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many bishops of Rome. Yea, every state in Christendom, except Spain, have received sundry successions. And for the King of Spain, he is waxed so infirm, and thereby so retired, as the report of his death serveth for every year's news: whereas her majesty, thanks be given to God, being nothing decayed in vigour of health and strength, was never more able to supply and sustain the weight of her affairs, and is, as far as standeth with the dignity of her majesty's royal state, continually to be seen, to the great comfort and heart-ease of her people.

Secondly, we will mention the blessing of health: I mean generally of the people, which was wanting in the reign of another of these kings; which else deserved to have the second place in happiness, which is one of the great favours of God towards any nation. For as there be three scourges of God, war, famine, and pestilence; so are there three benedictions, peace, plenty, and health. Whereas, therefore, this realm hath been visited in times past with sundry kinds of mortalities, as pestilences, sweats, and other contagious diseases, it is so, that in her majesty's times, being of the continuance aforesaid, there was only, towards the beginning of her reign, some sickness, between June and February, in the city; but not dispersed into any other part of the realm, as was noted; which we call yet the great plague; because that, though it was nothing so grievous and so sweeping as it hath been sundry times heretofore, yet it was great in respect of the health which hath followed since; which hath been such, especially of late years, as we began to dispute and move questions of the causes whereunto it should be ascribed, until such time as it pleased God to teach us that we ought to ascribe it only to his mercy, by touching us a little this present year, but with a very gentle hand; and such as it hath pleased him since to remove. But certain it is, for so many years together, notwithstanding the great pestering of people in houses, the great multitude of strangers, and the sundry voyages by seas, all of which have been noted to be causes of pestilence, the health universal of the people was never so good.

The third blessing is that which all the politic and fortunate kings before recited have wanted; that is, peace: for there was never foreigner since her majesty's reign, by invasion or incursion of moment, that took any footing within the realm of England. One rebellion there hath been only, but such a one as was repressed within the space of seven weeks, and did not waste the realm so much as by the destruction or depopulation of one poor town. And for wars abroad, taking in those of Leith, those of Newhaven, the second expedition into Scotland, the wars of Spain, which I reckon from the year eighty-six or eighty-seven, (before which time neither had

the King of Spain withdrawn his ambassadors here residing; neither had her majesty received into protection the United Provinces of the Low Countries,) and the aid of France; they have not occupied in time a third part of her majesty's reign; nor consumed past two of any noble house; whereof France took one, and Flanders another; and very few besides of quality or appearance. They have scarce mowed down the overcharge of the people within the realm. It is therefore true, that the kings aforesaid, and others her majesty's progenitors, have been victorious in their wars, and have made many famous and memorable voyages and expeditions into sundry parts; and that her majesty, contrariwise, from the beginning, put on a firm resolution to content herself within those limits of her dominions which she received, and to entertain peace with her neighbour princes; which resolution she hath ever since, notwithstanding she hath had rare opportunities, just claims and pretences, and great and mighty means, sought to continue. But if this be objected to be the less honourable fortune; I answer, that ever amongst the heathen, who held not the expense of blood so precious as Christians ought to do, the peaceable govern ment of Augustus Cæsar was ever as highly esteemed as the victories of Julius his uncle; and that the name of "pater patria" was ever as honourable as that of "propagator imperii." And this I add further, that during this inward peace of so many years in the actions of war before mentioned, which her majesty, either in her own defence or in just and honourable aids, hath undertaken, the service hath been such as hath carried no note of a people, whose militia hath degenerated through long peace; but hath every way answered the ancient reputation of the English arms.

The fourth blessing is plenty and abundance: and, first, for grain and all victuals, there cannot be more evident proof of the plenty than this: that whereas England was wont to be fed by other countries from the east, it sufficeth now to feed other countries; so as we do many times transport and serve sundry foreign countries; and yet there was never the like multitude of people to eat it within the realm. Another evident proof thereof may be, that the good yields of corn which have been, together with some toleration of vent, hath of late time invited and enticed men to break up more ground, and to convert it to tillage, than all the penal laws for that purpose made and enacted could ever by compulsion effect. A third proof may be, that the prices of grain and victual were never of late years more reasonable. Now, for arguments of the great wealth in all other respects, let the points following be considered.

