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which may be because of the moisture of that beast, whereby the excrement hath less acrimony, for we see swine's and pig's flesh is the moistest of fleshes.

466. It is observed by some, that all herbs wax sweeter, both in smell and taste, if after they be grown up some reasonable time they be cut, and so you take the latter sprout. The cause may be, for that the longer the juice stayeth in the root and stalk, the better it concocteth. For one of the chief causes why grains, seeds, and fruits, are more nourishing than leaves, is the length of time in which they grow to maturation. It were not amiss to keep back the sap of herbs, or the like, by some fit means, till the end of summer, whereby, it may be, they will be more nourishing.

cause the stone lieth not so near the sun as the tree groweth.

472. Timber trees in a coppice wood do grow better than in an open field; both because they offer not to spread so much, but shoot up still in height; and chiefly because they are defended from too much sun and wind, which do check the growth of all fruit; and so, no doubt, fruit-trees, of vines, set upon a wall against the sun, between elbows or buttresses of stone, ripen more than upon a plain wall.

473. It is said, that if potado-roots be set in a pot filled with earth, and then the pot with earth be set likewise within the ground some two or three inches, the roots will grow greater than ordinary. The cause may be, for that having earth 467. As grafting doth generally advance and enough within the pot to nourish them; and then meliorate fruits, above that which they would be being stopped by the bottom of the pot from putif they were set of kernels or stones, in regard the ting strings downward, they must needs grow nourishment is better concocted; so, no doubt, greater in breadth and thickness. And it may be, even in grafting, for the same cause, the choice that all seeds or roots potted, and so set into the of the stock doth much always, provided that it | earth, will prosper the better. be somewhat inferior to the cion, for otherwise it dulleth it. They commend much the grafting of pears or apples upon a quince.

468. Besides the means of melioration of fruits before mentioned, it is set down as tried, that a mixture of bran and swine's dung, or chaff and swine's dung especially, laid up together for a month to rot, is a very great nourisher and comforter to a fruit-tree.

469. It is delivered that onions wax greater if they be taken out of the earth, and laid a drying twenty days, and then set again; and yet more, if the outermost pill be taken off all over.

470. It is delivered by some, that if one take the bough of a low fruit-tree newly budded, and draw it gently, without hurting it, into an earthen pot perforate at the bottom to let in the plant, and then cover the pot with earth, it will yield a very large fruit within the ground. Which experiment is nothing but potting of plants without removing, and leaving the fruit in the earth. The like, they say, will be effected by an empty pot, without earth in it, put over the fruit, being propped up with a stake, as it hangeth upon the tree; and the better, if some few pertusions be made in the pot. Wherein, besides the defending of the fruit from extremity of sun or weather, some give a reason, that the fruit loving and coveting the open air and sun, is invited by those pertusions to spread and approach as near the open air as it can; and so enlargeth in magnitude.

474. The cutting off the leaves of radish, or other roots, in the beginning of winter, before they wither, and covering again the root something high with earth, will preserve the root all winter, and make it bigger in the spring following, as hath been partly touched before. So that there is a double use of this cutting off the leaves; for in plants where the root is the esculent, as radish and parsnips, it will make the root the greater, and so it will do to the heads of onions. And where the fruit is the esculent, by strengthening the root, it will make the fruit also the greater.

475. It is an experiment of great pleasure, to make the leaves of shady trees larger than ordinary. It hath been tried for certain that a cion of a weech-elm, grafted upon the stock of an ordinary elm, will put forth leaves almost as broad as the brim of one's hat. And it is very likely, that as in fruit-trees the graft maketh a greater fruit; so in trees that bear no fruit, it will make the greater leaves. It would be tried therefore in trees of that kind chiefly, as birch, asp, willow, and especially the shining willow, which they call swallow-tail, because of the pleasure of the leaf.

476. The barrenness of trees by accident, besides the weakness of the soil, seed, or root; and the injury of the weather, cometh either of their overgrowing with moss, or their planting too deep, or by issuing of the sap too much into the leaves. For all these there are remedies mentioned before.

and flowers.

