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with straw to keep them from cold. They remove | incorporation doth make the mixture of the body them also, which addeth some life: and by these more equal in all the parts; which ever induceth helps they become as good in England, as in Italy a milder taste. or Provence. These, and the like means, may

be tried in tobacco. Inquire also of the steeping Experiment solitary touching flesh edible, and not of the roots in some such liquor as may give them vigour to put forth strong.

edible.

859. Of fleshes, some are edible; some, exFor those that are

Experiment solitary touching several heats working cept it be in famine, not.

the same effects.

856. Heat of the sun for the maturation of fruits; yea, and the heat of vivification of living creatures, are both represented and supplied by the heat of fire; and likewise the heats of the sun, and life, are represented one by the other. Trees set upon the backs of chimneys do ripen fruit sooner. Vines, that have been drawn in at the window of a kitchen, have sent forth grapes ripe a month at least before others. Stoves at the back of walls bring forth oranges here with us. Eggs, as is reported by some, have been hatched in the warmth of an oven. It is reported by the ancients, that the ostrich layeth her eggs under sand, where the heat of the sun discloseth them.

Experiment solitary touching swelling and dilata tion in boiling.

857. Barley in the boiling swelleth not much;

wheat swelleth more; rice extremely, insomuch as a quarter of a pint, unboiled, will arise to a pint boiled. The cause no doubt is, for that the more close and compact the body is, the more it will dilate now barley is the most hollow; wheat more solid than that; and rice most solid of all. It may be also that some bodies have a kind of lentour, and more depertible nature than others; as we see it evident in colouration; for a small quantity of saffron will tinct more than a very great quantity of brasil or wine.

not edible, the cause is, for that they have commonly too much bitterness of taste; and therefore those creatures which are fierce and choleric are not edible; as lions, wolves, squirrels, dogs, foxes, horses, &c. As for kine, sheep, goats, deer, swine, conies, hares, &c., we see they are mild and fearful. Yet it is true, that horses, which are beasts of courage, have been, and are eaten by some nations; as the Scythians were called Hippophagi; and the Chinese eat horse-flesh at this day; and some gluttons have used to have colts'-flesh baked. In birds, such as are carnivore, and birds of prey, are commonly no good meat, but the reason is, rather the choleric nature of those birds, than their feeding upon flesh: for pewets, gulls, shovellers, ducks, do feed upon flesh, and yet are good meat. And we see that those birds which when they are very young; as hawks, rooks out are of prey, or feed upon flesh, are good meat

of the nest, owls, &c. Man's flesh is not eaten. The reasons are three first, because men in

humanity do abhor it: secondly, because no living creature that dieth of itself is good to eat: and therefore the cannibals themselves eat no man's flesh of those that die of themselves, but of such as are slain. The third is, because there nourishment and the body nourished; and they must be generally some disparity between the must not be over-near, or like: yet we see, that in great weaknesses and consumptions, men have Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of been sustained with woman's milk; and Faci

fruits.

858. Fruit groweth sweet by rolling, or pressing them gently with the hand; as rolling pears, damascenes, &c.: by rottenness; as medlars, services, sloes, hips, &c.: by time; as apples, wardens, pomegranates, &c.: by certain special maturations; as by laying them in hay, straw, &c. and by fire; as in roasting, stewing, baking, &c. The cause of the sweetness by rolling and pressing, is emollition, which they properly induce; as in beating of stock-fish, flesh, &c.: by rottenness is, for that the spirits of the fruit by putrefaction gather heat, and thereby digest the harder part, for in all putrefactions there is a degree of heat: by time and keeping is, because the spirits of the body do ever feed upon the tangible parts, and attenuate them: by several maturations is, by some degree of heat and by fire is, because it is the proper work of heat to refine, and to incorporate; and all sourness consisteth in some grossness of the body; and all

nus, fondly, as I conceive, adviseth, for the prolongation of life, that a vein be opened in the arm of some wholesome young man, and the blood to be sucked. It is said that witches do greedily eat man's flesh; which if it be true, besides a devilish appetite in them, it is likely to proceed, for that man's flesh may send up high and pleasing vapours, which may stir the imagination; and witches' felicity is chiefly in imagination, as hath been said.