There was never the like number of fair and stately houses as have been built and set up from

the ground since her majesty's reign; insomuch, that there have been reckoned in one shire that is not great, to the number of thirty-three, which have been all new built within that time; and whereof the meanest was never built for two thousand pounds.

There were never the like pleasures of goodly gardens and orchards, walks, pools, and parks, as do adorn almost every mansion-house.

There was never the like number of beautiful and costly tombs, and monuments which are erected in sundry churches, in honourable memory of the dead.

There never was the like quantity of plate, jewels, sumptuous moveables, and stuff, as is now within the realm.

There was never the like quantity of waste and unprofitable ground, inned, reclaimed, and improved.

There was never the like husbanding of all sorts of grounds, by fencing, manuring, and all kinds of good husbandry.

The towns were never better built nor peopled; nor the principal fairs and markets ever better customed or frequented.

The commodities and ease of rivers cut by hand, and brought into a new channel; of piers that have been built; of waters that have been forced and brought against the ground, were never so many.

There was never so many excellent artificers, nor so many new handicrafts used and exercised; nor new commodities made within the realm; sugar, paper, glass, copper, divers silks, and the like.

There was never such complete and honourable provision of horse, armour, weapons, ordnance of the war.

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principal effect of the true knowledge and worship of God, three points of great consequence unto the civil estate.

One, the stay of a mighty treasure within the realm, which in foretimes was drawn forth to Rome. Another, the dispersion and distribution of those revenues, amounting to a third part of the land of the realm, and that of the goodliest and the richest sort, which heretofore was unprofitably spent in monasteries, into such hands as by whom the realm receiveth at this day service and strength; and many great houses have been set up and augmented. The third, the managing and enfranchising of the regal dignity from the recognition of a foreign superior. All which points, though begun by her father, and continued by her brother, were yet, nevertheless, after an eclipse or intermission, restored and reestablished by her majesty's self.

Secondly, the fineness of money for as the purging away of the dross of religion, the heavenly treasure, was common to her majesty with her father and her brother, so the purging of the base money, the earthly treasure, hath been altogether proper to her majesty's own times; whereby our moneys bearing the natural estimation of the stamp or mark, both every man resteth assured of his own value, and free from the losses and deceits which fall out in other places upon the rising and falling of moneys.

Thirdly, the might of the navy and augmentation of the shipping of the realm; which, by politic constitutions for maintenance of fishing, and the encouragement and assistance given to the undertakers of new discoveries and trades by sea, is so advanced, as this island is become, as the natural site thereof deserveth, the lady of the sea.

The fifth blessing hath been the great popula- Now, to pass from the comparison of time to tion and multitude of families increased within the comparison of place, we may find in the states her majesty's days: for which point I refer my-abroad cause of pity and compassion in some; self to the proclamations of restraint of building but of envy or emulation in none; our condition in London, the inhibition of inmates of sundry being, by the good favour of God, not inferior cities, the restraint of cottages by act of parlia- to any. ment, and sundry other tokens of record of the surcharge of people.

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The kingdom of France, which, by reason of the seat of the empire of the west, was wont to have the precedence of the kingdoms of Europe, is now fallen into those calamities, that, as the prophet saith, "From the crown of the head to the sole of the foot, there is no whole place." The divisions are so many, and so intricate, of Protestants and Catholics, royalists and leaguers, Bourbonists and Lorainists, patriots and Spanish; as it seemeth God hath some great work to bring to pass upon that nation: yea, the nobility divided from the third estate, and the towns from the field. All which miseries, truly to speak, have been wrought by Spain and the Spanish

Besides these parts of a government, blessed from God, wherein the condition of the people hih been more happy in her majesty's times, thin the times of her progenitors, there are certain singularities and particulars of her majesty's reign; wherein I do not say, that we have enjoyed them in a more ample degree and proportion than in former ages, as it hath fallen out in the points before mentioned, but such as were in effect unknown and untasted heretofore. As, first, the purity of religion, which is a benefit inestimable, and was in the time of all former princes, until the days of her majesty's father of faction. famous memory, unheard of. Out of which purity of religion have since ensued, beside the

The Low Countries, which were, within the age of a young man, the richest, the best peopled.

and the best built plots of Europe, are in such | mixed in the midst of a great honour or lordship; estate, as a country is like to be in, that hath been so as their quiet is intermingled, not with jealousy the seat of thirty years' war: and although the alone, but with restraint. sea provinces be rather increased in wealth and shipping than otherwise; yet they cannot but mourn for their distraction from the rest of their body.