471. All trees in high and sandy grounds are to be set deep, and in watery grounds more shal- Experiments in consort touching compound fruits low. And in all trees, when they be removed, especially fruit-trees, care ought to be taken, that the sides of the trees be coasted, north and south, &c., as they stood before. The same is said also of stone out of the quarry, to make it more durable, though that seemeth to have less reason; be

We see that in living creatures, that have male and female, there is copulation of several kinds; and so compound creatures, as the mule, that is generated betwixt the horse and the ass, other compounds which we call monsters, though

and some

more rare; and it is held that that proverb, Africa | the most part of experiments that concern symsemper aliquid monstri parit, cometh, for that the pathies and antipathies do. For as to plants neifountains of waters there being rare, divers sorts ther is there any such secret friendship or hatred of beasts come from several parts to drink, and so as they imagine: and if we should be content to being refreshed fall to couple, and many times call it sympathy and antipathy, it is utterly miswith several kinds. The compounding or mixture taken, for their sympathy is an antipathy, and of kinds in plants is not found out; which, never- their antipathy is a sympathy, for it is thus: theless, if it be possible, is more at command than Wheresoever one plant draweth such a particular that of living creatures, for that their lust requireth juice out of the earth, as it qualifieth the earth, so a voluntary motion; wherefore it were one of the as that juice which remaineth is fit for the other most noble experiments touching plants to find it plant; there the neighbourhood doth good, because out: for so you may have great variety of new the nourishments are contrary or several; but fruits and flowers yet unknown. Grafting doth it where two plants draw much the same juice, there not, that mendeth the fruit, or doubleth the flowers, the neighbourhood hurteth, for the one deceiveth &c., but it hath not the power to make a new kind. the other. For the cion ever over-ruleth the stock.

480. First, therefore, all plants that do draw much nourishment from the earth, and so soak the

them; as great trees, especially ashes, and suck. trees as spread their roots near the top of the ground. So the colewort is not an enemy, though that were anciently received, to the vine only; but it is an enemy to any other plant, because it draweth strongly the fattest juice of the earth. And if it be true, that the vine, when it creepeth near the colewort will turn away, this may be, because there it findeth worse nourishment; for though the root be where it was, yet, I doubt, the plant will bend as it nourisheth.

477. It hath been set down by one of the ancients, that if you take two twigs of several fruit-earth and exhaust it, hurt all things that grow by trees, and flat them on the sides, and then bind them close together and set them in the ground, they will come up in one stock; but yet they will put forth their several fruits without any commixture in the fruit. Wherein note by the way, that unity of continuance is easier to procure than unity of species. It is reported also, that vines of red and white grapes being set in the ground, and the upper parts being flatted and bound close together, will put forth grapes of several colours upon the same branch; and grape-stones of several colours within the same grape : but the more after a year or two, the unity, as it seemeth, growing more perfect. And this will likewise help, if from the first uniting they be often watered, for all moisture helpeth to union. And it is prescribed also to bind the bud as soon as it cometh forth, as well as the stock, at the least for a time.

478. They report that divers seeds put into a clout, and laid in earth well dunged, will put up plants contiguous; which, afterwards being bound in, their shoots will incorporate. The like is said of kernels put into a bottle with a narrow mouth filled with earth.

479. It is reported, that young trees of several kinds set contiguous without any binding, and very often watered, in a fruitful ground, with the very luxury of the trees will incorporate and grow together. Which seemeth to me the likeliest means that hath yet been propounded; for that the binding doth hinder the natural swelling of the tree; which, while it is in motion, doth better unite.

481. Where plants are of several natures, and draw several juices out of the earth, there, as hath been said, the one set by the other helpeth: as it is set down by divers of the ancients, that rue doth prosper much, and becometh stronger, if it be set by a fig-tree, which, we conceive, is caused not by reason of friendship, but by extraction of a contrary juice; the one drawing juice fit to result sweet, the other bitter. So they have set down likewise, that a rose set by garlic is sweeter: which likewise may be, because the more fetid juice of the earth goeth into the garlic, and the more odorate into the rose.

482. This we see manifestly, that there be certain corn-flowers which come seldom or never in other places, unless they be set, but only amongst corn: as the blue-bottle, a kind of yellow marygold, wild poppy, and fumitory. Neither can this be, by reason of the culture of the ground, by ploughing or furrowing; as some herbs and flowers will grow but in ditches new cast; for if the ground lie fallow and unsown, they will not come: so as it should seem to be Experiments in consort touching the sympathy and the corn that qualifieth the earth, and prepareth it

antipathy of plants.

There are many ancient and received traditions and observations touching the sympathy and antipathy of plants; for that some will thrive best growing near others, which they impute to sympathy, and some worse, which they impute to antipathy. But these are idle and ignorant conceits, and forsake the true indication of the causes, as

for their growth.