Experiment solitary touching the salamander. 860. There is an ancient received tradition of the salamander, that it liveth in the fire, and hath force also to extinguish the fire. It must have two things, if it be true, to this operation: the one a very close skin, whereby flame, which in the midst is not so hot, cannot enter; for we see that if the palm of the hand be anointed thick with white of egg, and then aqua vitae be poured upon it, and inflamed, yet one may endure the

flame a pretty while. The other is some extreme cold and quenching virtue in the body of that creature, which choketh the fire. We see that milk quencheth wildfire better than water, because it entereth better.

Experiment solitary touching the contrary operations of time upon fruits and liquors.

more in wine than in water. The cause may be trivial: namely, by the expense of the liquor, in regard some may stick to the sides of the bottles: but there may be a cause more subtile; which is, that the liquor in the vessel is not so much compressed as in the bottle; because in the vessel the liquor meeteth with liquor chiefly; but in the bottles a small quantity of liquor meeteth with the sides of the bottles, which compress it so that it doth not open again.

upon air contiguous.

861. Time doth change fruit, as apples, pears, pomegranates, &c., from more sour to more sweet: but contrariwise liquors, even those that are of the juice of fruit, from more sweet to more sour: Experiment solitary touching the working of water as wort, musted, new verjuice, &c. The cause is, the congregation of the spirits together for in both kinds the spirit is attenuated by time; but in the first kind it is more diffused, and more mastered by the grosser parts, which the spirits do but digest: but in drinks the spirits do reign, and finding less opposition of the parts, become themselves more strong; which causeth also more strength in the liquor; such as if the spirits be of the hotter sort, the liquor becometh apt to burn: but in time, it causeth likewise, when the higher spirits are evaporated, more sourness.

Experiment solitary touching blows and bruises. 862. It hath been observed by the ancients, that plates of metal, and especially of brass, applied presently to a blow, will keep it down from swelling. The cause is repercussion, without humectation or entrance of any body: for the plate hath only a virtual cold, which doth not search into the hurt; whereas all plasters and ointments do enter. Surely, the cause that blows and bruises induce swellings is, for that the spirits resorting to succour the part that laboureth, draw also the humours with them: for we see, that it is not the repulse and the return of the humour in the part strucken that causeth it; for that gouts and toothaches cause swelling, where there is no percussion at all.

Experiment solitary touching the orrice root. 863. The nature of the orrice root is almost singular; for there be few odoriferous roots; and in those that are in any degree sweet, it is but the same sweetness with the wood or leaf: but the orrice is not sweet in the leaf; neither is the flower any thing so sweet as the root. The root seemeth to have a tender dainty heat; which when it cometh above ground to the sun and the air, vanisheth for it is a great mollifier; and hath a smell like a violet.

865. Water, being contiguous with air, cooleth it, but moisteneth it not, except it vapour. The cause is, for that heat and cold have a virtual transition, without communication of substance; but moisture not: and to all madefaction there is required an imbibition: but where the bodies are of such several levity and gravity as they mingle not, there can follow no imbibition. And therefore, oil likewise lieth at the top of the water, without commixture: and a drop of water running swiftly over a straw or smooth body, wetteth not..

Experiment solitary touching the nature of air.

866. Starlight nights, yea, and bright moonshine nights, are colder than cloudy nights. The cause is, the dryness and fineness of the air, which thereby becometh more piercing and sharp; and therefore great continents are colder than islands: and as for the moon, though itself inclineth the air to moisture, yet when it shineth bright, it argueth the air is dry. Also close air is warmer than open air; which, it may be, is, for that the true cause of cold is an expiration from the globe of the earth, which in open places is stronger; and again, air itself, if it be not altered by that expiration, is not without some secret degree of heat; as it is not likewise without some secret degree of light: for otherwise cats and owls could not see in the night; but that air hath a little light, proportionable to the visual spirits of those creatures.

Experiments in consort touching the eyes and sight.

867. The eyes do move one and the same way; for when one eye moveth to the nostril, the other moveth from the nostril. The cause is, motion of consent, which in the spirits and parts spiritual is strong. But yet use will induce the contrary; for some can squint when they will and the common tradition is, that if children be set upon

Experiment solitary touching the compression of a table with a candle behind them, both eyes will

liquors.