The kingdom of Portugal, which of late times, through their merchandising and places in the East Indies, was grown to be an opulent kingdom, is now at the last, after the unfortunate journey of Afric, in that state as a country is like to be, that is reduced under a foreigner by conquest; and such a foreigner as hath his competitor in title, being a natural Portugal and no stranger; and having been once in possession, yet in life whereby his jealousy must necessarily be increased, and through his jealousy their oppression which is apparent, by the carrying of many noble families out of their natural countries to live in exile, and by putting to death a great number of noblemen, naturally born to have been principal governors of their countries. These are three afflicted parts of Christendom; the rest of the states enjoy either prosperity or tolerable condition.

The kingdom of Scotland, though, at this present, by the good regiment and wise proceeding of the king, they enjoy good quiet; yet since our peace it hath passed through no small troubles, and remaineth full of boiling and swelling humours; but like, by the maturity of the said king every day increasing, to be repressed.

The kingdom of Poland is newly recovered out of great wars about an ambiguous election. And, besides, is a state of that composition, that their king being elective, they do commonly choose rather a stranger than one of their own country: a great exception to the flourishing estate of any kingdom.

The kingdom of Swedeland, besides their foreign wars upon their confines, the Muscovites and the Danes, hath been also subject to divers intestine tumults and mutations, as their stories do record.

The states of Germany have had for the most part peaceable times; but yet they yield to the state of England; not only in the great honour of a great kingdom, they being of a mean style and dignity, but also in many other respects, both of wealth and policy.

The state of Savoy having been in the old duke's time governed in good prosperity, hath since (notwithstanding their new great alliance with Spain, whereupon they waxed insolent, to design to snatch up some piece of France, after the dishonourable repulse from the siege of Geneva) been often distressed by a particular gentleman of Dauphiny; and at this present day the duke feeleth, even in Piedmont beyond the mountains, the weight of the same enemy; who hath lately shut up his gates and common entries between Savoy and Piedmont.

So as hitherto I do not see but that we are as much bound to the mercies of God as any other nation; considering that the fires of dissension and oppression in some parts of Christendom, may serve us for lights to show us our happiness; and the good estates of other places, which we do congratulate with them for, is such, nevertheless, as doth not stain and exceed ours; but rather doth still leave somewhat, wherein we may acknowledge an ordinary benediction of God.

Lastly, we do not much emulate the greatness and glory of the Spaniards; who, having not only excluded the purity of religion, but also fortified against it, by their device of the inquisition, which is a bulwark against the entrance of the truth of God; having, in recompense of their new purchase of Portugal, lost a great part of their ancient partrimonies of the Low Countries, being of far greater commodity and value, or at the least holding part thereof in such sort as most of their other revenues are spent there upon their own; having lately, with much difficulty, rather smoothed and skinned over, than healed and extinguished the commotions of Arragon; having rather sowed troubles in France, than reaped assured fruit thereof unto themselves; having from the attempt of England received scorn and disreputation; being at this time with the states of Italy rather suspected than either loved or feared; having in Germany, and elsewhere, rather much practice, than any sound intelligence The estates of Italy, which are not under the or amity; having no such clear succession as dominion of Spain, have had peace equal in con- they need object, and reproach the uncertainty tinuance with ours, except in regard of that which thereof unto another nation; have in the end won hath passed between them and the Turk, which a reputation rather of ambition than justice; hath sorted to their honour and commendation; and, in the pursuit of their ambition, rather of but yet they are so bridled and overawed by the much enterprising than of fortunate achieving; Spaniard, that possesseth the two principal mem- and in their enterprising, rather of doing things bers thereof, and that in the two extreme parts, by treasure and expense, than by forces and as they be like quillets of freehold, being inter- valour.

The kingdom of Denmark hath had good times, especially by the good government of the late king, who maintained the profession of the gospel; but yet greatly giveth place to the kingdom of England, in climate, wealth, fertility, and many other points, both of honour and strength.

Now that I have given the reader a taste of the churches, but containeth some reprehension England respectively, and in comparison of the times past, and of the states abroad, I will descend to examine the libeller's own divisions, whereupon let the world judge how easily and clean this ink, which he hath cast in our faces, is washed off.

