of the lungs, when nature cannot expel by cough, men fall into fluxes of the belly, and then they die. So in pestilent diseases, if they cannot be expelled by sweat, they fall likewise into looseness; and that is commonly mortal. Therefore physicians should ingeniously contrive, how, by emotions that are in their power, they may excite inward motions that are not in their power: as by the stench of feathers, or the like, they cure the rising of the mother. Experiment solitary touching cure of diseases which

are contrary to predisposition. 64. Hippocrates's aphorism, "in morbis minus,' is a good profound aphorism. It importeth, that diseases, contrary to the complexion, age, sex, season of the year, diet, &c. are more dangerous than

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