864. It hath been observed by the ancients, that a great vessel full, drawn into bottles, and then the liquor put again into the vessel, will not fill the vessel again so full as it was, but that it may take in more liquor: and that this holdeth

move outwards, as affecting to see the light, and so induce squinting.

868. We see more exquisitely with one eye shut, than with both open. The cause is, for that the spirits visual unite themselves more, and so become stronger. For you may see, by looking

in a glass, that when you shut one eye, the pupil | blushing, it is true the spirits ascend likewise to of the other eye that is open dilateth.

869. The eyes, if the sight meet not in one angle, see things double. The cause is, for that seeing two things, and seeing one thing twice, worketh the same effect: and therefore a little pellet held between two fingers laid across, seemeth double.

870. Poreblind men see best in the dimmer lights and likewise have their sight stronger near hand, than those that are not poreblind; and can read and write smaller letters. The cause is, for that the spirits visual in those that are poreblind, are thinner and rarer than in others; and therefore the greater light disperseth them. For the same cause they need contracting; but being contracted, are more strong than the visual spirits of ordinary eyes are; as when we see through a level, the sight is the stronger; and so is it when you gather the eyelids somewhat close: and it is commonly seen in those that are poreblind, that they do much gather the eyelids together. But old men, when they would see to read, put the paper somewhat afar off: the cause is, for that old men's spirits visual, contrary to those of poreblind men, unite not, but when the object is at some good distance from their eyes.

succour both the eyes and the face, which are the parts that labour; but then they are repulsed by the eyes, for that the eyes, in shame, do put back the spirits that ascend to them, as unwilling to look abroad: for no man in that passion doth look strongly, but dejectedly; and that repulsion from the eyes diverteth the spirits and heat more to the ears, and the parts by them.

873. The objects of the sight may cause a great pleasure and delight in the spirits, but no pain or great offence; except it be by memory, as hath been said. The glimpses and beams of diamonds that strike the eye; Indian feathers, that have glorious colours; the coming into a fair garden; the coming into a fair room richly furnished; a beautiful person; and the like; do delight and exhilarate the spirits much. The reason why it holdeth not in the offence is, for that the sight is the most spiritual of the senses; whereby it hath no object gross enough to offend it. But the cause chiefly is, for that there be no active objects to offend the eye. For harmonical sounds, and discordant sounds, are both active and positive: so are sweet smells and stinks: so are bitter and sweet in tastes: so are over-hot and over-cold in touch: but blackness and darkness are indeed but privatives; and therefore have little or no activity. Somewhat they do contristate, but very little.

Experiment solitary touching the colour of the sea or other water.

Besides,

resteth. The cause is, for that by means of the
motion, the beams of light pass not straight, and
therefore must be darkened: whereas, when it
resteth, the beams do pass straight.
splendour hath a degree of whiteness; especially
if there be a little repercussion: for a looking-
glass with the steel behind, looketh whiter than
glass simple. This experiment deserveth to be
driven farther, in trying by what means motion
may hinder sight.

871. Men see better, when their eyes are overagainst the sun or candle, if they put their hand a little before their eyes. The reason is, for that the glaring of the sun or the candle doth weaken the eye; whereas the light circumfused is enough for the perception. For we see that an over-light maketh the eyes dazzle; insomuch as perpetual 874. Water of the sea, or otherwise, looketh looking against the sun would cause blindness.blacker when it is moved, and whiter when it Again, if men come out of great light into a dark room; and contrariwise, if they come out of a dark room into a light room, they seem to have a mist before their eyes, and see worse than they shall do after they have stayed a little while, either in the light or in the dark. The cause is, for that the spirits visual are, upon a sudden change, disturbed and put out of order; and till they be recollected, do not perform their function well. For when they are much dilated by light, they cannot contract suddenly; and when they are much contracted by darkness, they cannot dilate suddenly. And excess of both these, that is, of the dilatation and contraction of the spirits visual, if it be long destroyeth the eye. For as long looking against the sun or fire hurteth the eye by dilatation; so curious painting in small volumes, and reading of small letters, do hurt the eye by contraction.