483. This observation, if it holdeth, as it is very probable, is of great use for the meliorating of taste in fruits and esculent herbs, and of the scent of flowers. For I do not doubt, but if the fig-tree do make the rue more strong and bitter, as the ancients have noted, good store of rue planted about the fig-tree will make the fig more

sweet. Now the tastes that do most offend in fruits, and herbs, and roots, are bitter, harsh, sour, and waterish, or flabby. It were good, therefore, to make the trials following.

484. Take wormwood, or rue, and set it near lettuce, or coleflory, or artichoke, and see whether the lettuce, or the coleflory, &c., become not the


485. Take a service-tree, or a cornelian-tree, or an elder-tree, which we know have fruits of harsh and binding juice, and set them near a vine, or fig-tree, and see whether the grapes or figs will not be the sweeter.

486. Take cucumbers or pumpions, and set them here and there, amongst musk-mellons, and see whether the melons will not be more winy, and better tasted. Set cucumbers, likewise, amongst radish, and see whether the radish will not be made the more biting.

487. Take sorrel, and set it amongst rasps, and see whether the rasps will not be the sweeter.

488. Take common brier, and set it amongst violets or wall-flowers, and see whether it will not make the violets or wall-flowers sweeter, and less earthy in their smell. So set lettuce or cucumbers amongst rosemary or bays, and see whether the rosemary or bays will not be the more odorate or aromatical.

489. Contrariwise, you must take heed how you set herbs together that draw much the like Juice. And therefore I think rosemary will lose in sweetness, if it be set with lavender, or bays, or the like. But yet if you will correct the strength of an herb, you shall do well to set other like herbs by him to take him down; as if you should set tansey by angelica, it may be the angelica would be the weaker, and fitter for mixture in perfume. And if you should set rue by common wormwood, it may be the wormwood would turn to be liker Roman wormwood.

490. This axiom is of large extent; and therefore would be severed, and refined by trial. Neither must you expect to have a gross difference by this kind of culture, but only farther perfection.

491. Trial would be also made in herbs poisonous and purgative, whose ill quality, perhaps, may be discharged, or attempered, by setting stronger poisons or purgatives by them.

492. It is reported, that the shrub called our ladies seal, which is a kind of briony, and coleworts, set near together, one or both will die. The cause is, for that they be both great depredators of the earth, and one of them starveth the other. The like is said of a reed and a brake; both of which are succulent, and therefore the one deceiveth the other. And the like of hemJock and rue; both which draw strong juices.

493. Some of the ancients, and likewise divers of the modern writers that have laboured in natural magic, have noted a sympathy between

the sun, moon, and some principal stars, and certain herbs and plants. And so they have denominated some herbs solar, and some lunar; and such like toys put into great words. It is manifest that there are some flowers that have respect to the sun in two kinds, the one by opening and shutting, and the other by bowing and inclining the head. For marygolds, tulips, pimpernel, and indeed most flowers, do open and spread their leaves abroad when the sun shineth serene and fair: and again, in some part, close them, or gather them inward, either towards night, or when the sky is overcast. Of this there needeth no such solemn reason to be assigned, as to say, that they rejoice at the presence of the sun, and mourn at the absence thereof. For it is nothing else but a little loading of the leaves, and swelling them at the bottom, with the moisture of the air, whereas the dry air doth extend them; and they make it a piece of the wonder, that garden clover will hide the stalk when the sun showeth bright, which is nothing but a full expansion of the leaves. For the bowing and inclining the head, it is found in the great flower of the sun, in marygolds, wart-wort, mallow flowers, and others. The cause is somewhat more obscure than the former; but I take it to be no other, but that the part against which the sun beateth, waxeth more faint and flaccid in the stalk, and thereby less able to support the flower.

494. What a little moisture will do in vegetables, even though they be dead and severed from the earth, appeareth well in the experiment of jugglers. They take the beard of an oat, which, if you mark it well, is wreathed at the bottom, and one smooth entire straw at the top. They take only the part that is wreathed, and cut off the other, leaving the beard half the breadth of a finger in length. Then they make a little cross of a quill, longways of that part of the quill which hath the pith; and cross-ways of that piece of the quill without pith; the whole cross being the breadth of a finger high. Then they prick the bottom where the pith is, and thereinto they put the oaten beard, leaving half of it sticking forth of the quill: then they take a little white box of wood, to deceive men, as if somewhat in the box did work the feat, in which, with a pin, they make a little hole, enough to take the beard, but not to let the cross sink down, but to stick. Then likewise, by way of imposture, they make a question; as, Who is the fairest woman in the company? or, Who hath a glove or a card? and cause another to name divers persons; and upon every naming they stick the cross in the box, having first put it towards their mouth, as if they charmed it, and the cross stirreth not; but when they come to the person that they would take, as they hold the cross to their mouth, they touch the beard with the tip of their tongue and wet it, and so stick the cross in the box; and then

you shall see it turn finely and softly three or four turns, which is caused by the untwining of the beard by the moisture. You may see it more evidently, if you stick the cross between your fingers instead of the box; and therefore you may see, that this motion, which is effected by so little wet, is stronger than the closing or bending of the head of a marygold.