The first branch of the pretended calamities of England, is the great and wonderful confusion which, he saith, is in the state of the church; which is subdivided again into two parts: the one, the prosecutions against the Catholics: the other, | the discords and controversies amongst ourselves: the former of which two parts I have made an article by itself; wherein I have set down a clear and simple narration of the proceedings of state against that sort of subjects; adding this by the way, that there are two extremities in state concerning the causes of faith and religion; that is to say, the permission of the exercises of more religions than one, which is a dangerous indulgence and toleration; the other is the entering and sifting into men's consciences when no overt scandal is given, which is rigorous and strainable inquisition; and I avouch the proceedings towards the pretended Catholics to have been a mean between these two extremities, referring the demonstration thereof unto the aforesaid narration in the articles following.

Touching the division in our church, the libeller affirmeth that the protestantical Calvinism, for so it pleaseth him with very good grace to term the religion with us established, is grown contemptible, and detected of idolatry, heresy, and many other superstitious abuses, by a purified sort of professors of the same gospel. And this contention is yet grown to be more intricate, by reason of a third kind of gospellers, called Brownists; who, being directed by the great fervour of the unholy ghost, do expressly affirm, that the protestantical Church of England is not gathered in the name of Christ, but of Antichrist; and that if the prince or magistrate under her do refuse or defer to reform the church, the people may, without her consent, take the reformation into their own hands and hereto he addeth the fanatical pageant of Hacket. And this is the effect of this accusation in this point.

For answer whereunto, first, it must be remembered that the church of God hath been in all ages subject to contentions and schisms: the tares were not sown but where the wheat was sown before. Our Saviour Christ delivered it for an ill note to have outward peace; saying, "when a strong man is in possession of the house," meaning the devil, "all things are in peace." It is the condition of the church to be ever under trials; and there are but two trials; the one of persecution, the other of scandal and contention; and when the one ceaseth, the other succeedeth: nay, there is scarce any one epistle of St. Paul's unto VOL. II.-32

of unnecessary and schismatical controversies. So, likewise, in the reign of Constantine the Great, after the time that the church had obtained peace from persecution, straight entered sundry questions and controversies, about no less matters than the essential parts of the faith, and the high mysteries of the Trinity. But reason teacheth us, that in ignorance and implied belief it is easy to agree, as colours agree in the dark or if any country decline into atheism, then controversies wax dainty, because men do think religion scarce worth the falling out for; so as it is weak divinity to account controversies an ill sign in the church.

It is true that certain men, moved with an inconsiderate detestation of all ceremonies or orders, which were in use in the time of the Roman religion, as if they were without difference superstitious or polluted, and led with an affectionate imitation of the government of some Protestant churches in foreign states; have sought by books and preaching, indiscreetly, and sometimes undutifully, to bring in an alteration in the external rites and policy of the church; but neither have the grounds of the controversies extended unto any point of faith; neither hath the pressing and prosecution exceeded, in the generality, the nature of some inferior contempts: so as they have been far from heresy and sedition, and therefore rather offensive than dangerous to the church or state.

And as for those which we call Brownists, being, when they were at the most, a very small number of very silly and base people, here and there in corners dispersed, they are now, thanks be to God, by the good remedies that have been used, suppressed and worn out; so as there is scarce any news of them. Neither had they been much known at all, had not Brown their leader written a pamphlet, wherein, as it came into his head, he inveighed more against logic and rhetoric, than against the state of the church, which writing was much read; and had not also one Barrow, being a gentleman of a good house, but one that lived in London at ordinaries, and there learned to argue in table talk, and so was very much known in the city and abroad, made a leap from a vain and libertine youth, to a preciseness in the highest degree; the strangeness of which alteration made him very much spoken of, the matter might long before have breathed out. And here I note an honesty and discretion in the libeller, which I note nowhere else; in that he did forbear to lay to our charge the sect of the Family of Love; for, about twelve years since, there was creeping in, in some secret places of the realm, indeed a very great heresy, derived from the Dutch, and named as was before said; which since, by the good blessing of God, and by the good strength of our church, is banished and

these and these things parted withal, the Lacedæmonians should not be able to hurt them, though they would. So it is with us, as we have not justly provoked the hatred or enmity of any other state, so, howsoever that be, I know not at this time the enemy that hath the power to offend us, though he had the will.