872. It hath been observed, that in anger the eyes wax red; and in blushing, not the eyes, but the ears, and the parts behind them. The cause is, for that in anger the spirits ascend and wax eager; which is most easily seen in the eyes, because they are translucid; though withal it maketh both the cheeks and the gills red; but in

Experiment solitary touching shell-fish. 875. Shell-fish have been, by some of the ancients, compared and sorted with the insecta; but I see no reason why they should; for they have male and female as other fish have: neither are they bred of putrefaction; especially such as do move. Nevertheless it is certain, that oysters, and cockles, and mussels, which move not, have no discriminate sex. Query, in what time, and how they are bred? It seemeth, that shells of oysters are bred where none were before; and it is tried, that the great horse-mussel, with the fine shell, that breedeth in ponds, hath bred within thirty years: but then, which is strange, it hath been tried, that they do not only gape and

shut as the oysters do, but remove from one place Experiment solitary touching the rolling and breakto another. ing of the seas.

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876. The senses are alike strong, both on the right side and on the left; but the limbs on the right side are stronger. The cause may be, for that the brain, which is the instrument of sense, is alike on both sides; but motion, and abilities of moving, are somewhat holpen from the liver, which lieth on the right side. It may be also, for that the senses are put in exercise indifferently on both sides from the time of our birth; but the limbs are used most on the right side, whereby custom helpeth; for we see that some are lefthanded; which are such as have used the left hand most.

Experiment solitary touching frictions.

877. Frictions make the parts more fleshy and full; as we see both in men, and in currying of horses, &c. The cause is, for that they draw greater quantity of spirits and blood to the parts: and again, because they draw the aliment more forcibly from within and again, because they relax the pores, and so make better passage for the spirits, blood, and aliment: lastly, because they dissipate and digest any inutile or excrementitious moisture which lieth in the flesh; all which help assimilation. Frictions also do more fill and impinguate the body than exercise. The cause is, for that in frictions the inward parts are at rest; which in exercise are beaten, many times, too much and for the same reason, as we have noted heretofore, galley-slaves are fat and fleshy because they stir the limbs more, and the inward parts less.

880. Shallow and narrow seas break more than deep and large. The cause is, for that, the impulsion being the same in both, where there is greater quantity of water, and likewise space enough, there the water rolleth and moveth, both more slowly, and with a sloper rise and fall: but where there is less water, and less space, and the water dasheth more against the bottom, there it moveth more swiftly, and more in precipice; for in the breaking of the waves there is ever a precipice.

Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of

salt water.

881. It hath been observed by the ancients, that salt water boiled, or boiled and cooled again, is more potable, than of itself raw: and yet the taste of salt in distillations by fire riseth not, for the distilled water will be fresh. The cause may be, for that the salt part of the water doth partly rise into a kind of scum on the top, and partly goeth into a sediment in the bottom, and so is rather a separation than an evaporation. But it is too gross to rise into a vapour, and so is a bitter taste likewise; for simple distilled waters, of wormwood, and the like, are not bitter

Experiment solitary touching the return of saltness in pits upon the seashore.

882. It hath been set down before, that pits upon the seashore turn into fresh water, by percolation of the salt through the sand: but it is further noted, by some of the ancients, that in some places of Africa, after a time, the water in such pits will become brackish again. The cause is, for that after a time, the very sands through which the salt water passeth, become salt, and so

Experiment solitary touching globes appearing flat the strainer itself is tinctured with salt. The

at distance.

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remedy therefore is, to dig still new pits, when the old wax brackish; as if you would change your strainer.

Experiment solitary touching attraction by similitude of substance.

883. It hath been observed by the ancients, that salt water will dissolve salt put into it, in

less time than fresh water will dissolve it. The cause may be, for that the salt in the precedent water doth, by similitude of substance, draw the salt new put in unto it; whereby it diffuseth in the liquor more speedily. This is a noble experiment, if it be true, for it showeth means of more quick and easy infusions, and it is likewise a good instance of attraction by similitude of substance. Try it with sugar put into water formerly sugared, and into other water unsugared.