495. It is reported by some, that the herb called "rosa solis," whereof they make strong waters, will, at the noon-day, when the sun shineth hot and bright, have a great dew upon it. And therefore that the right name is "ros solis," which they impute to a delight and sympathy that it hath with the sun. Men favour wonders. It were good first to be sure, that the dew that is found upon it be not the dew of the morning preserved, when the dew of other herbs is breathed away; for it hath a smooth and thick leaf, that doth not discharge the dew so soon as other herbs that are more spongy and porous. And it may be purslane, or some other herb, doth the like, and is not marked. But if it be so, that it hath more dew at noon than in the morning, then sure it seemeth to be an exudiation of the herb itself. As plums sweat when they are set in the oven: for you will not, I hope, think, that it is like Gideon's fleece of wool, that the dew should fall upon that and nowhere else.

496. It is certain, that the honey dews are found more upon oak leaves than upon ash, or beech, or the like: but whether any cause be from the leaf itself to concoct the dew, or whether it be only that the leaf is close and smooth, and therefore drinketh not in the dew, but preserveth it, may be doubted. It would be well inquired, whether manna, the drug, doth fall but upon certain herbs or leaves only. Flowers that have deep sockets, do gather in the bottom a kind of honey, as honey-suckles, both the woodbine and the trefoil, lilies, and the like. And in them certainly the flower beareth part with the dew.

497. The experience is, that the froth which they call woodseare, being like a kind of spittle, is found but upon certain herbs, and those hot ones: as lavender, lavender cotton, sage, hyssop, &c. Of the cause of this inquire further: for it seemeth a secret. There falleth also mildew upon corn, and smutteth it; but it may be, that the same falleth also upon other herbs and is not observed.

thoroughly wet in water; and let it lie so some ten days, and see whether the seeds will sprout, and the earth become more moist, and the sponge more dry. The experiment formerly mentioned of the cucumber creeping to the pot of water is far stranger than this.

Experiments in consort touching the making herbs and fruits medicinable.

499. The altering of the scent, colour, or taste of fruit, by infusing, mixing, or letting into the bark, or root of the tree, herb, or flower, any coloured, aromatical, or medicinal substances, are but fancies. The cause is, for that those things have passed their period, and nourish not. And all alteration of vegetables in those qualities must be by somewhat that is apt to go into the nourishment of the plant. But this is true, that where kine feed upon wild garlic, their milk tasteth plainly of the garlic: and the flesh of muttons is better tasted where the sheep feedeth upon wild thyme, and other wholesome herbs. Galen also speaketh of the curing of the" scirrus" of the liver, by milk of a cow that feedeth but upon certain herbs; and honey in Spain smelleth apparently of the rosemary, or orange, from whence the bee gathereth it: and there is an old tradition of a maiden that was fed with "napellus;" which is counted the strongest poison of all vegetables, which with use did not hurt the maid, but poisoned some that had carnal company with her. So it is observed by some, that there is a virtuous bezoar, and another without virtue, which appear to the show alike: but the virtuous is taken from the beast that feedeth upon the mountains, where there are theriacal herbs, and that without virtue, from those that feed in the valleys where no such herbs are. Thus far I am of opinion; that as steeped wines and beers are very medicinal; and likewise bread tempered with divers powders; so of meat also, as flesh, fish, milk and eggs, that they may be made of great use for medicine and diet, if the beasts, fowl, or fish, be fed with a special kind of food fit for the disease. It were a dangerous thing also for secret empoisonments. But whether it may be applied unto plants and herbs, I doubt more, because the nourishment of them is a more common juice; which is hardly capable of any special quality, until the plant do assimilate it.