extinct. But so much we see, that the diseases | rest; which was, if the deputies of the Lacedæwherewith our church hath been visited, whatso- monians could make it plain unto them, that, after ever these men say, have either not been malign and dangerous, or else they have been as blisters in some small ignoble part of the body, which have soon after fallen and gone away. For such also was the phrenetical and fanatical, for I mean not to determine it, attempt of Hacket, who must needs have been thought a very dangerous heretic, that could never get but two disciples; and those, as it should seem, perished in their brain; and a dangerous commotioner, that in so great and populous a city as London is, could draw but those same two fellows, whom the people rather laughed at as a May-game, than took any heed of what they did or said: so as it was very true that an honest poor woman said, when she saw Hacket out of a window pass to his execution; said she to herself, "It was foretold that in the latter days there should come those that have deceived many; but in faith thou hast deceived but few." But it is manifest untruth which the libeller setteth down, that there hath been no punishment done upon those which in any of the foresaid kinds have broken the laws, and disturbed the church and state; and that the edge of the law hath been only turned upon the pretended Catholics: for the examples are very many, where, according to the nature and degree of the offence, the correction of such offenders hath not been neglected.

These be the great confusions whereof he hath accused our church, which I refer to the judgment of an indifferent and understanding person, how true they be: my meaning is not to blanch or excuse any fault of our church; nor, on the other side, to enter into commemoration, how flourishing it is in great and learned divines, or painful and excellent preachers; let men have the reproof of that which is amiss, and God the glory of that which is good. And so much for the first branch. In the second branch, he maketh great musters and shows of the strength and multitude of the enemies of this state; declaring in what evil terms and correspondence we stand with foreign states, and how desolate and destitute we are of friends and confederates; doubting, belike, how he should be able to prove and justify his assertion touching the present miseries, and, therefore, endeavouring at the least to maintain that the good estate which we enjoy is yet made somewhat bitter by reason of many terrors and fears. Whereupon, entering into the consideration of the security wherein, not by our policy, but by the good providence and protection of God, we stand at this time, I do find it to be a security of that nature and kind, which Iphicrates the Athenian did commend; who being a commissioner to treat with the state of Sparta upon conditions of peace, and hearing the other side make many propositions touching security, interrupted them, and told them, there was but one manner of security whereupon the Athenians could

And whether we have given just cause of quarrel or offence, it shall be afterwards touched in the fourth article, touching the true cause of the disturbance of the quiet of Christendom, as far as it is fit to justify the actions of so high a prince upon the occasion of such a libel as this. But now concerning the power and force of any enemy, I do find that England hath sometimes apprehended with jealousy the confederation between France and Scotland; the one being upon the same continent that we are, and breeding a soldier of puissance and courage, not much differing from the English: the other, a kingdom very opulent, and thereby able to sustain wars, though at very great charge; and having a brave nobility; and being a near neighbour. And yet of this conjunction there never came any offence of moment: but Scotland was ever rather used by France as a diversion of an English invasion upon France, than as a commodity of a French invasion upon England. I confess, also, that since the unions of the kingdom of Spain, and during the time the kingdom of France was in his entire, a conjunction of those two potent kingdoms against us might have been of some terror to us. But now it is evident, that the state of France is such as both those conjunctions are become impossible: it resteth that either Spain with Scotland should offend us, or Spain alone. For Scotland, thanks be to God, the amity and intelligence is so sound and secret between the two crowns, being strengthened by consent in religion, nearness of blood, and continual good offices reciprocally on either side, as the Spaniard himself, in his own plot, thinketh it easier to alter and overthrow the present state of Scotland than to remove and divide it from the amity of England. So as it must be Spain alone that we should fear, which should seem, by reason of its spacious dominions, to be a great overmatch. The conceit whereof maketh me call to mind the resemblance of an ancient writer in physic; who, labouring to persuade that a physician should not doubt sometimes to purge his patient, though he seem very weak, entereth into a distinction of weakness; and saith, there is a weakness of spirit, and a weakness of body; the latter whereof he compareth unto a man that were otherwise very strong, but had a great pack on his neck, so great as made him double again, so as one might thrust him down with his finger: which similitude and distinction both may be fitly applied to matter of state; for some states are

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