Experiment solitary touching altraction. 884. Put sugar into wine, part of it above.

L

part under the wine, and you shall find, that which may seem strange, that the sugar above the wine will soften and dissolve sooner than that within the wine. The cause is, for that the wine entereth that part of the sugar which is under the wine, by simple infusion or spreading; but that part above the wine is likewise forced by sucking; for all spongy bodies expel the air and draw in liquor, if it be contiguous: as we see it also in sponges put part above the water. It is worthy the inquiry, to see how you may make more accurate infusions, by help of attraction.

Experiment solitary touching heat under earth. 885. Water in wells is warmer in winter than in summer; and so air in caves. The cause is, for that in the higher parts, under the earth, there is a degree of some heat, as appeareth in sulphureous veins, &c., which shut close in, as in winter, is the more; but if it perspire, as it doth in summer, it is the less.

Experiment solitary touching flying in the air. 886. It is reported, that amongst the Leucadians, in ancient time, upon a superstition they did use to precipitate a man from a high cliff into the sea, tying about him with strings, at some distance, many great fowls, and fixing unto his body divers feathers, spread, to break the fall. Certainly many birds of good wing, as kites, and the like, would bear up a good weight as they fly, and spreading of feathers thin and close, and in great breadth, will, likewise, bear up a great weight, being even laid, without tilting upon the sides. The farther extension of this experiment for flying may be thought upon.

Experiment solitary touching the dye of scarlet.

887. There is in some places, namely in Cephalonia, a little shrub which they call hollyoak, or dwarf-oak: upon the leaves whereof there riseth a tumour like a blister; which they gather, and rub out of it a certain red dust, that converteth, after a while, into worms, which they kill with wine, as is reported, when they begin to quicken: with this dust they dye scarlet.

Experiment solitary touching maleficiating. 888. In Zant it is very ordinary to make men impotent to accompany with their wives. The like is practised in Gascony; where it is called nouër l'eguillette. It is practised always upon the wedding-day. And in Zant the mothers themselves do it, by way of prevention; because thereby they hinder other charms, and can undo their own. It is a thing the civil law taketh knowledge of; and therefore is of no light regard.

Experiment solitary touching the rise of water by means of flame.

889. It is a common experiment, but the cause is mistaken. Take a pot, or better a glass, be

cause therein you may see the motion, and set a candle lighted in the bottom of a bason of water, and turn the mouth of the pot or glass over the candle, and it will make the water rise. They ascribe it to the drawing of heat; which is not true: for it appeareth plainly to be but a motion of nexe, which they call ne detur vacuum; and it proceedeth thus. The flame of the candle, as soon as it is covered, being suffocated by the close air, lesseneth by little and little; during which time there is some little ascent of water, but not much for the flame occupying less and less room, as it lesseneth, the water succeedeth. But upon the instant of the candle's going out, there is a sudden rise of a great deal of water; for that the body of the flame filleth no more place, and so the air and the water succeed. It worketh the same effect, if instead of water you put flour or sand into the bason: which showeth, that it is not the flame's drawing the liquor as nourishment, as it is supposed; for all bodies are alike unto it, as it is ever in motion of nexe; insomuch as I have seen the glass, being held by the hand, hath lifted up the bason and all: the motion of nexe did so clasp the bottom of the bason. That experiment, when the bason was lifted up, was made with oil, and not with water: nevertheless this is true, that at the very first setting of the mouth of the glass upon the bottom of then standeth at a stay, almost till the candle's the bason, it draweth up the water a little, and attraction at first: but of this we will speak more, going out, as was said. This may show some when we handle attractions by heat.

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The influences of the moon, most observed, are four; the drawing forth of heat: the inducing of putrefaction; the increase of moisture; the exciting of the motions of spirits.

890. For the drawing forth of heat, we have and to formerly prescribed to take water warm, set part of it against the moon-beams, and part of it with a screen between; and to see whether that which standeth exposed to the beams will not cool sooner. But because this is but a small interposition, though in the sun we see a small shade doth much, it were good to try it when the moon shineth, and when the moon shineth not at all; and with water warm in a glass bottle, as well as in a dish; and with cinders; and with iron red-hot, &c.

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