500. But lest our incredulity may prejudice any 498. It were good trial were made, whether profitable operations in this kind, especially since the great consent between plants and water, which many of the ancients have set them down, we is a principal nourishment of them, will make an think good briefly to propound the four means attraction at a distance and not at touch only. which they have devised of making plants mediTherefore take a vessel, and in the middle of it cinable. The first is, by slitting of the root, and make a false bottom of a coarse canvass: fill it infusing into it the medicine; as hellebore, opium, with earth above the canvass, and let not the earth scammony, treacle, &c., and then binding it up be watered; then sow some good seeds in that again. This seemeth to me the least probable; earth; but under the canvass, some half a foot in because the root draweth immediately from the the bottom of the vessel, lay a great sponge, earth; and so the nourishment is the more common

and less qualified: and besides, it is a long time | with an infusion of the medicine. This, in one in going up ere it come to the fruit. The second way is to perforate the body of the tree, and there to infuse the medicine; which is somewhat better: for if any virtue be received from the medicine, it hath the less way, and the less time to go up. The third is, the steeping of the seed or kernel in some liquor wherein the medicine is infused: which I have little opinion of, because the seed, I doubt, will not draw the parts of the matter which have the propriety; but it will be far the more likely, if you mingle the medicine with dung; for that the seed naturally drawing the moisture of the dung, may call in withal some of the propriety. The fourth is, the watering of the plant oft

respect, may have more force than the rest, because the medication is oft renewed; whereas the rest are applied but at one time; and therefore the virtue may the sooner vanish. But still I doubt, that the root is somewhat too stubborn to receive those fine impressions; and besides, as I said before, they have a great hill to go up. I judge therefore the likeliest way to be the perforation of the body of the tree in several places one above the other; and the filling of the holes with dung mingled with the medicine; and the watering of those lumps of dung with squirts of an infusion of the medicine in dunged water, once in three or four days.


Experiments in consort touching curiosities about but there is ordinary experience of fruit that grow

fruits and plants.

OUR experiments we take care to be, as we have often said, either "experimenta fructifera," or "lucifera ;" either of use, or of discovery: for we hate impostures, and despise curiosities. Yet because we must apply ourselves somewhat to others, we will set down some curiosities touching plants.

501. It is a curiosity to have several fruits upon one tree; and the more, when some of them come early, and some come late, so that you may have upon the same tree ripe fruits all summer. This is easily done by grafting of several cions upon several boughs of a stock, in a good ground plentifully fed. So you may have all kinds of cherries, and all kinds of plums, and peaches, and apricots, upon one tree; but I conceive the diversity of fruits must be such as will graft upon the same stock. And, therefore, I doubt, whether you can have apples, or pears, or oranges, upon the same stock upon which you graft plums.

502. It is a curiosity to have fruits of divers shapes and figures. This is easily performed, by moulding them when the fruit is young, with moulds of earth or wood. So you may have cucumbers, &c., as long as a cane or as round as a sphere; or formed like a cross. You may have also apples in the form of pears or lemons. You may have also fruit in more accurate figures, as we said of men, beasts, or birds, according as you make the moulds. Wherein you must understand, that you make the mould big enough to contain the whole fruit when it is grown to the greatest: for else you will choke the spreading of the fruit; which otherwise would spread itself, and fill the concave, and so be turned into the shape desired; as it is in mould works of liquid things. Some doubt may be conceived, that the keeping of the sun from the fruit may hurt it:

eth covered. Query, also, whether some small holes may not be made in the wood to let in the sun. And note, that it were best to make the moulds partible, glued or cemented together that you may open them when you take out the fruit.

503. It is a curiosity to have inscriptions, or engravings, in fruit or trees. This is easily performed, by writing with a needle, or bodkin, or knife, or the like, when the fruit or trees are young; for as they grow, so the letters will grow more large and graphical,

-Tenerisque meos incidere amores
Arboribus! crescent illæ, crescetis amores.

504. You may have trees apparelled with flowers or herbs, by boring holes in the bodies of them, and putting into them earth holpen with muck, and setting seeds or slips of violets, strawberries, wild thyme, camomile, and such like, in the earth. Wherein they do but grow in the tree, as they do in pots though, perhaps, with some feeding from the trees. It would be tried also with shoots of vines, and roots of red roses; for it may be they being of a more ligneus nature, will incorporate with the tree itself.

505. It is an ordinary curiosity to form trees and shrubs, as rosemary, juniper, and the like, into sundry shapes; which is done by moulding them within, and cutting them without. But they are but lame things, being too small to keep figure; great castles made of trees upon frames of timber, with turrets and arches, were anciently matters of magnificence.

506. Amongst curiosities I shall place coloration, though it be somewhat better; for beauty in flowers is their pre-eminence. It is observed by some, that gillyflowers, sweetwilliams, violets, that are coloured, if they be neglected, and neither watered, nor new moulded, nor transplanted, wil'

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